- 1990 - 1996 (Creation)
Level of description
Extent and medium
No. of Boxes: 264
Name of creator
Immediate source of acquisition or transfer
Content and structure area
Scope and content
S-1837 contains records concerning governance and civil administration support provided to the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR).
Director of Civil Affairs (DCA)
S-1837 contains the records of senior-level civilian staff serving in the Civil Affairs component of the UNPROFOR mission, from 21 March 1992 until its restructuring on 31 March 1995; these civilian staff members include the Director of Civil Affairs (DCA), the Deputy Chief of Mission, and the Head of Civil Affairs.
Cedric Thornberry served as the Director of Civil Affairs from March 1992 to September 1993. When the UNPROFOR mandate was extended in 1993, Thornberry’s title became Deputy Chief of Mission, reporting to Force Commander Satish Nambiar. Upon the appointment of a Special Representative to the Secretary General in 1994, the Deputy Chief of Mission became the Head of Civil Affairs. The role of Head of Civil Affairs was administered in succession by Michel Moussalli, Vladislav Guerassev, and by Sergio Viera de Mello. The office of the Director of Civil Affairs was initially located at UNPROFOR HQ in Sarajevo; and later, in 1992, in Zagreb when mission HQ was relocated.
The Director’s files contain a wide variety of incoming and outgoing faxes. They consist of: outlines describing the functions of the Civil Affairs Officer (CAO); draft agreements on interim ceasefires; program notes for Special Envoy Cyrus Vance; letters to the DCA from representatives of, for example, the Serbs of Gorski Kotar; letters of protest from warring factions addressed to the Secretary-General via office of the DCA. There are also requests for logistics support for a variety of matters, such as the exhumation of a mass grave near Vukovar; paperwork documenting ethnic cleansing and the demolition of the homes of displaced persons.
The files also contain faxed reports which detail: crimes committed against civilians in Western Slovenia; prisoner exchanges; casualties and damage to buildings; and investigation reports about shootings of civilian elderly. Files also contain memoranda about: crossing points in United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) which impacted internally displaced persons; requests for humanitarian aid; prisoners of war; detained civilians; the forced eviction of civilians from their homes; freedom of movement for UNPROFOR and for civilians; and the special use of airspace by the United Nations.
Also included among incoming and outgoing faxes are daily situation reports to the DCA. The situation reports cover such topics as: Pink Zones; humanitarian concerns; coordination with international agencies; property disputes resulting from the occupation of internally displaced persons’ homes by others; and the return of displaced persons.
There are also: faxes from the UNPROFOR Force Commander and Head of Mission General Satish Nambiar to the Under-Secretary-General of Political Affairs Marrack Goulding; correspondence between Milan Panic, Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), and the DCA; and DCA correspondence about the political and technical aspects of the demining of the Peruca Dam, in Croatia.
Additional records held by the office of the DCA include: reports issued by the Special Representative for the Secretary-General Yasushi Akashi to Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Kofi Annan regarding Joint Commissions on the Economic Agreement; lists of attendees of Joint Commission Meetings, including representatives of UNPROFOR, Serbia, Croatia, and the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM); meeting agenda for visits by Cyrus Vance and European Community representative Lord David Owen; incoming and outgoing faxes of the Deputy Director of Civil Affairs (DDCA); and a safety plan prepared by ESB International; and UNPROFOR-generated radio broadcast scripts.
Division of Civil Affairs
The Division of Civil Affairs was located in Zagreb, Croatia and was managed by the Director of Civil Affairs, whose title changed throughout the mission. The Division’s focus was humanitarian and political affairs. The work involved liaison coordination with national and local governments, mission sectors, Civilian Police, Military Observers, and military battalions. Letters of protest written by UNPROFOR officials and government representatives comprise a significant portion of the Division’s records. These concern internally displaced persons, prisoners of war, military operations, and ethnic cleansing. Other records relate to the internal administrative duties of the mission.
A large number of records concern humanitarian affairs. Correspondence between UNPROFOR and political officials of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžic, concerns humanitarian flights and freedom of movement for refugees. Other correspondence documents collaboration with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHR) and other United Nations agencies, such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and international NGOs such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Doctors Without Borders (MSF). There are appeals to the United Nations from non-governmental organizations and ethnic groups. In addition, there is correspondence with NGOs regarding mine clearance within UNPAs.
Other files contain analyses on the United Nations’ mechanism for human rights protection in the former Yugoslavia. There are also agenda and meeting summaries of the Working Group on Human Rights, established on 13 January 1995 under the Chairmanship of the Director of Civil Affairs. Meetings of the Working Group were attended by representatives of: Civil Affairs; Civilian Police; United Nations agencies (UNHCR, WHO); the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); and the Centre for Human Rights. In addition, there are program outlines for a Human Rights Training Course and held 8-15 July 1995 in Zagreb. The course was organized by the United Nations Centre for Human Rights for UNPF Civil Affairs monitors and Civilian Police officers.
Some of the files contain memoranda addressed to the Force Commander about rules for construction of humanitarian convoy routes and requests from ICRC regarding the security of humanitarian convoys. There also are weekly reports from the Office of World Health Organization’s (WHO) Special Representative regarding the food supply in Sarajevo as well as military situation reports. The military situation reports detail convoy movements and quality of housing for refugees.
The DCA assisted the Force Commander with the political aspects of his duties. The files contain correspondence with government officials about ceasefire agreements and their enforcement. There are also memoranda prepared by the FC about mission operations and its mandate, and policy directives. Some memoranda detail allegations of crimes committed by UNPROFOR military personnel.
Records of the Special Representative to the Secretary General (SRSG) appear throughout. Files of the Division include correspondence with DPKO Under-Secretary General Kofi Annan, as well as with the United Nations Office in Vienna. There are agenda for meetings about the UNPROFOR mandate and weekly reports. Sent from sector headquarters, the weekly reports contain information about the diplomatic negotiation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994 agreement in addition to the humanitarian transfer of displaced persons across lines of conflict. There are also records which pertain to UNPROFOR’s work with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
Other records pertain to CIVPOL, including: daily situation reports generated by sectors North, South, East and West. The situation reports contain information about refugees and prisoner exchanges between warring factions, and criminal and non-criminal offenses against civilians. There are also reports about the exhumation of bodies by CIVPOL at, for example, Miljevci Plateau in Sector South. Also included are copies of daily situation reports sent by the CIVPOL Commissioner to the Director of Civil Affairs. These contain information about the CIVPOL highway patrol and CIVPOL’s role after the expiration of the UNPROFOR mandate on 31 March 1995. There also is data and graphs about casualties by sector and type.
The Division established liaison offices in: Zagreb, Croatia; Belgrade, Serbia; and Ljubljana, Slovenia. The majority of the records for the liaison offices document the activities of the Senior Liaison Officer, Civil Affairs (SLOCA), the Acting Civil Affairs Coordinator (A-CAC), and Civil Affairs Officers (CvAO). They consist of briefs sent to the Civil Affairs headquarters in Zagreb on topics such as the role of UNPROFOR in filing human rights violations, visits of diplomats, and humanitarian flight paths. There also are translations of press articles, and information about the careers of government representatives. In addition, there are analyses of political developments. There is an analysis of the preliminary results of the preliminary elections in Srebrenica in December 1992. The other analyses focus on the Serbian political climate, especially as relating to public pronouncements by the President of Serbia Slobodan Miloševic. The files also contain letters from government representatives, political parties, municipal authorities, private citizens, and representatives of non-governmental organizations.
A significant volume of Division records were created by the sectors. Sector headquarters include: Sector North, Bosnia and Herzegovina Sector North East, Bosnia and Herzegovina Sector South West, Sector South, Sector East, Sector West, and Sector Sarajevo. At each sector HQ, Civil Affairs Coordinators (CACs) liaised with politicians, military officials, civilian police and NGOs. Several records document these activities. There are summaries of meetings between Civil Affairs officials and all levels of politicians. In addition, daily and weekly situation reports detail political, humanitarian, refugee and economic situations. There also are detailed investigative reports about mass graves, massacres and the destruction of civilian property.
Also included in sector records are: letters from politicians about internally displaced persons and refugee transfer requests. There also are copies of letters from UNPROFOR to politicians and governments about the treatment of UNPROFOR personnel and property, such as kidnapping of personnel and hijacking of UNPROFOR vehicles.
The Division files also contain records received from the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) HQ, located in Zagreb, Croatia. Records pertaining to UNMO include: memoranda regarding procedures for close air support (CAS); test strike request forms; and “real world” strike request forms. In addition, there are letters written by the Force Commander Lieutenant-General Lars-Eric Wahlgren, active March to June 1993, and sent to the Under-Secretary General Kofi Annan about the Srebrenica air corridor. The Division files also contain daily reports prepared by the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM).
Civil Affairs, Sector North
Included in S-1837 are records originating from the Civil Affairs offices in the Sector North headquarters, which was located in the Croatian town of Topusko.
A large number of the files concern humanitarian assistance activities in Sector North. Records document the delivery of food, clothing, detergent, fuel, medicine and medical equipment, and agricultural materials, such as fertilizers and seeds, to towns and villages in Sector North and in the Pink Zones. Records include: letters exchanged between UNPROFOR Civil Affairs officers in Sector North and government officials of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK) and the Government of Croatia; data on quantities of humanitarian goods, medical supplies, and fuel delivered; and profiles of medical facilities in rural areas.
There are also summaries of meetings between representatives of UNPROFOR Civil Affairs and: the Civilian Police; the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; the World Health Organization (WHO); the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC); and the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM). Meetings regard the coordination of humanitarian assistance, particularly in the security of aid personnel and convoys, the storage of aid goods, and needs assessment of populations. Meeting summaries also detail the terms for operational agreements reached between UNPROFOR, United Nations agencies, and local authorities. Also included are summaries of meetings of the Joint Humanitarian Cell, which was set up in October 1993 and served as an organizational mechanism between the Civil Affairs, Civilian Police, United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), battalions, and field staff of the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
Graphs, tables, and charts contained in the files provide an overview on: population and its ethnic makeup; persons counted as missing, displaced, imprisoned or killed; abandoned or destroyed homes; village infrastructure; and commodities. The data relates to populations of municipalities in Croatia, the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK), and Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are also: lists and registers of Croatian nationals; profiles of municipalities (opštine); and maps of municipalities with hand-drawn markings.
Also included are records related to the monitoring of the economic situation in Sector North by Civil Affairs officials. These include: summaries of meetings between Civil Affairs officials and mayors of municipalities (local authorities) about the progress of infrastructure restoration projects and business re-openings; and programmes detailing the re-establishment of communication and infrastructural systems in the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPA). There are also: briefs and analyses related to the implementation of the Economic Agreement, signed on 2 December 1994 between the Republic of Croatia and local Serb authorities, which brought to terms the re-opening of the Zagreb-Belgrade Highway, and the Adriatic Oil Pipeline, and the rehabilitation of the electricity grid and water system; and briefs and analyses concerning the inspection of infrastructure restoration projects by UNPROFOR and Civil Affairs officials.
Exchanges of Croat, Serb, and Muslim prisoners are also documented. There are: summaries of meetings attended by representatives of Civil Affairs, the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM), discussing policy and logistics of the prisoner exchanges; and lists of prisoners exchanged forwarded to the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC) at Sector North. Records relate primarily to prisoners detained in the Glina District Prison and the Vojnic Prison in Croatia.
Records pertaining to refugee movements include: periodic reports on the status of refugees in Sector North; lists of refugees sent to the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC); incident reports prepared by the Civilian Police about evacuations, the plight of individual refugees, the safety of travel routes, shelter for refugees, and conditions in refugee camps; and reports on cooperation between Civil Affairs and field workers representing the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In particular, the records document the movement of Muslim refugees from municipalities in western Bosnia, their passage through Sector North, to temporary settlement in Croatia, including in the towns of Turanj and Batnoga.
Records pertaining to transfer cases include correspondence between the Government of Croatia and UNPROFOR about approval for or denial of transfer requests. There are also requests for transfers received from civilians. Transfer cases particularly pertain to the Turanj and Mošcenica crossings in Croatia. Also contained in records are lists of transfer cases handled by Civil Affairs, Sector North.
Documents relating to cultural monuments (such as churches, chapels, and historic homes and buildings) in Croatian villages damaged or destroyed by the war, include: letters exchanged between UNPROFOR personnel and Croatian government officials; and surveys compiled by the Civilian Police detailing the locations of monuments and buildings, and the extent of damage.
Civil Affairs, Sector West
Included in S-1837 are records originating from the Civil Affairs offices in the Sector West headquarters, which was located in the Croatian town of Daruvar.
The files contain summaries of weekly coordination meetings between Civil Affairs officials in Sector West and local Serbian and Croatian authorities. Also attending the meetings were Civilian Police staff, the head of the office of the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR) for Refugees in Sector West, and representatives of the European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM). Local authorities consisted of: presidents of municipal executive councils, chairmen of municipal councils, chiefs of local police, town mayors, government-appointed officers tasked with liaising with UNPROFOR, as well as Duško Vitez, the President of the Regional Council of Western Slavonia. Meeting topics include: incidents in Sector West, including terrorist activities; permission granted by Serbian and Croatian authorities for civilians to cross the ceasefire line (CFL), which ran through Sector West; road, railway, and infrastructure restoration projects in Sector West; the coordination of checkpoint meetings for family members from opposite sides of the ceasefire line; the arranging of face-to-face meetings between the Serb and Croat authorities in the Sector; the return of refugees to homes in Sector West; and the harvesting of crops in the sector. There are also briefs and correspondence related to the meeting topics.
The chronological files of the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC) of Sector West contain briefs, correspondence, as well as documents concerning refugee matters. Briefs sent to the Head of Civil Affairs from the CAC pertain to topics such as the return of refugees, the Croatian Special Police Force, the renewal of the UNPROFOR mandate, the human rights situation in Sector West, and the exhumation of bodies under the auspices of UNPROFOR. There is also correspondence between the CAC and the Sector Commander. Additionally, chronological files contain transfer requests, contact requests, and referral forms concerning the crossing of civilians from opposite sides of the ceasefire line, and travel outside of Sector West. There are also weekly reports and bi-monthly briefings for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) from the Civil Affairs Coordinator of Sector West. They cover such topics as: political developments in Sector West; human rights monitoring and humanitarian activities in Sector West; the implementation of the Economic Agreement; and the reopening of the railway lines in Sector West.
The civil affairs records of Sector West records also include: briefs on the organization of Sector West headquarters; security and evacuation plans for Sector West; summaries of meetings on peace-building initiatives in Sector West led by the Civil Affairs Coordinator and attended by representatives of the United Nations Office in Vienna (UNOV); outlines of peace-building projects in Sector West, particularly in the Pakrac municipality (opština); and memoranda about the organization of the government of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK), and on the activities of the parliament and assembly of the “RSK.”
Civil Affairs, Sector South
Included are records originating from the Civil Affairs offices in the Sector South headquarters, which was located in the Croatian town of Knin.
Several files pertain to UNPROFOR operations in the Medak Pocket, an area in southern Croatia where there was intense fighting between the Croatian Army and Serbian irregular forces. Records include: summaries of interviews with civilian survivors of the atrocities; statements obtained from eye witnesses; briefs on the events in the Medak Pocket as relayed by Radio Knin and Radio Belgrade; transcripts of interviews with UNPROFOR military officials; reports of forensic investigations carried out by the Civilian Police about mass killings and property destruction; briefs on United Nations mediation on a ceasefire in the Medak Pocket; as well as ceasefire agreements signed between Serb and Croat representatives; briefs on the role of Civil Affairs in the Medak Pocket, and on UNHCR and ICRC activities in the Medak Pocket; and a political analysis of the reaction of authorities of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK) to the political situation surrounding the Medak events. There is also a final report prepared by Civil Affairs Sector South on the events in Medak Pocket and on UNPROFOR operations with regard to the ceasefire, investigative efforts, and humanitarian assistance in the pocket in the wake of the events.
Also included are letters between Milan Martic, the President of the “RSK” and: the Secretary-General; the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); the President of the Security Council; and the Head of Civil Affairs. A sampling of topics include: violations of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994; mission developments; use of the Zagreb-Lipovac Highway; UNPROFOR freedom of movement; the protection of the Serb population from ethnic cleansing; the refugee crisis; and humanitarian assistance. There are also: summaries of meetings between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and Martic; statements delivered by Martic at “RSK” parliamentary sessions; gazettes describing decisions promulgated by the government of the “RSK;” drafts of the constitution of government of the “RSK;” and outlines of economic and infrastructure reconstruction in Sector South.
Additionally, records include: surveys of towns and villages conducted by Civil Affairs officials, as well as by teams of United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), which list Serb and Croat residents, the number of destroyed buildings and homes in municipalities; and correspondence with Croatian authorities about the protection and accompaniment of civilians during their visits to cemeteries to commemorate the dead. Finally, there is correspondence related to civilian requests made to Civil Affairs officers of Sector South to visit and report on the condition and security status of the civilian’s house;
There are summaries of meetings attended by Sector South Civil Affairs officials, the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and Croatian and Serbian authorities related to the release and exchanges of prisoners of war, and the transfer of mortal remains. Additionally, there are lists of prisoners, and lists of people who have been captured or who have disappeared.
Also included are summaries of meetings of the Joint Commission, which was established by Security Council Resolution 762 (1992), as well as of the Sub-Commission on Ceasefire Violations and Security, and the Sub-Commission on Economic and Humanitarian Affairs. The meetings were attended by representatives of UNPROFOR, the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM), and Croatian and Serbian delegations. Topics of discussion include: ceasefire violations, freedom of movement for UNPROFOR, demining, infrastructure restoration projects, agricultural activities and harvests, water supply management, and the lack of fuel.
There are also summaries of humanitarian coordination meetings attended by Civil Affairs representatives of Sector South, the Civilian Police, representatives of the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM). Humanitarian coordination meeting topics include: distribution of educational materials to schools, distribution of food, civilian transfer requests and family reunions.
In addition, there are requests by civilians to requests to transfer out of Sector South to obtain medical treatment, to study or work, to visit with or reunite with family members, or to alleviate the difficulty of their living condition. The files related to transfer requests contain: letters written by transferees explaining the reasons for the transfer request; bio-data forms filled out by transferees; photocopies of vital records of transferees, such as national identification cards, passports, and birth certificates; records of medical examinations of transferees; correspondence between Civil Affairs Coordinator of Sector South and the Humanitarian Affairs Coordinator of Sector South granting clearance and authorization for civilians to transfer; and correspondence between the Civil Affairs officers of Sector South and the governments of Croatia as well as of the “RSK” requesting authorization for the transfer of civilians.
There are also records related to the agricultural fuel distribution programme undertaken by UNPROFOR and other humanitarian aid agencies. Records include: Memoranda of Understanding signed by municipal authorities and UNPROFOR officials; reports identifying communities receiving fuel and noting litres distributed; and reports of fuel distribution carried out by Civilian Police.
Chronological files consist of: transfer requests; summaries of radio broadcasts in Sector South; weekly reports prepared by Civil Affairs of Sector South for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); reports on human rights monitoring in Sector South; and memoranda and reports on such topics as exchanges of prisoners and bodies, the hijacking of vehicles, the economic situation in Sector South, the situation regarding the Plitvice Lakes National Park in Croatia, and conditions experienced by minorities.
Records also include reports of the activities of the Human Rights Action Team (HRAT) stationed in Sector South. HRAT were composed of personnel from the Civilian Police, United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), the office of Political and Humanitarian Affairs of UNPF, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The reports note: villages visited by the team; findings of the teams’ investigations of massacres and isolated killings; military presence in villages and along routes; HRAT’s liaising with local authorities and interviews with displaced persons; findings of the teams upon visits to grave sites of war victims; and human rights violations observed by the teams, including the burning of village homes and buildings, and looting.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Civil Affairs, Sector North East
Included are records originating from the Civil Affairs offices in the Sector North East headquarters, which was located in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Weekly reports of Sector North East cover: reactions to the Dayton Agreement; restriction of movement; local political developments; meetings between Civil Affairs officials and leaders of warring factions; and violations of the ceasefire agreement. There are also weekly situation reports prepared by the Political and Humanitarian Affairs officers stationed in a variety of locations throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, including Mostar, Vitez, and Sarajevo.
Records also consist of: briefs detailing airdrops of humanitarian supplies over towns in Sector North East; proposals and activity summaries of non-governmental organizations active in Sector North East; program plans for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the government, infrastructure, and society of Tuzla; draft agreements related to the reopening of the Tuzla Airport for humanitarian aid delivery; a civil affairs analysis on conditions in Srebrenica dating from September 1994; reports on the views of the Serb minority in Tuzla and their movements; and correspondence and copies of vital records related to the transport and evacuation of civilians in Sector North East. Additionally, there are: reports and briefs on the Tuzla Massacre, which occurred on 25 May 1995 and resulted in the loss of over 70 lives; and memoranda on exchanges of prisoners of war and bodies.
Incoming and outgoing faxes of the Civil Affairs Officer (CvAO) consist of memoranda, briefs, and reports sent to and received from the Civil Affairs Officer (CvAO) stationed in Sector North East. Items prepared by Civil Affairs Officers throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina Command are also included. Notable documents include: summaries of meetings between Civil Affairs officials and municipal and regional authorities in Tuzla; summaries of meetings of the Joint Regional Commission held in Sector North East; and minutes of monthly meetings of Civil Affairs Officers throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina Command. Topics covered in faxes include: the implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (COHA), signed 31 December 1994; management of refugees and displaced persons from Srebrenica; the monitoring of human rights abuses through liaison with representatives if the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and non-governmental organizations; and economic recovery and infrastructure restoration projects in the sector area of responsibility.
Records of Sector North East also include Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for Bosnia and Herzegovina Command dating from 1994.
United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), Political and Humanitarian Affairs (PHA)
The Political and Humanitarian Affairs (PHA) office operated under the United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO) mandate, and responded to and reported on the humanitarian needs of vulnerable populations in the mission area. The Head of Political and Humanitarian Affairs (HPHA) was based in Zagreb, Croatia, and Political and Humanitarian Affairs Officers (PHAO) were stationed in Sector North, Sector South, Sector East, and Sector West, among other locations. The PHA collaborated with other UNCRO agents, such as the Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) and United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), as well as humanitarian agencies, like the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM). This collaboration included the formation of Human Rights Action Teams (HRAT), which, led by the PHAO, patrolled a Sector and reported on human rights violations and the overall humanitarian situation. The records of the PHA office primarily consist of reports and memoranda relating to human rights violations which occurred during and following the August 1995 Croatian offensive, Operation Storm.
The documents include reports prepared by the Sector PHAO and sent to the HPHA in Zagreb, such as: daily and weekly human rights monitoring reports; and reports on the activities of the HRAT. These reports detail PHAO village patrols’ observations of: the looting or burning of homes; threatening of minorities; and the living condition of villagers. These reports were also used to relay details of investigations, such as: the October 1995 investigation of the massacre in the village of Varivode, Croatia; and the October and November 1995 investigations of graves and mass graves in Sector South.
Weekly reports from Sector South and from Sector East prepared by the sector PHAO for the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) are also included in the records. The reports were sent to the HPHA in Zagreb, and copied to a vast distribution list including: the Chief of Mission; the Force Commander; UNCIVPOL; and the headquarters of sectors. The informationally dense reports detail the general situation of political and humanitarian affairs in the sector.
The records include memoranda exchanged between the PHA and other UNCRO agents and humanitarian agencies regarding: the transfer of persons displaced by Operation Storm to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (September 1995); the PHAO monitoring of trials of Croatian Army detainees in Split Military Court (December 1995); the chronology of Operation Storm (25 September 1995); and the United Nations Transitional Administration for Sector East.
Also included in the records are periodic reports from the UNCIVPOL Commissioner and from UNMO. UNMO daily situation reports were sent from the headquarters of a sector to the UNMO headquarters in Zagreb and detail UNMO observations of the general situation in a sector and warring faction activity. The records also contain daily and weekly situation reports sent from the UNCIVPOL Commissioner headquartered in Camp Pleso in Zagreb, Croatia, to a vast distribution list, including the Chief of Mission, HCA, HPHA, and sector commanders. These reports assess the general situation in the sectors as well as in the peacekeeping missions UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, and UNCRO.
Deputy Director of Civil Affairs (DDCA)
Located at UNPROFOR HQ, Zagreb, the office of the Deputy Director of Civil Affairs (DDCA) reported to the Director of Civil Affairs (DCA), working closely with the Civil Affairs Coordinators (CACs) of mission sectors. The DDCAs represented in the files are, in succession, Yolanda Auger and Vladislav Guerassev.
Files of the DDCA consist, in part, of correspondence with the DCA, CACs, and government officials. Topics include the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994 and freedom of movement of UNPROFOR convoys. Also included in the records are: letters to the Government of Croatia regarding the UNPROFOR mandate; letters of protest from the DDCA regarding the unauthorized use of UNPROFOR aircraft by government officials; letters to the DDCA regarding the security of civilians in Sector South West; memoranda detailing the activities of the Working Group on Involuntary Disappearances, tracking missing persons; a schedule for fact-finding tours of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) accompanied by the UNPROFOR Force Commander (FC),visiting commissions in general to mission areas; local governmental approval for UN excavation of mass graves; weekly status reports of the UNPROFOR Military Negotiating Team (MNT); and memoranda about the evacuation of civilians from Sarajevo.
Included in the records are political analyses of elections in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), in addition to an analysis of the Muslim-Croat Agreement of March 1994. The files also contain meeting reports about: the Force Commander’s Conference of 7 October 1993; high-level meetings between the SRSG and government officials, sent to CACs; the 8 July 1994 Sanctions Liaison Group Meeting in Vienna; and the November 1994 meeting with “RSK” officials regarding UNPROFOR convoy procedures into Bihac.
Civil Affairs, Sector East
Included are chronological files originating from the Civil Affairs offices in the Sector East headquarters, which was located in Erdut, Croatia.
They consist of: tracing requests; memoranda regarding diplomatic visits, notably of the United States Ambassador to the United Nations Madeleine Albright to Sector East on 6 January 1994; weekly reports prepared by the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC) in Sector East and sent to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); briefs concerning the situation of minorities in Croatia; summaries of meetings between Civil Affairs officials and representatives of non-governmental organizations active in Sector East; memoranda on the accessibility and condition of roads and rail lines in Sector East; memorandum regarding allegations of ethnic cleansing put forth by the Government of Croatia, dated September 1994; and a summary of a meeting on the extension of the UNPROFOR mandate, held in February 1995.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Civil Affairs, Sector South West
Chronological files of Sector South West consist of reports and political analyses. There are weekly reports sent from the Senior Civil Affairs Officer (SCvAO) to the Deputy Special Representative to the Secretary General (DSRSG) and Civil Affairs Coordinators (CACs), regarding displaced persons, and military and economic developments. They provide summaries of Joint Commission Policy Committee (JCPC) meetings. There is a political analysis written in June 1994 by the SCvAO regarding the work of the International Observer Group in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also included in the files are Reuters news agency reports compiled and distributed by the SCvAO to Sector South West battalions.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Civil Affairs, Bihac
Consisting of one folder, the records of Civil Affairs, Bihac, contain weekly situation reports and memoranda. Weekly situation reports detail the military, political and humanitarian situation of the Bihac region. Records of note include weekly situation reports and memoranda written by the UNPROFOR Political and Humanitarian Affairs Officer (PHAO), Bihac. There is also a memorandum sent to the Deputy Special Representative to the Secretary General (DSRSG) by Civil Affairs, Bihac, prepared for the Secretary-General’s report on UNPROFOR.
Civil Affairs, Chief of Staff (COS), Zagreb
The Civil Affairs Chief of Staff (COS/CA) was based at UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia, and was responsible to the Head of Civil Affairs (HCA) and DDCA (Deputy Director of Civil Affairs) for the initiation of action by Civil Affairs operational units. The COS/CA acted as the point person for Civil Affairs Coordinators (CACs). Records include reports and memoranda on such topics as: UNPROFOR involvement in medical evacuations from Bosnia and Herzegovina; conduct of local police forces in sectors; UNPROFOR relations with journalists; humanitarian assistance requirements in Gorni Vakuf, Bosnia and Herzegovina; the refugee situation in Turanj, Croatia; Bosnia and Herzegovina constitutional negotiations; and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) elections of 2 November 1994. Additionally, the COS/CA liaised with the Head of Croatia’s Office for Cooperation with UNPROFOR, to facilitate operational activities on the ground.
Also included in the records are minutes of meetings including: the Fifth Central Joint Commission Meeting, held in Novska, on 24 October 1994, and the Coordination Conference on the Action Plan for the Restoration of Essential Public Services to Sarajevo, held in Vienna in May 1994.
Civil Affairs, Senior Legal Adviser (SLA), Zagreb
The Civil Affairs Senior Legal Adviser (SLA) was based at UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia, and was responsible for the provision of legal advice to the senior management and staff of the mission, including the Force Commander, Civil Affairs Coordinators (CACs), and Senior Administrative Officers (SAOs) in the field, on all matters of a legal or political-legal nature. Included in the records are briefs concerning: legal information and advice requested by officers throughout mission; investigations and detentions of UNPROFOR personnel; prior agreements with local governments regarding UNPROFOR jurisdiction; and legal issues associated with recruiting local staff. Also included are reports on SOFAs (Status of Force Agreements) between UNPROFOR and local governments.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC), Belgrade
The Civil Affairs Coordinator, Belgrade also held the title of Deputy Special Representative to the Secretary General (DSRSG). Chronological files consist of: summaries of local press; weekly situation reports to the Director of Civil Affairs (DCA); and weekly situation reports for the Special Representative to the Secretary General (SRSG) that detailed political developments of the region. There are also meeting summaries which include: meetings with representatives of the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and a November 1994 meeting between the SRSG and the President of Serbia Slobodan Miloševic. Also included are records about the FRY Government Committee for Cooperation with UNPROFOR.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC), Sarajevo
Chronological files consist of: BH Radio News summaries and daily regional media summaries; tracing requests; protest letters received by Civil Affairs officials and UNPROFOR military officials from warring factions; weekly reports of human rights abuses in Bosnia and Herzegovina; weekly political assessments of Bosnia and Herzegovina; and air transportation authorizations for the CAC and high-level officials. Memoranda concern: exchanges of prisoners of war; investigations of alleged massacres; the murders two Franciscan monks on 13 November 1993 at a monastery in the town of Fojnica; refugee movements within Bosnia and Herzegovina; the role of the United Nations in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and the humanitarian crisis in Bihac in February 1995.
Also included are: memoranda regarding the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement of 31 December 1994, including communications between the President of Republika Srpska Radovan Karadžic and past United States President Jimmy Carter on the initiative; memoranda and meeting summaries regarding exchanges of prisoners of war in the town of Žepa in Republika Srpska; memoranda and briefs on the drafting of the Agreement of Freedom of Movement in the Sarajevo Area dating from March 1994; and career profiles of political figures in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
There are also summaries of meetings between the Civil Affairs officials and: the President of Republika Srpska Radovan Karadžic, the Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina Haris Silajdžic, Ratko Mladic, and others. Additionally, the chronological files contain summaries of meetings of the High-Level Committee for Cooperation, which were held at Sarajevo Airport. In attendance at HLCC meetings were officials from UNPROFOR headquarters and Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Bosnian Serb officials, Croat officials, representatives of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
Special Coordinator for Sarajevo (SCS)
The Secretary-General appointed William Eagleton as Special Coordinator for Sarajevo on 29 March 1994. The Office of the Special Coordinator was established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 900 (1994) in April 1994 in order to mobilize and coordinate international support for the restoration of essential public services in Sarajevo. The Office of the Special Coordinator for Sarajevo administered a trust fund comprised of donations gathered from foreign countries at fund raising conventions organized by the Office. The Coordination Committee comprised of local officials, foreign diplomats stationed in Zagreb, and humanitarian agencies, met periodically to discuss and coordinate work on the 14 point Plan of Action. Seven Action Groups were formed to execute the Plan of Action.
The records of the Special Coordinator for Sarajevo (SCS) consist of incoming and outgoing faxes primarily relating to: fundraising activities; financial administration of donations and funds; the Coordination Committee; the execution of the Plan of Action; and personnel matters.
Documents relating to fundraising activities include: invitations and letters to prospective donors; reports on achievements; and plans authored by William Eagleton sent to United Nations Permanent Representatives and to diplomats. The aforementioned documents concern: the 25 May 1994 Donors’ Conference in Vienna; the 29 June 1994 Pledging Conference in New York; donor meetings in Vienna in September 1994 and June 1995; and other fundraising activities.
Memoranda sent by William Eagleton to the UNPROFOR Finance and Budget Section about administration of the Trust Fund and the Quick Impact Fund are also included in the records.
The activities of the Coordination Committee are documented by invitations and minutes of meetings.
Also included are memoranda exchanged between the Action Groups, the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) of UNPROFOR, and collaborators such as the Directorate of the Reconstruction and Development of Sarajevo and the World Health Organization (WHO). The records also include Action Plans prepared by an Action Group Manager, which describe the extent and the cost of various restoration projects.
The Office was operated by personnel seconded by contributing international organizations and governments. The records include: letters sent by William Eagleton to donor States and humanitarian organizations regarding the secondment of technical staff to the Office of the Special Coordinator; and personnel records relating to claims, dependency, and evaluations.
Humanitarian Affairs Officer
The Humanitarian Affairs Officer was headquartered in Zagreb, Croatia, and reported to the Head of Civil Affairs. Records reflect cooperation between the Humanitarian Affairs Officer and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the Government of the Republic of Croatia (primarily), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and other non-governmental organizations. Additionally, the records reflect the activities of the Humanitarian Affairs Officer within UNPROFOR.
Records consist of: transfer and evacuation requests for transfer across and out of United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs), submitted by individuals as well as the government of the Republic of Croatia to the Humanitarian Affairs Office; tracing requests from individuals as well as the Government of the Republic of Croatia (which were to be processed by the Civil Affairs Humanitarian Assistant in coordination with the Civilian Police); guarantee letters proving citizenship and allowing for travel outside Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina; and faxes received by the Humanitarian Affairs Office from the Office of Displaced Persons and Refugees of the Government of the Republic of Croatia.
Also includes records generated by the Human Rights Action Team (HRAT) of the United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO). Records primarily consist of: daily and monthly reports by HRAT officers about visits to villages in Croatia, which note living conditions of villagers and provide details regarding allegations of village massacres; reports of HRAT visits to Croatian cemeteries to inspect the grave sites of war victims, and visits to prisons; and reports describing actions taken by HRAT officers to monitor incidents and human rights violations in villages, including intimidation, looting and vandalism of houses, desecration of graves, burning of property, and theft of livestock.
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