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United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) (1992-1995) - United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF) (1995-1996)
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United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) (1992-1995) - United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF) (1995-1996)

  • AG-061
  • Fonds
  • 1988 - 1996

AG-061 encompasses the records of UNPROFOR and also contain records of the United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF), 31 March 1995 – 31 January 1996. The arrangement and description of records in AG-061 is based on the 'Taxonomy for Recordkeeping in Field Missions of UN Peacekeeping Operations,' June 2006. Offices of origin are indicated at the box level.

Fonds consist of the following Series:
S-1838 Military Support
S-1837 Governance and Civil Administration Support
S-1836 Civilian Police, by Sectors

United Nations Protection Force

Civilian Police, by Sectors

S-1836 documents police support provided by the UN Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) to the United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF) and the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR).

The UNPROFOR Civilian Police priorities included monitoring the local police to ensure that they carried out their duties without discriminating against persons of any nationality or abusing anyone’s human rights, and assisting with humanitarian aid in the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs).

The UNPAs comprised Eastern Slavonia, Western Slavonia and Krajina. These areas were divided by the United Nations into four sectors: North, South, East, and West.

Sector North UNCIVPOL headquarters initially was stationed in Topusko, with additional stations in Slunj, Tušilovic, Vojnic, Vrginmost, Glina, Petrinja, Kostajnica, Dvor, Plaški, and Velika Kladuša. Sector sub-stations were posted in Sunja, Mošcenice, and Maja. In December of 1995, Sector North headquarters was moved from Topusko to Glina, and Topusko was no longer listed as a station.

Sector South UNCIVPOL headquarters was stationed in Knin, with additional stations in Kistanje, Benkovac, Obrovac, Gracac, Korenica, Vrlika, Drniš, Podlapaca, Medak, and Vrhovine. Sector sub-stations were posted in Donji Lapac, Malkovo, Kakma, Kašic, and Pristeg.

Sector East UNCIVPOL headquarters was stationed in Erdut, with additional stations in Beli Mastir, Batina, Darda, Dalj, Tenja, Oriolik, Ilok, and Vukovar. Sector sub-stations were posted in Jarmina and Ivanovac.

Sector West UNCIVPOL headquarters was stationed in Daruvar, with additional stations in Grubišno Polje, Pakrac, and Okucani. A sector sub-station was posted in Gavrenica.

UNPROFOR also established other UNCIVPOL sectors.

Sector Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sector BH) was alternatively referred to as Sector Sarajevo until January 1995, when Sector Sarajevo was formally renamed Sector Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its headquarters was stationed in Sarajevo, with these additional stations: Sarajevo Airport, Split Airport, Pleso Airport, Tuzla, Goražde, Srebrenica, and Mostar.

Sector Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Sector FYROM) headquarters was stationed in Skopje, with additional stations in Ohrid and Gostivar.

Sector Highway was in operation from 5 December 1994 to 7 May 1995. Its mission was to escort convoys between Sector East and Sector West during daylight hours and to monitor local police along the highway. Sector Highway headquarters was stationed in Novska.

Civilian Police, Zagreb
The UNPROFOR Civilian Police Headquarters was based in Zagreb, Croatia. There was a UNCIVPOL Commissioner at UNCIVPOL HQ, Zagreb, as well as a Deputy Commissioner, Chief of Staff, and a Chief of Operations.

The UNCIVPOL Commissioner reported to the Head of Civil Affairs (HCA) from 1992 through early 1995, and then began reporting directly to the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG).

The files contain incoming and outgoing faxes of UNCIVPOL headquarters in Zagreb consisting of: daily and monthly situation reports; incident reports; tracing requests; contingent meeting minutes; daily schedules for Croatian Police in the Separation Zone; and general operations correspondence pertaining to the rotation of UNCIVPOL monitors between sectors, deployment, inventorying and ordering of supplies, and contingent medal parades. The daily situation reports contain information compiled from situation reports issued by the various Sectors. The daily situation reports were sent from the UNCIVPOL Commissioner at HQ Zagreb to numerous individuals and agencies, such as Sector Chiefs, the Director of Civil Affairs, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia (ICFY) in Geneva. Topics covered in situation reports include: general situation, monitoring, operations, criminal and human rights incidents, humanitarian aid, movement restrictions, and the number of UNCIVPOL monitors on duty.

Civilian Police, Zagreb, Operations Office
The UNCIVPOL Operations Office was headquartered at Pleso Camp (PC). At this base there was a Deputy Commissioner (PDC), Chief of Staff (PCOS), Chief Operations Officer (PCOO), Police Executive Officer (PXO), Pleso Chief Information Officer (PCIO), Chief Logistics Officer (PCLO), Personnel Officer (PPO), Operations Officer (POO), among other officers.

Records of the Operations Office document the frequent communication between the Chief Operations Officer at Pleso Camp and the Sector Chiefs and Station Commanders regarding UNCIVPOL operations. Additionally, the documents reveal that the UNCIVPOL Commissioner (UNCIVPOL HQ, Zagreb) as well as his Deputy Commissioner, Chief of Staff, and a Chief of Operations often participated in the exchanges.

The documents of the Operations Office common to each sector (Sector North, Sector South, Sector East, Sector West, Sector BH, Sector FYROM, and Sector Highway) consist of: daily situation reports and monthly reports; risk assessments; incident reports and investigations; tracing requests; and minutes of meetings with Sector Chiefs and local authorities. These documents primarily were sent from sector headquarters to the UNCIVPOL HQ Pleso Camp and contain information compiled from reports submitted by the stations and sub-stations in a sector. Some communications were faxed to the UNCIVPOL Commissioner of Civil Affairs at UNCIVPOL HQ, Zagreb.

Topics covered in daily situation reports include: an overview of the general situation; relations with local authorities; color-coded status of alert; personnel and logistical data; operations; criminal and human rights incidents; evaluation of the level of cooperation with local authorities; and population statistics. The daily situation reports from Sector BH are notable because they document in detail: the shelling and sniper activity in the area; the repercussions of NATO airstrikes; and the challenges UNCIVPOL experienced in distributing humanitarian aid. Monthly reports typically describe the aforementioned in a more narrative format than the daily situation reports, which present the information in brief statements under subject headings.

Risk assessments are concise narrative reports that describe the general situation in the sector and “recent past” activities; present and current operations; and plans and prospects.

Incident reports often contain: personal information about victims; names of witnesses and suspects; the name of the reporting UNCIVPOL monitor; and a description of the incident. The subsequent investigations commonly include typed or handwritten statements from victims and/or witnesses and sketches of crime scenes. Some investigations feature follow up reports, which convey the progress or results of the investigation. Incident reports were faxed to the sector headquarters and forwarded by fax, to UNCIVPOL HQ, Zagreb or Pleso Camp. Among the incidents documented in the records of the Operations Office are: massacres in the Croatian villages of Gospic (Sector East), Plavno (Sector South), and Varivode (Sector South); investigations of mass graves in Grubišno Polje (Sector West), Miljevic Plateau (Sector South), Lovas (Sector East), Tordinci (Sector East), and Ovcara (Sector East); and the attempted assassination of the President of the Republic of Macedonia, Kiro Gligorov (Sector FYROM).

Tracing requests were made by family members in effort to locate their civilian and/or soldier relations. The requests were initiated by: a letter (often handwritten) from a family member, forwarded from the Civil Affairs Humanitarian Officer, Adel Zaazou, to the UNCIVPOL Commissioner or to the Sector Chief(s); or by an incident report prepared by a UNCIVPOL monitor at the station or while on patrol.

The records of the Operations Office document frequent meetings with local authorities covering topics such as; humanitarian aid; incidents; and cooperation. The minutes describe meetings held with local police, local mayors, and Croatian and/or Serbian military authorities. Some minutes of meetings in Sector North detail incidents and conditions in the Kuplensko, Batnoga and Turanj refugee camps.

Civilian Police, Sector South, Knin
At UNCIVPOL Sector South headquarters, there was a Sector Chief, a Deputy Sector Chief, an Operations Officer, a Logistics Officer, and an Information officer. The Operations Officer was assisted by a Liaison Officer, an Investigations Officer and a Duty Officer(s) among other officers and monitors. Posted to stations were a Station Commander and a Deputy Station Commander, an Administrative Officer, a Motor Transport Officer, a Humanitarian Officer, a Liaison Officer, Duty Officers, and Patrol Officers/Monitors.

The documents from Sector South describe operations and the communications between the stations in the sector and sector headquarters. The bulk of the documents are incident reports filed at a given station and sent to Sector South headquarters. Incident reports were written by a UNCIVPOL officer and describe a civilian’s, or the officer’s observation of a crime. Sometimes incident reports were used to request humanitarian aid or to initiate a tracing request. Most of the incident reports in the records document the humanitarian aid distributed by UNCIVPOL in the sector; however, some describe looting, theft, intimidation, and murder in the given station’s area of responsibility.

Also included in the records are: daily situation reports; weekly statistical reports; monthly and mid-month reports; memoranda relating to UNCIVPOL operations and deployment; and the duty roster from the sector headquarters.

Monthly reports are detailed narrative reports sent from each station to Sector South headquarters. The data from these reports was assimilated by the sector headquarters into a report forwarded to the UNCIVPOL Operations Office. Topics covered in monthly reports include: general situation; personnel and logistical data; operations; criminal and human rights incidents; an evaluation of the level of cooperation with local authorities; and population statistics. Daily situation reports were sent from Sector South headquarters to the Operations Office, and briefly review the aforementioned topics for each station.

Mid-month reports were sent from Sector South headquarters to the Operations Office, and describe personnel, logistics, and operations within the sector.

Weekly statistical reports were sent from the stations to Sector South headquarters and describe: the number and type of cases monitored; human rights violations; and quality of life. This data was sometimes displayed in chart form.

The records from Sector South also include memoranda and faxes exchanged between the UNCIVPOL Operations Office and the sector headquarters, relating to operations and deployment. Topics covered in the memoranda include: general assessments of each station; administrative information, such as staffing coverage and position appointments; and minutes of meetings between station officers and local authorities. Some memoranda convey directives regarding the operational transition from UNPROFOR to the United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF) and United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO). Also represented in the memoranda are guidelines for UNPROFOR cooperation with officials of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Several memoranda convey details of the Croatian attack on Knin in August of 1995 (Operation Storm). These include: communications sent from the Sector Chief to the UNCIVPOL Operations Office with assessment of the second, third, and fourth days of Operation Storm and an information bulletin from the Operations Office sent to all Sector Chiefs describing the aftermath of the Croatian offensive.

Civilian Police, Sector North, Topusko
At UNCIVPOL Sector North headquarters, there was a Sector Chief, a Deputy Sector Chief, an Operations Officer, a Logistics Officer, and an Information officer. The Operations Officer was assisted by a Liaison Officer, an Investigations Officer and a Duty Officer(s) among other officers and monitors. Posted to stations were a Station Commander and a Deputy Station Commander, an Administrative Officer, a Motor Transport Officer, a Humanitarian Officer (alternatively referred to as Human Rights Officer), a Liaison Officer, Duty Officers, and Patrol Officers/Monitors

The documents from Sector North describe operations and the communications between the stations in the sector and sector headquarters. UNCIVPOL activities included: monitoring the local police and observing court proceedings; monitoring human rights and distributing humanitarian aid; monitoring the status of refugees; and prison visitation and village visitation.

The records of Sector North consist of: daily occurrence reports; situation updates; village reports; minutes of meetings with station officers and local authorities; minutes of meetings among Station Commanders; month end reports; Sector North Human Rights Abuse Reports; monthly mortality data for the sector; weekly status reports; reports on prison visitation and refugee status reports.

Daily Occurrence Reports (DOR) were sent from stations in the sector to the sector headquarters. (These reports were used by sector headquarters to prepare daily situation reports for the UNCIVPOL Operations Office.) Topics in the DOR include: general situation; relations with local authorities (Milicija, Policia, court and government officials); color-coded status of alert; personnel and logistical data; operations; criminal and human rights incidents; population statistics; and the level of cooperation with local authorities. DOR prepared during August 1995 describe the heavy shelling and air strikes that characterized Operation Storm.

Situation updates were sent daily from the Sector Chief to the Operations Office. These daily updates summarize the situation in enumerated points, often covering: border crossings; UNCIVPOL meetings with local authorities; restriction of movement experienced by UNCIVPOL, at times described as “extreme”; victimization of UN personnel, such as an attempted hijacking of UNCIVPOL vehicle, and the resulting shooting injury suffered by a UNCIVPOL monitor, and negligible operational activity. Some updates contain conclusions or proposals such as a redeployment of UNCIVPOL strength from Sector North to an area where they could operate more effectively, or where there is a greater presence needed.

Village reports were sent by the stations in Sector North to the sector headquarters and provide: the name of the reporting monitor and date visited; data regarding the name of the village and its geographic grid reference; population figures; the ethnic composition of residents; names of local figures of authority; remarks on the general situation; reports of destroyed houses; details about village infrastructure, including the water supply, electricity, roads and transport, and communication capabilities; and details about the education of residents, medical services, and living conditions.

The minutes of meetings with local authorities were sent to the sector headquarters, and often forwarded from the Sector Chief to the Operations Office. The minutes cover: joint patrols with local police; restriction of movement, and investigations. Discussion of the Kuplensko Refugee Camp is frequently represented in the minutes. These discussions examine: living conditions; incidents within the camp; and the classification of occupants as “refugees” or “displaced persons.”

Weekly Station Commanders’ meetings were chaired by the Sector Chief. Topics included in the minutes of these meetings are: the general situation in Sector North; directives from the Operations Office; logistics; and updates from Station Commanders, covering the general situation in their area of responsibility, patrol conditions, cooperation with local police, incidents, the monetary exchange rate, and the cost of bread, oil, and flour.

Month-End Reports are concise accounts of the activities and occurrences in the given area, sent from stations to the Sector North headquarters. Subjects covered: general situation; professionalism and cooperation of the local police; attitude of the population towards UNCIVPOL and UNPROFOR; court sittings and if UNCIVPOL monitored the case; crime trends; problems and suggested solutions; Civilian police programs in place, such as village and prison visitation; protection of minorities; and humanitarian aid issues.

Human Rights Abuse Reports were sent weekly from Station Commanders or the station’s Humanitarian Officer to the Sector Chief or the Humanitarian Officer at Sector North headquarters. These reports were sometimes forwarded to the UNCIVPOL Commissioner or to Civil Affairs. The majority of reports consist of one sentence indicating that there were no human rights violations. More substantive reports detail the number and type of violations, and include related incident reports and information regarding the subsequent investigation. A substantial investigation is represented in the records of Sector North, of human rights violations carried out by the Croatian Army. Specifically, it regards an August 1992 incident resulting from the arrest of 300-600 Bosnians (majority Muslim) by the Croatian Policia and their forced military service under threat of death.

Sector North stations sent monthly mortality reports to the Operations Officer at Sector North headquarters. Patrol teams collected the data during visits to local offices of authority. These reports provide information about: the age, sex, and village of the deceased, as well as the cause of death. Records of Sector North indicate that similar weekly reports were sent from stations to the World Health Organization.

Weekly status reports were sent from Sector North headquarters to the Operations Office. They chart: the type of incident; the number of cases; and the ethnicity of the victim and of the suspect.

UNCIVPOL in Sector North conducted daily visits to Glina Prison and Vojnic Prison. A daily report of these prison visits was sent to the Commissioner, noting: prisoner’s name; date of birth; most recent address; ethnicity; date of imprisonment; crime and sentence; the aforementioned personal data for new prisoners; names of prisoners transferred or released, noting where and when; overall prisoners’ condition, citing complaints; and the monitor’s assessment of the general situation in the prison. Information about living conditions in each cell is also included, covering: the number of prisoners, the heating, and the cleanliness.

Refugee Status Reports were sent daily from Sector North headquarters to the Commissioner. The reports note: the number of refugees in the sector, by station; complaints of human rights violations; and information of interest. The data covers the Batnoga and Turanj refugee camps.

Civilian Police, Sector West, Daruvar
At UNCIVPOL Sector West headquarters, there was a Sector Chief, a Deputy Sector Chief, an Operations Officer, a Logistics Officer, and an Information Officer. The Operations Officer was assisted by a Liaison Officer, an Investigations Officer and a Duty Officer(s) among other officers and monitors. Posted to stations were a Station Commander and a Deputy Station Commander, an Administrative Officer, a Motor Transport Officer, a Humanitarian Officer, a Liaison Officer, Duty Officers, and Patrol Officers/Monitors.

The documents from Sector West describe operations and the communications between the stations in the sector and sector headquarters. UNCIVPOL activities included: monitoring the local police and observing court proceedings; monitoring human rights and distributing humanitarian aid; monitoring the status of refugees; and prison visitation and village visitation.

The records of Sector West consist of: daily situation reports; daily occurrence reports; daily media summaries; weekly reports from the Civil Affairs Coordinator; weekly situation reports from the United Nations High Commission for Refugees; routine orders; village reports; minutes of meetings with station officers and local authorities; minutes of meetings among Station Commanders; monthly humanitarian reports; operational memoranda; interviews with prisoners of local jails; and reports of incidents and investigations.

Daily situation reports were sent from Sector West headquarters to the Operations Office in Pleso Camp. Topics covered are: general situation; relations with local authorities; color-coded status of alert; personnel and logistical data; operations; criminal and human rights incidents; the level of cooperation with local authorities; and statistics on population and ethnicity. Monthly reports typically describe the aforementioned in a more narrative format than daily situation reports, which present the information in brief statements under subject headings.

The records of Sector West also contain daily situation reports sent from the Civilian Police Commissioner to the Head of Civil Affairs. These reports were comprised of data from daily situation reports prepared by each UNCIVPOL sector. The reports were additionally copied to other UNPROFOR and UN agencies and to each sector for circulation.

The daily occurrence reports (DOR) contained among the records of Sector West were created by: stations in the sector and sent to the sector headquarters; the Croatian Police (CROPOL) and sent to UNCIVPOL; and UNCIVPOL Liaison Teams.

Topics covered in the DOR from UNCIVPOL stations include: general situation; relations with local authorities (Milicija, Policia, court and government officials); color-coded status of alert; personnel and logistical data; operations; criminal and human rights incidents; population statistics; and the level of cooperation with local authorities. (The information contained in these reports was used by sector headquarters to prepare the daily situation reports for the UNCIVPOL Operations Office.)

The DOR from CROPOL are brief narratives that describe incidents and the progress of investigations. The text is a translation, with the original version often included.
The records of Sector West include DOR from Station Okucani Liaison Team and weekly reports of the Liaison Teams from all stations in the sector. The aforementioned reports were sent to the sector headquarters. The duties of the Liaison Team included regular meetings and joint patrols with the CROPOL and monitoring CROPOL investigations. The reports were created by the Liaison Team Leader and cover the aforementioned duties, reporting: specific incidents; the progress of investigations; and the Team Leader’s assessment of CROPOL investigation methods.

Daily reports from the European Community Liaison Officer - West (ECLO) contain observations of the general and political situation, gathered from meetings with local officials (mayors, representatives of the local assembly, local Liaison Officers, and religious officials) and other non-political community representatives. Other topics often include the ECLO’s observations of meetings concerning the military situation, economic and infrastructural issues, as well as humanitarian and human rights issues.

Patrol reports document UNCIVPOL monitors’ observations during daily patrols of villages in their area of responsibility (AOR). They are handwritten on a form that includes: the name of the UNCIVPOL station; time of patrol; whether or not it was joint patrol with local police; the names of the driver, monitor, and interpreter; and the name of the village patrolled and the geographic grid reference.

Weekly reports from the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC) in Sector West are entitled, Report for the SRSG and Bi-Monthly Briefing Notes. These reports were sent to the Head of Civil Affairs at UNPROFOR HQ, Zagreb, and provide an informationally dense view of the situation in Sector West. In Report for the SRSG and Bi-Monthly Briefing Notes, the CAC describes political, administrative, human rights, and humanitarian issues throughout the sector, and include his personal insights and suggestions.

Weekly situation reports from the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) Field Office in Daruvar describe in narrative detail: the general situation; political developments; UNHCR protection activities, such as refugee movements, and exchanges of civilians; individual cases (including new and ongoing cases); special programs, such as winterization in refugee camps and fuel support programs; UNHCR coordination with other humanitarian organizations (UNICEF, UNPROFOR, etc.); and information regarding UNHCR staff and administration.

Routine Orders were sent weekly from the Sector Chief to the stations in the sector. The orders: communicate duties; identify any officers on leave; report any deaths of monitors; and include periodic items such as helicopter schedule, guidelines to winter driving, and mine awareness.

Village reports were sent by the stations in Sector West to the sector headquarters and provide: the name of reporting monitor; data regarding the name of the village and its geographic grid reference; date visited; population figures; the ethnic composition of residents; names of local figures of authority; remarks on the general situation; reports of destroyed houses; details about village infrastructure, including the water supply, electricity, roads and transport, and communication capabilities; and details about the education of residents, medical services, and living standards.

Weekly Station Commanders’ meetings were chaired by the Sector Chief. Topics included in the minutes of these meetings are: the general situation in Sector West; directives from the Operations Office; logistics; and updates from Station Commanders, covering the general situation in their area of responsibility, patrol conditions, cooperation with local police, incidents, the monetary exchange rate, and the cost of bread, oil, and flour.

The minutes of meetings between Sector West and local authorities were sent to the sector headquarters, and often forwarded from the Sector Chief to the Operations Office. The minutes cover: joint patrols with local police, restriction of movement, and investigations.

Monthly humanitarian reports were created by the Humanitarian Coordinator at Sector West headquarters and sent to the UNCIVPOL Commissioner. The reports briefly describe humanitarian activity in the sector, cooperation between UNCIVPOL and the International Committee of the Red Cross, and the distribution of humanitarian aid. The records of Sector West include other humanitarian reports that provide: requests for humanitarian assistance; the name, address, and ethnicity of recipients humanitarian aid; data about refugee movement; and information regarding UNCIVPOL school visitation.

The records include UNCIVPOL organization charts as well as a significant volume of operational memoranda, which communicate administrative guidelines and directives for standard operations. Other memoranda concern: UNCIVPOL response to the protests and restriction of movement in 1994, enacted by Croatian displaced persons against UNPROFOR; UNCIVPOL evacuation plans; and UNPROFOR implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994.

UNCIVPOL officers interviewed prisoners in local jails to monitor their human rights protection and facilitate prisoner exchanges between the warring parties. The records of Sector West contain interviews with prisoners in the Serbian-run Stara Gradiška Prison and Bjelovar Military Prison in Croatia. The interviews include the prisoner’s personal data and also: why he was imprisoned; his overall treatment and if he had been beaten; and if he wishes to be exchanged.

Incident reports were written by a UNCIVPOL officer to report a civilian’s, or the officer’s observation of a crime. Sometimes incident reports were used to report requests for humanitarian aid or to initiate a tracing request. Most of the incident reports in the records of Sector West describe looting, intimidation, and murder in the given station’s area of responsibility. The subsequent investigations range in depth of documentation. Investigations strongly represented in the records are: human rights violations of prisoners; murder and attempted murders along “Dragovic Road” (described as the road between Pakrac and Požega, alternately described as between Pakrac- Bucje) in Croatia; murders in Vukovje, Croatia; mass murder in the village of Gornji Grahovljani, Croatia; and mass graves in the Croatian villages of Donji Caglic, Okucani, and Vinogradi.

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