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United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) (1992-1993) Series
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Security Planning Unit

The Security Planning Unit was an office under UNTAC's Integrated Support Services, Division of Administration. Its primary function was to implement security and evacuation plans for UNTAC at the mission and provincial levels.

Series consists of records in the following order: security and/or evacuation plans for various regions and agencies; correspondence with UN agencies, NGOs, and UN Headquarters; records related to security incidents; records related to security coordination with the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF); end of mission reports; records related to UNTAC withdrawal; UNTAC Property Survey Board cases; additional security & evacuation plans; annotated Phnom Penh maps; records related to the deployment of international polling station officers (IPSOs); and a sketch of Angkor Chum UNTAC compound.

Includes 2 maps, 1 drawing, and 1.79 MB of textual records and other material.

Contains cryptofaxes.

T

Police Support

Civilian Police, Commissioner
The Civilian Police consisted of the Operations Branch, the Logistics Branch, the Liaison Branch, the Personnel Branch, and the Inspection and Discipline Branch. The Civilian Police also managed a Special Task Force, which reported to the Operations Branch. Twenty-one provincial headquarters, headed by Provincial Commanders, were also established. The headquarters of the Civilian Police was located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The Civilian Police were mandated to ensure that law and order were maintained effectively and impartially in Cambodia, and that human rights were fully protected. Additionally, the Civilian Police: supervised and trained local police; ensured that political rallies were free of harassment and intimidation and that campaigners could exercise freedom of speech; ensured safe and orderly voter registration; monitored static and mobile polling stations during the election for the Cambodian Constituent Assembly held 23-28 May 1993; and assisted refugees returning to Cambodia. Brigadier General Klaas C. Roos of the Netherlands served as the Commissioner of the Civilian Police for the duration of the mission.

Chronological and operations files primarily contain briefs and memoranda issued by the Commissioner and sent to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the Civilian Police on the following topics: maintenance of security and neutrality in the electoral environment; monitoring of political party activity; the progress of investigations; the operation of the Khmer Police Training School and CIVPOL’s training of Khmer police; operations of the Special Task Force of the Civilian Police; the protection of ethnic Vietnamese and their movements within and out of Cambodia; and the closure of Civilian Police headquarters in September 1993. There are also directives for the Civilian Police when reporting on public meetings, rallies, and demonstrations, when stationed at political party offices, and during the May 1993 election. Chronological and operations files also contain a concept for the withdrawal of the Civilian Police operation.

In addition, the Commissioner’s files contain: briefs on the organization and mandate of the Civilian Police; Standard Operating Procedures for Civilian Police Monitors; summaries of meetings between the Commissioner and leaders of the State of Cambodia (SOC), political parties, and factions; summaries of meetings of Provincial Commanders; briefs describing terrorism and incidents of politically-motivated violence, particularly grenade attacks on political party offices and murders of political party members; a discussion paper titled “UN Peacekeeping: Lessons Learned from the Cambodia Mission”, dated 22 July 1993; an evaluation report on the UNTAC Civilian Police, dating from August 1993. There are also lists with data on the geographic deployment of CIVPOL, and on the strength and nationality of CIVPOL monitors.

Civilian Police, Operations Branch, Communications Centre
Part of the Operations Branch, the Communications Centre was the focal point for the transmission of information to Civilian Police deployed throughout Cambodia. The Centre’s records consist of daily and weekly situation reports compiled by the Civilian Police Deputy Chief of Operations and sent to the Commissioner.

The situation reports detail incidents throughout the provinces, including armed robberies, shootings, shelling, murders, abductions, political intimidation, vehicle theft and traffic accidents. Incidents often were perpetrated by the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK), the Cambodian People’s Armed Forces (CPAF), and the Khmer People National Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF). The reports note: CIVPOL’s confiscation of weapons and ammunition; CIVPOL’s monitoring of the activities of political parties; operations at UNTAC-monitored checkpoints; activities of the local police of the State of Cambodia (SOC); ceasefire violations; the movements of Vietnamese; landmine explosions; and anti-UNTAC demonstrations and activities, such as attacks on UN vehicles and the circulation of anti-UNTAC leaflets among the population. Also reported are the activities of the Civilian Police Airport Team stationed at the Pochentong International Airport in Phnom Penh. The Civilian Police Airport Team monitored the arrival and departure of VIPs and items, particularly gold and foreign currencies, being declared at the airport Customs Office.

Records of the CIVPOL Communications Centre also include: weekly reports on arms and ammunitions seized by CIVPOL, noting the locations and circumstances of the seizures; and weekly reports of political intimidation, such as arson, vandalism of party offices and signage, death threats against party members, and bomb throwing at political party offices. In addition, the files contain statistics on political party activity and statistics on voter registration.

Civilian Police, Operations Branch
The Operations Branch was commanded by the Chief of Operations, who reported to the Commissioner.

Records primarily consist of chronological files documenting routine operational activities of the Civilian Police. These hold briefs and memoranda on a range of subjects, including: monitoring and closures of political party offices; the training of local police; activities of factions, including the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK) and the Cambodian People’s Armed Forces (CPAF); activities at road checkpoints; security provided to electoral registration and polling centres; security at the Pochentong International Airport in Phnom Penh; and the harassment of Vietnamese in Cambodia.

The chronological files also include reports on a variety of topics, such as: reconnaissance and familiarization tours of provinces and districts conducted by the Civilian Police; secret meetings held by warring factions; soldiers who approached the Civilian Police after surrendering from factions; conditions in provincial prisons and the status of individual prisoners; the confiscation of weapons and ammunition; and ceasefire violations. Chronological files also contain: leaflets circulated in the local population and collected by UNTAC indicative of anti-UNTAC sentiment and political intimidation; reviews and analyses on the criminal justice system in provinces; and statistics on the movements and resettlement of displaced persons.

In addition, the chronological files contain summaries of meetings held by the Civilian Police with: provincial government representatives; chiefs of local police; representatives of political parties, including the National United Front for and Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), the Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party (BLDP), the Cambodia People’s Party (CPP) and the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP); and leaders of factions. Daily situation reports and daily patrol reports sent from the CIVPOL Province Commanders to CIVPOL headquarters in Phnom Penh document CIVPOL visits to districts and villages. They are also found in the chronological files, and they note: the status of investigations; conditions in prisons; living conditions in villages, such as the availability of food and potable water, and the conditions of roads and bridges; and civilian complaints against the local police and provincial government officials.

Chronological files of Civilian Police operations in provinces also contain reports of investigations carried out by the Civilian Police. Crimes investigated include: murders of political party members, locally-recruited election staff, and local police; death threats, hand grenade attacks, and arson carried out against political party members; abduction of political party members; attacks and arson on political party offices and disruptions of political party meetings; the removal, destruction, and defacing of political party signboards and posters; forced conscription; attacks on villages by factions; extortion and bribing of local police in communes, at trading posts, and at road checkpoints; land disputes; the circulation of counterfeit money; and thefts of cultural heritage objects at temples. Politically-motivated crime primarily targeted the Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party (BLDP); the Cambodia People’s Party (CPP); the National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC); the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP); and the Molinaka and Naktaorsou Khmer for Freedom Party. The files contain: final and interim reports of investigations; victim and witness statements, as well as transcribed testimony, which often feature fingerprint impressions; hand drawn sketches; and photographs of crime scenes.

Also included among records of the Operations Branch are records of the Special Task Force, which was overseen by the Operations Branch and which reported to the Commissioner through the Chief of Operations. The Special Task Force investigated high-profile and politically sensitive cases and worked closely with Provincial Commanders, who maintained command of all Civilian Police-led investigations in the province. The records of the Special Task Force are arranged in chronological order by case number. The case files consist of: final reports; sworn statements of victims and witnesses; hand drawn maps; photographs of the crime scene; sketches indicating victims’ injuries; death certificates; and investigation diaries of the Special Task Force.

The records of the Operations Branch also include several station diaries and visit registers which document activities at the UNTAC Detention Centre. The UNTAC Detention Centre was administered by the Civilian Police and was located in Phnom Penh. The diaries and registers note: activities of the Detention Centre’s Chief Warden; patrol and hand-over operations at the Detention Centre; cell checking; and the physical condition of individual prisoners.

There are also records pertaining to Civilian Police policy and guidelines, and these include memoranda, briefs, and administrative circulars on topics such as: the maintenance of a neutral political environment; the duties of Civilian Police at polling stations and when monitoring political rallies and public meetings; the carriage of weapons and ammunition and the use of force; the procedures for arrest and prosecution; the procedures for investigation; the security of Vietnamese in Cambodia; and the handling of defectors from the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK).

In addition, there is one file with information about the remains of American military personnel missing or killed during the Vietnam War and found in various locations in Cambodia. UNTAC obtained this information from Cambodian locals.

Civilian Police, Koh Kong Province
The records document the activities of the Civilian Police stationed in districts in Koh Kong Province in southwestern Cambodia. Included are daily and monthly situation reports prepared by District Commanders and sent to Provincial Commanders, noting the political climate, statistics on returnees, and progress on investigations of criminal activity and human rights violations. There are also briefs, authored by District Commanders, about: seizures of arms and ammunition; incidents, including murder, abduction, rampant firing, banditry, and robbery; faction activities; and weekly crime statistics. Also present are several case files for investigations carried out or monitored by the Civilian Police, including the killing of fourteen Vietnamese fishermen in the Chamkalor Village in the Botum Sakor District in October 1992. The case files contain: final reports, witness statements, hand drawn sketches of the crime scene, and photographs.

Civilian Police Liaison Cell
The Civilian Police Liaison Cell was established following the termination of the UNTAC mandate on 24 September 1993. The Cell was tasked with monitoring the crime situation in Phnom Penh and protecting United Nations personnel and property remaining in Cambodia during the post-UNTAC period. It was headed by the Chief Police Liaison Officer and was located at the headquarters of the Municipal Police Commissioner in Phnom Penh. The records consist of: briefs on the functions of the Civilian Police Liaison Cell; Standard Operating Procedures and administrative instructions for investigating and reporting criminal activity; daily and weekly situation reports noting incidents involving international personnel and local citizens, and activities of the local police; and tables with tallies on crime throughout thedistricts in Phnom Penh. The Civilian Police Liaison Cell was closed on 31 December 1993.

Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General

Series contains letters, memoranda, cables, faxes, meeting minutes, press releases, agreements and reports concerning a variety of topics, including but not limited to, refugee repatriation, rehabilitation, travel, visitors, UNTAC structure, political parties, political climate, the Cambodian constitution, civil administration, human rights, UNTAC's military component, elections, humanitarian organisations in Cambodia, and UNTAC radio. Records are arranged by subject classification number, and chronologically therein.

Title based on series contents.

Office of the Political Adviser

Series contains subject and chronological files of Mr. A.H.S. Ataul Karim, the political adviser to Mr. Yasushi Akashi, UNTAC's Special Representative of the Secretary-General. Subject files pertaining to UNTAC functions are arranged by subject classification number in this order: political affairs, military, civilian police, civil administration, economics and rehabilitation, elections, human rights, and legal. Following are chronological files and, lastly, miscellaneous subject files.

Title based on series contents.

Records created and collected by Mr. Karim in his capacity as Chief Liaison Officer for the United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC) are located in series S-0993.

Office of the Director of Administration and Officer-in-Charge

Operational subject files of the Office of the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO), who later served concurrently as Officer-in-Charge (OIC), UNTAC. The series is arranged into two sub-series, one chiefly reflecting work conducted as CAO (S-0997-0001-01 through S-0997-0005-05), and one primarily documenting work conducted as OIC (S-0997-0006-01 through S-0997-0007-11). Both sub-series are arranged alphabetically by subject.

Title based on series contents.

Office of the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General

Series consists of correspondence, memoranda, and meeting minutes relating to the functions of the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General. Series is arranged by subject classification number in this order: chronological files; country correspondence; and records pertaining to the following subjects: civil administration, provincial offices, action cells, Secretary-General's reports, electoral component, Economic Adviser's office, Supreme National Council, human rights component, information/education component, repatriation, legal, military, civilian police, and political parties.

Title based on series contents.

Mr. Rafeeuddin Ahmed

The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) was formed in February 1992 to ensure the implementation of these agreements.

Mr. Rafeeuddin Ahmed, born in Sukkar, Pakistan on 2 October 1932, studied at the University of the Punjab in Lahore, Pakistan, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics and political science in 1951 and a Master of Arts degree in political science in 1953.

In October 1955, Mr. Ahmed entered Pakistan's Foreign Service, where he held a number of posts including Director for United Nations Affairs and Economic Coordination in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1968 to 1970.

In May 1970, Mr. Ahmed began his career at the UN Secretariat, serving in the following capacities: Secretary of the Economic and Social Council, 1970 - 1973; Director of the Resources and Programme Planning Office, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1973 - 1975; Executive Assistant to the Secretary-General, 1975 - 1978; Chef de Cabinet, 1978 - 1982; Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, Trusteeship and Decolonization, 1983 - 1986; and Under-Secretary-General for International Economic and Social Affairs, 1987 - 1992. Mr. Ahmed also served as the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs in South-East Asia, during which time he helped to negotiate the Agreements on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict (a.k.a. The Paris Agreements), signed on 23 October 1991.

In April 1992, Mr. Ahmed left New York to become the Executive Secretary of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).

The series contains the Kampuchea/Cambodia-related records of Mr. Ahmed created and collected from 1975 to 1992. In 1992, custodianship of the records was transferred from Mr. Ahmed to Mr. A.H.S. Ataul Karim, chief liaison officer of the United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC). Mr. Karim retained custodianship of the records while serving as UNTAC's political adviser to the special representative of the Secretary-General, Mr. Yasushi Akashi.

The majority of the series is arranged by alphanumeric subject classification as follows:
6A - General files on the state of Kampuchea
6B - International conferences, meetings, etc.
6C - International Conference on Cambodia, 30 July - 30 Aug. 1989
6D - Meetings of the five permanent members of the Security Council
6E - Meetings of the Secretary-General with the five permanent members of the Security Council
6F - Meetings of the Supreme National Council (SNC)
6G - International Conference on Cambodia, Paris, 21 - 23 Oct. 1991
6H - Documents and records related to General Assembly consideration of the situation in Cambodia, 34th through 46th sessions

The end of the series, which details the establishment of UNAMIC and UNTAC, is arranged by subject.

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