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United Nations Political and Peacekeeping Missions in Haiti (1993-2001) Series
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United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
In accordance with its mandate, UNMIH worked to establish an environment conducive to the organization of free and fair elections in Haiti. The municipal and parliamentary elections took place on 25 June 1995 and the presidential election took place on 17 December 1995. UNMIH worked closely with the Electoral Observation Mission (EOM) of the Organization of American States (OAS), which was deployed in mid-May 1995. The United Nations Electoral Assistance Team (EAT) was established in late 1994 to provide technical assistance to the elections at both the national and departmental levels. By late 1995, the EAT came under the operational responsibility of UNMIH. The records of UNMIH in S-1870 document the work of the EAT.

The records include memoranda prepared by the Coordinator of the Electoral Assistance Team (EAT) and other EAT staff for the Director and staff of the Electoral Assistance Division (EAD) at DPKO. The memoranda cover topics such as: electoral law, the timing of electoral operations, registration, and the design and counting of ballots. In addition, some memoranda concern coordination with Haiti’s Provincial Electoral Council (CEP), the autonomous national authority constitutionally charged with organizing and supervising the elections; these memoranda detail plans for electoral data processing and staffing.

Other records that relate to the CEP include: the Letter of Agreement between UNMIH and the CEP, electoral bulletins from the CEP’s press service, EAT notes for the file about the establishment of a communications system for the CEP, calendars detailing electoral set-up activities, and minutes of EAT meetings with representatives of the CEP. The minutes, as well as minutes of EAT meetings with NGOs, OAS, and governmental and United Nations agencies, concern collaboration on the electoral process. Specific topics include: elections results, electoral observation, incidents of violation of electoral law, the production of civic education materials, the vote counting process, and ink for marking votes.

In addition, there are records relating to Haiti’s Bureau Electoral Départemental (BED), Bureau Electoral Communal (BEC), Bureau d’Inscription et de Vote (BIV), and Assemblies of Communal Sections (ASECs). These records consist of lists of registration sites and checklists of election tasks to be executed by BEDs and BECs, such as personnel deployment, evaluation of communications, and transport of elections materials.

The files also contain periodic reports authored by the USAID Advisor, weekly executive summaries, field trip reports, and after-action reviews of the elections. The periodic reports authored by the USAID Advisor detail political developments such as changes in CEP personnel, as well as meetings between representatives of the Haitian government, NGOs, OAS, and governmental and United Nations agencies.

The weekly executive summaries were prepared by Lakhdar Brahimi, the UNMIH Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) for the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Kofi Annan. The summaries cover a variety of topics, including: elections results, political parties boycotting the elections, speeches made by President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the expulsion of Haitians from the Dominican Republic, Haitian government legislation on the minimum wage, arrests and trials of notorious criminals, justice and prison system reforms, police training and misconduct, economic and humanitarian aid developments, and threats against UNMIH.

Field trip reports were prepared by the EAT’s Senior Logistics Officer. They detail the Senior Logistics Officer’s meetings with EAT staff, BED presidents, and MICIVIH representatives, and contain the Officer’s evaluation of communications, equipment, and roads in the departments with respect to the conduct of elections.

Records relating to the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES), a non-governmental organization, concern the procurement of polling materials and training of elections officials, registrars, and poll-workers. They include project proposals, working papers, calendars of electoral tasks, training and civic education material, and memoranda exchanged between members of the IFES, EAT, CEP, and USAID.

Other records consist of copies of electoral law from the newspaper “Le Moniteur”, departmental results for the 1995 elections, security briefs, and civic education material distributed by UNMIH’s Military Information Support Task Force (MIST).

International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
In November 1994, after MICIVIH returned to Haiti following the restoration of the Haitian government, the Organization of American States (OAS) and the United Nations tasked MICIVIH observers with monitoring: the human rights aspects of the electoral process, particularly the right to vote, and the rights of expression, association and assembly; and acts of intimidation and violence during the electoral campaigns. MICIVIH Observers worked closely with OAS-EOM observers.

Records prepared by MICIVIH Observers include: overviews of the political and electoral climate in the department; reports of field visits to oversee electoral operations, noting visits to political party offices and the conduct of political party gatherings; lists of candidates and their respective political parties; and statistics for various aspects of the electoral process, such as the number of registered voters. Additionally, there are periodic reports prepared by the OAS-EOM.

The summaries of Observers’ visits to local offices of Haiti’s Bureau Electoral Départemental (BED) and the Bureau Electoral Communal (BEC) detail: technical operations of setting up voting sites; voter education programs in communes; the voter registration process; the status of candidates; the distribution and collection of electoral material; security presence at voting sites; the validity of voting results; and election results.

Also included are Observers’ memoranda about a variety of subjects, including: the electoral and security climate; irregularities and obstructions to the electoral process; poor administrative practices related to the elections, such as incorrectly sealing voting boxes and violations of privacy during the act of voting; fraudulent voter registration, voting, and vote counting; anti-UN and anti-government sentiment; control of crowds at voting sites; controversies surrounding local election outcomes; political manoeuvring and suspected impartiality within Haitian electoral institutions; and public demonstrations related to elections.

The memoranda also cover politically-motivated election violence, such as: arson; attacks against candidates; threats received by BEC and BIV officials; ransacking of Bureaux d'Inscriptions et de Votes (BIV); destruction of ballot boxes; and assassinations and deaths resulting from suspicious circumstances. They also note the arrests of individuals accused of political intimidation and disruptions to the electoral process.

The records are arranged geographically by base.

Head of Mission

International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
The records of the MICIVIH Executive Director consist of Colin Granderson’s subject files, chronological files, and internal and external communications on a wide variety of topics related to: operations and activities of MICIVIH, the United Nations political and peacekeeping missions that were active in Haiti concurrently with MICIVIH from 1993 to 2000, UN agencies and non-governmental organizations operating in Haiti, the Government of Haiti, and the de facto regime.

The Executive Director’s records contain: a report of the UN Advance Team to Haiti, 8-12 September 1993, which evaluated the situation in Haiti for the creation of UNMIH; summaries of meetings between the Executive Director and the President of Haiti René Préval and former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, and Haitian government ministers; briefs about the MICIVIH mandate; evaluations of conflict resolution activities; training materials provided to MICIVIH staff; briefs and memoranda on administrative operations; statements delivered to the General Assembly by the Haitian Minister of Foreign Affairs S. E. M. Fritz Longchamp, dating from September and October 1999; organization charts; reports concerning the activities and reform of the Haitian National Police (HNP); reports prepared for Granderson by the Chief of Operations, concerning communications, computers, and water shortages; the End of Mission report on the Institution Building facet of MICIVIH, dated March 2000; and background papers on Haitian history and culture.

Additionally, there are communications between Colin Granderson and officials of the Organization of American States (OAS) about the functioning of MICIVIH; updates on MICIVIH activities prepared by Granderson for the OAS; and records of the Administrative Liaison Office, which was set up in Port-au-Prince to coordinate activities between MICIVIH and UNMIH.

The Executive Director’s chronological files and correspondence consist of: letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and the President of Haiti René Préval; letters sent to Haitian government ministers, particularly the Ministry of Justice and the Minister of Foreign Affairs; letters sent to representatives of non-governmental organizations; job descriptions of MICIVIH personnel and Terms of Reference for high-level consultants to MICIVIH; agenda and panelist papers prepared for international conferences attended by MICIVIH personnel; draft reports prepared by the Secretary-General to the Security Council on the work of MICIVIH; weekly Situation and Activity reports on MICIVIH activities forwarded to the OAS; and press releases and press communiqués. The files also include briefs and memoranda on such topics as: mission premises, the status of the mission mandate, the progress of elections in Haiti, relations between MICIVIH and UNMIH, and the security environment in Haiti. Additionally, there is a MICIVIH-authored report, dated 25 March 1996, on the killings of several civilians by the Haitian National Police (HNP) in Cité Soleil on 6 March 1996.

Additionally, there are several files of code cables exchanged in 1993 and 1994 between Granderson and Dante Caputo, the Special Envoy for Haiti for the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and the OAS. The code cables concern: the evacuation of MICIVIH from Haiti to Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic on 15-16 October 1993; the return of mission personnel to Haiti beginning in January 1994; the de facto regime’s denial of the legitimacy of MICIVIH; the Haitian Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ declaration of MICIVIH’s undesirability in Haiti on 8 July 1994. In addition, files concerning security contain documents related to the mission’s evacuation and reestablishment in 1993 and 1994, and these include: mission evacuation plans, security briefings, reports of incidents targeting UN personnel, and outlines describing administrative changes due to the evacuations.

The records of the Executive Director also contain files detailing MICIVIH’s observation and monitoring of the human rights situation in Haiti. Included are MICIVIH-authored reports on human rights in Haiti: a report from a fact-finding mission to Haiti in 1993 titled, “Observations, Concerns and Recommendations Regarding the Role of the OAS/UN Civilian Mission in Haiti: A Report in Progress,” dated April 1993; “Rapport de la Mission Civile Internationel (OEA/ONU) en Haiti sur la Situation des Droits de l’Homme,” 31 Janvier – 30 Juin 1994; “Special Report: Analysis of the Assassinations in Port-au-Prince, November 1994 – July 1995, As Recorded by Base 1,” dated 31 July 1995.

There are also records documenting communications between MICIVIH and the National Commission on Truth and Justice (CNVJ), which was set up on 17 December 1994 by Jean-Bertrand Aristide to investigate human rights violations that took place during the de facto regime. The final report of the National Truth and Justice Commission, dating from 1995, “Si m Pa Rele (‘If I Don’t Shout’), 29 September 1991 - 14 October 1994,” is also included.

The records also include documentation of seminars and conferences on human rights awareness held by the MICIVIH’s Promotion and Protection of Human Rights Section (PPHR), and memoranda exchanged between mission representatives and local and international human rights organizations. Additionally, there are briefs and reports, authored by Observers at bases and copied to Granderson, concerning politically-motivated killings and killings of members of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), Haitians forcibly repatriated by the police and/or military forces, violence against women and children, and human rights violations involving street children.

The Executive Director’s files also include records pertaining to oversight and reform of the Haitian judiciary. Records include: descriptions of weekly activities of MICIVIH’s Section des Affaires Juridiques et du Renforcement Institutionnel (SAJRI); summaries of meetings between MICIVIH personnel and staff of the École de la Magistrature; memoranda about MICIVIH-led training of judges and lawyers at bases; and briefs on the management of the local court system. There are also: summaries of meetings of MICIVIH lawyers who operated at bases and consulted on a variety of judicial reform topics; and Observers’ memoranda and reports, copied to Granderson, about court proceedings, and interactions with local judicial personnel about irregularities. Notable documents include: “Quelques Reflexions à Propos d'une Eventuelle Reforme du Système Judiciare en Haiti,” dated 14 July 1993; an analysis dated 17 March 1994 and titled “Haitian Justice System: A Report by the MICIVIH Working Group on the Haitian Justice System”; a program of instruction dating from October 1997 of the École de la Magistrature; and "Analysis of the Haitian Judicial System," a report authored by the Haitian Ministry of Justice and Public Security, dating from March 1998.

Records pertaining to human rights monitoring in prisons and prison reform are also included. There are memoranda and reports detailing: training for MICIVIH Observers in prison matters, the role of MICIVIH in prison reform, management of the MICIVIH Prison Database System, training for prison wardens, incidents at the National Penitentiary and other Haitian prisons, and visits to prisons carried out by Observers stationed at bases. Additionally, there are communications between Granderson and the National Penitentiary Administration (APENA), and between Granderson and officials running the Assistance à la Réforme Pénitentiaire, a program of the United Nations Development Fund (UNDP). Also included are MICIVIH-produced evaluation reports on prison reform initiatives. A MICIVIH-authored report titled “Prisons in Haiti,” dated July 1997, provides analysis and statistics on the prison system, information about prison conditions, and recommendations for reform.

The files for the elections contain: the final report of the Electoral Assistance Team (EAT) dating from 1995; letters and position statements sent to the Executive Director from political candidates; briefs and correspondence exchanged between the Executive Director and staff of the Electoral Observation Mission (EOM) of the Organization of American States (OAS); and situation reports and final reports prepared by the OAS-EOM. Other records document the structure and work of Haiti’s Provisional Electoral Council (CEP), such as: organization charts of the CEP; letters exchanged between the Executive Director and the Secretary-General of the CEP; and timetables, lists and activity outlines related to technical operations managed by CEP for the elections.

The records also document activities of MICIVIH’s Press and Information Unit. Memoranda cover a variety of topics, including: the strategy to strengthen MICIVIH’s image in the Haitian public and the international community; MICIVIH’s television, radio, and internet communications; the writing of press releases; and journalist training seminars. Additionally, there are reports prepared by the Press and Information Unit, media project proposals, lists of Haitian radio stations, issues of the “MICIVIH News Summary,” MICIVIH press releases, scripts for television and radio and spots, and communications with journalists.

There are also records relating to the planning of a successor mission to MICIVIH and MIPONUH, which was preliminarily named Mission D'Assistance Technique Des Nations Unies Pour Haiti (MATNUH) and then became International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH). The records contain correspondence between MICIVIH and MIPONUH staff, draft resolutions, terms of reference, budget reports, and job descriptions.

MICIVIH’s Coordination, Analysis and Reports Unit (CARU) reported to the Executive Director, and liaised with the Section des Affaires Juridiques et du Renforcement Institutionnel (SAJRI) and the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights (PPHR) Section. The CARU was tasked with: maintaining daily links with MICIVIH’s regional offices with regard to the investigation of human rights violations; ensuring coordination of activities between regional offices and between headquarters and regional offices; preparing weekly and fortnightly reports on the activities of the mission; and assisting in the preparation of public reports for the Secretary-General of the United Nations and for the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States (OAS), about the situation of human rights and democracy in Haiti.

The records include a wide range of reports and publications generated by CARU. Weekly executive summaries cover such topics as the transition to MICAH, the Raboteau massacre of 22 April 1994, the 51st anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, activities of the Haitian Parliament, municipal government structures, and border control. Situation and activity reports discuss topics such as prolonged pre-trial detention, assistance for the Haitian Office de la Protection du Citoyen (OPC), and the UNIFEM campaign against violence towards women. Information about human rights violations is also contained in the CARU human rights situation reports and the publication “Human Rights Review.”

Notable reports collated by CARU include progress reports sent by the Executive Director to the Organization of American States (OAS). The reports summarize MICIVIH field visits and the activities of high-level staff and base coordinators. There is also correspondence about the history of MICIVIH sent from the Executive Director to OAS staff and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG).

In addition, there are memoranda and incident reports detailing the often criminal and illegal activities of the community vigilance brigades and security groups that exercised public order among citizens through intimidation and violent attacks with machetes. Statistics and tables listing incidents of popular justice killings are also included.

CARU records also document investigations undertaken by MICIVIH observers to identify officers of the Haitian National Police (HNP) responsible for brutality and violations of human rights. The investigations involved visits to HNP commissariats, prisons, and victims’ and witnesses’ homes to gather information about and confirm allegations. The records consist of: briefs and tables summarizing the circumstances of police officers suspected of murder, summary execution, excessive use of force, cruel and inhuman treatment, rape, theft, narcotic drug trafficking and other offenses; summaries of meetings between MICIVIH officials and representatives of the Inspection Générale de la Police Nationale d’Haiti (IGPNH); Standard Operating Procedures of the HNP; a Manual of the Commissioner of the HNP; and briefs describing the HNP’s disciplinary procedures. Also included are statistics tallied by MICIVIH on the number and type of human rights violations occurring in each department.

MICIVIH Observers were stationed at bases throughout Haiti to monitor and report on the political situation, elections, human rights violations, security, and the progress of institutional development in their areas on responsibility. The records describe Observers’ interactions with local authorities and organizations, as well as their community education and outreach efforts.

Regional Coordinator final and periodic reports, as well as Observer reports on visits to communes, cover the following topics: activities at elementary and high schools, hospitals, police commissariats, parquets (public prosecutor’s offices), cabinets d’instruction (judicial investigation offices), tribunaux de paix (tribunals); relations with local non-governmental organizations and local popular organizations; MICIVIH-led education activities on human rights, civic matters, and inter-institutional cooperation; interviews with Catholic priests and religious clergy about activities in towns and villages; meetings with local political authorities such as mayors and delegates, in which authorities outline their town’s infrastructural and institutional needs and issues; difficulties in the electoral registration process and local electoral campaigning; demonstrations by students, civilians and pro-Duvalier supporters; the presence in towns and villages of FRAPH, coup d’etat supporters, and supporters of François “Papa Doc” Duvalier (including those known as macoutes); the security climate as monitored by CIVPOL, the Interim Public Security Force (IPSF), and the Haitian National Police (HNP); the functioning of military-occupied casernes (barracks); incidents of brutality experienced by civilians and attributed to military personnel; arms trafficking; incidents of popular justice killings; incidents at the Haitian-Dominican Republic border; the status of persons in marronage (hiding); and activities of the United States Special Forces (USSF).

There are also overviews of departments, authored by the base team, which detail the department’s history, demographics, infrastructure, and political climate. In addition, lists of local authorities enumerate the names of town, communal, or departmental police officers, judges, electoral officials, military officers, politicians, and religious leaders. Minutes of base staff meetings and Regional Coordinator meetings describe planning for security and elections, designing civic education programs, and ways to streamline base functioning.

Visits of citizens of communes to MICIVIH offices are summarized in memoranda. They detail complaints about violations of human rights, obstructions to justice, land conflicts, and breakdown of law and order, including incidents of popular justice, and incidents involving the practice of vodou and sorcery. Other memoranda provide updates on human rights abuses allegedly perpetrated by the Haitian National Police (HNP).

Base records relating to the judiciary system include summaries of assises criminelles (assizes), as well as summaries describing killings and attacks against judicial personnel. Memoranda relating to the judiciary system detail: meetings with judicial personnel on the general functioning of the tribunals and developments in cases monitored by the mission; irregularities and corruption; members of the local judiciary (juges de paix); the condition of judicial building structures; and visits to the Cour d’Appel and Cabinet d’Instruction.

There are also briefs describing seminars and activities undertaken by Observers in collaboration with local authorities. Seminar participants often consisted of representatives of the HNP, non-governmental organizations, and the Conseil d'Administration de la Section Communale (CASEC). Other base educational and outreach initiatives are reflected in memoranda about MICIVIH-sponsored puppet shows, local drawing contests, and spots on radio and television stations.

Records relating to local popular organizations include information sheets profiling popular organizations’ activities, leaders, and history. Memoranda covering meetings with leaders of popular organizations describe challenges faced by the organizations and requests for assistance from MICIVIH. There are also documents about the limitations of MICIVIH’s involvement in community development projects, which define MICIVIH’s role primarily as an intermediary between popular organizations and funding agencies.

Memoranda exchanged between Regional Coordinators, Observers, the Deputy Executive Director, and the Executive Director of MICIVIH cover a range a topics, including: the Aristide government, vigilance brigades, disarmament, gang activity, crime, internally displaced persons, non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations, meetings with journalists on freedom of the press, plots against the state, political parties, base security, labor strikes, women’s rights, the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), medical care available in the commune, and the prevalence of common diseases such as typhoid, tuberculosis, and malaria.

MICIVIH files also included the records of: Dante Caputo, who served as the Special Envoy for Haiti for the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and the OAS from December 1992 to September 1994; and of Mr. Leandro Despouy, Political Advisor to the Special Envoy. Their records consist of: letters exchanged between Caputo and the Commander-in-Chief of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), Lieutenant General Raoul Cédras, and between Cédras and the Secretary-General; lists of senators and members of major Haitian political parties; and correspondence with representatives of political parties. Analyses and briefs cover: the implementation of the Governors Island Agreement, the role of the United Nations in Haiti, the security of the President of Haiti, the restoration of political stability in Haiti, and the economic effects of the embargo on Haiti. Additionally, there is a “Plan d’Action Humanitaire Integre, Nations Unies / Organisation des Etats Americaine: Haiti,” dated March 1993.

United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
Serving as Head of Mission and Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) were Daniel Caputo (September 1993- September 1994), Lakhdar Brahimi (September 1994 – March 1996), and Enrique ter Horst (March - June 1996).

The records of the Office of the SRSG (OSRSG) contain incoming and outgoing code cables exchanged between the SRSG and Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Kofi Annan at United Nations Headquarters in New York. Code cables consist of: draft reports to the Secretary-General on mission activities; weekly executive summaries detailing political and operational developments; and programmes and agenda for visits to Haiti by the Secretary-General and by United States President Bill Clinton (March 1995).

The records of the OSRSG also include code cables from the Force Commander (FC) and from the Chief of Staff (COS) to Annan. Code cables from the FC concern: criminal and security incidents, battalion activities, arrests, public demonstrations, and activities of the Interim Public Security Force (IPSF) and the Haitian National Police (HNP). They also note the 28 March 1995 assassination of Mireille Durocher Bertin, a lawyer for the Commander-in-Chief of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), Lieutenant General Raoul Cédras. The code cables sent from the COS contain: daily and weekly situation reports from the UNMIH Advance Team; drafts of UNMIH Rules of Engagement (ROE); and a brief titled “Proposed Multinational Force (MNF) to UNMIH Transition Plan,” dating from October 1994.

The records also include: copies of the Governors Island Agreement (3 July 1993) and the New York Pact (16 July 1993); talking points (28 October 1993) about the implementation of the Agreement; statements and correspondence of the Comité National de Resolution de la Crise Haitienne, which convened through the fall of 1993 to oversee the execution of the Agreement; and letters of appeal received by the mission urging the restoration of democracy in Haiti. There are also: bi-monthly situation reports forwarded from the SRSG to Annan; and guidelines for the Commander of the Military Component. Records also include faxes from 1993 concerning the security situation in Haiti, the political climate, and the attitude of the Haitian military; and a draft report of the Secretary-General on the deployment of the Advance Team for UNMIH, dated 10 October 1994.

Also included is correspondence between the SRSG and President Jean-Bertrand Aristide about the Governors Island Agreement and the change in Haitian political leadership; and correspondence between the SRSG and Lieutenant General Raoul Cédras. There are also memoranda, outlines and letters concerning such topics as: the petroleum embargo; amnesty law; and the provision of reparations to victims of human rights violations and political violence during the de facto regime.

United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH)
The Head of Mission was Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Enrique ter Horst. The records of the Office of the SRSG (OSRSG) consist of incoming code cables from Secretary-General Kofi Annan at United Nations headquarters in New York. Notable items from the code cables include draft Security Council resolutions on the mission and UNSMIH Rules of Engagement (ROE). There are also: Security Management Team agenda; the update of the Security Plan for Haiti dated March 1997; CIVPOL weekly reports; Watch Lists, which provide an overview of threats such as criminal activity, public unrest, and armed conflict by geographic location; and contingency plans outlining responses to potential threats.

The records of the UNSMIH Protocol Office include correspondence with the Office of President René Préval, the Directeur Général of the Haitian National Police (HNP), and other HNP officials. Records of the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) are made up of internal audit reports prepared by the Resident Auditor on road improvements, services contracts, Press Section equipment, disbursements charged to MICIVIH, rations purchasing, cost-benefits of using helicopters to patrol Port-au-Prince, and other topics.

United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH)
Enrique ter Horst served as Head of Mission and Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG). The UNTMIH records consist of: Force Standing Operating Procedures and amendments; weekly summaries of activities, about institution building, human rights promotion activities, meetings, the economic and social development of Haiti, etc.; and a 13 August 1997 UNTMIH Military Campaign Plan. Records of the UNTMIH Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) consist of reports from an external audit conducted by the Audit and Management Consulting Division of the United Nations Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) in 1997. The audit covered financial and cash management, funding for trust funds for the enhancement of mission capacity, liquidation planning and disposal of assets, asset management, procurement procedures, the Local Property Survey Board, deployment of CIVPOL members, and a new contingent-owned equipment lease system.

United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)
The Head of Mission and Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) was Julian Harston, who was succeeded by RSG Alfredo Lopes Cabral in October 1999.

The records of the Office of the RSG (ORSG) contain incoming and outgoing code cables and correspondence, exchanged between the RSG and Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations at United Nations Headquarters in New York.

Notable cables include: draft reports by the Secretary-General about MIPONUH; and In Brief reports prepared by Bernard Miyet, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG), detailing key developments in UN-wide peacekeeping operations and related world events. Other cables and situation reports discuss: activities of President René Préval, including his 1999 dissolution of the parliament and subsequent rule by decree; meetings of the Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) with government ministers; activities of the government as reported in the Haitian press; activities of the Provisional Electoral Council (CEP); financial, logistics, and monitoring support for elections provided in part by the United Nations Development Fund (UNDP) and the international community; incidents reported by the Civilian Police and by the Haitian National Police (HNP); anticipated Y2K security issues; CIVPOL training for the HNP on judiciary procedure, the functions of police chiefs, community policing, crowd control, traffic code implementation, and investigative techniques; activities of and viewpoints of members of political parties, such as Fanmi Lavalas, the National Committee of the Congress of Democratic Organizations (KONAKOM), and the Papay Peasant Movement (MPP); and arrangements for mission security.

The records of the ORSG also contain memoranda covering topics such as the Rules of Engagement (ROE) for the United Nations Special Police; developments surrounding the elections of 19 March 2000; the activities of the Civilian Police; and the liquidation of the mission. There are also memoranda and pamphlets sent to the RSG by political parties, primarily the Struggling People’s Organization (OPL).

In addition, there are End of Mission reports, mission terms of reference, administrative instructions, updates of the Security Plan for Haiti, a December 1999 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) report on the economic and social situation of Haiti, and an October 1999 copy of “MIPONUH Flying Orders and Standard Operating Procedures.”

International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH)
Alfredo Lopes Cabral served as the Head of Mission and Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) for the duration of the mission. The records of the Office of the RSG (ORSG) consist of incoming and outgoing code cables exchanged between the RSG and Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Kieran Prendergast at United Nations Headquarters in New York. Additionally, there are daily, weekly and monthly situation reports forwarded from the mission to United Nations headquarters.

The code cables and situation reports cover: meetings attended by the RSG with representatives of the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Group of Friends of Haiti; activities of Jean-Bertrand Aristide in garnering support for his government and cultivating opportunities for dialogue and confidence building; the activities of Fanmi Lavalas, the political party that supported Aristide, and Convergence Démocratique, a political coalition created in 2000 to oppose Aristide; preparations and security incidents related to the parliamentary and municipal elections held in 21 May 2000, and the presidential and senatorial elections held 26 November 2000; conspiracy activities and plots to overthrow the Haitian government and to eliminate President René Préval and Jean-Bertrand Aristide; and politically-motivated security incidents, such as bombings, violence targeted at political candidates, and armed clashes between rival political groups and rival gangs. Included among code cables are: summaries of meetings between the RSG and Haitian government ministers, and between the RSG and political party representatives; and periodic threat assessments detailing the security and safety situation in Haiti with regard to infrastructure, economic activities, public order and criminality, and public demonstrations.

Also present in the records of the ORSG are: End of Mission reports; daily itineraries of the RSG; correspondence between the RSG and representatives of political parties, including position statements and programme outlines; and Action Plans for the development of the Haitian National Police (HNP).

Memoranda exchanged between the RSG and the Chiefs of the Police Section, Justice Section, and Human Rights Section are also included. Notable memoranda from of the Police Section concern the massacre on 22 April 1994 in the neighbourhood of Raboteau in Gonaives, Haiti; and minutes of meetings between the director of the HNP and the MICAH Chief of the Police Section sent to the RSG. Memoranda from the Human Rights Section describe the objectives and structure of the Section, and include a Diagnostic Report on the Respect of Human Rights by the HNP and a draft report, dated September 2000, on the high-profile trial of several police officers accused of executing eleven civilians in the Carrefour-Feuilles neighbourhood of Port-au-Prince in May 1999. The records also include work plans of the Police Pillar, the Justice Pillar and the Human Rights Pillar.

Human Rights

International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
Ian Martin served as Deputy Executive Director and Director for the Human Rights Division from the start of the mission to July 1995; Rodolfo Mattarrollo served as Deputy Executive Director and Director for the Human Rights Division ad interim from August 1995 to October 1995; and Javier Zuniga served as Deputy Executive Director and Director for the Human Rights Division starting in October 1995. Anne Fuller replaced Javier Zuniga as Chief of Section from 1996 through 1999. In late 1995, the Division was restructured and became the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights Section (PPHR).

Records of the Human Rights Division consist of: analyses of the role of MICIVIH in the promotion of human rights; training and orientation materials for incoming mission personnel about the history of Haiti, the MICIVIH mandate, and the conduct of human rights investigations; final reports and overviews of the human rights situation in departments and major cities; chronological surveys of human rights violations forwarded to the United Nations Secretary-General; briefs describing the Division’s work with local and international non-governmental organizations; summaries of meetings held between MICIVIH officials and representatives of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH). A report authored by MICIVIH in May 1996, titled “Haiti: Human Rights and the Rehabilitation of Victims” describes the work of the Medical Unit and its collaboration with non-governmental organizations in providing assistance (medical and psychological) to victims of torture and political repression.

The chronological files and memoranda of the Director of the Human Rights Division, Ian Martin, consist of: administrative circulars; weekly executive summaries that describe the investigation and monitoring activities of the Human Rights Division, the security situation in Haiti, and MICIVIH’s collaboration with the National Truth and Justice Commission (CNVJ); and periodic reports about the human rights situation in Haiti, which note pending arrest warrants, the progress of criminal trials, killings and degrading treatment carried out by officers of the Haitian National Police (HNP) and armed forces, and violence carried out in the context of elections.

Records of the Human Rights Division also include: briefs about displaced persons in Haiti and asylum seekers; lists and analyses about cases of forced disappearances; and reports describing incidences of summary executions. There are also briefs describing the state of freedom of the press and the radio, and the violence and repression experienced by Haitian journalists, photographers, and radio broadcasters. These reports document: the confiscation and destruction of radio broadcast equipment; threats received by journalists; and journalists’ experiences being forced into hiding, and being captured, beaten, and tortured. Included are summaries of interviews carried out by MICIVIH staff with local Haitian journalists, and updates about the condition of journalists known to be persecuted and in hiding. Also included are notes on meetings between MICIVIH staff and the Haitian Minister of Information.

There are also documents prepared by Desk Officers at MICIVIH’s regional bases throughout Haiti and forwarded to the Director of the Human Rights Division and the Executive Director. Desk Officers’ records consist of: chronologies of incidents of human rights violations occurring in towns and communes; background information gathered by Human Rights Observers about cases of human rights violations; summaries of interviews with victims; memoranda detailing the arrests of perpetrators; briefs about public demonstrations; summaries of Human Rights Observers’ meetings with mayors and other local authorities; and summaries of Observers’ visits to towns and prisons.

Records of the Human Rights Division also document the work of the Division’s Investigations Unit. The files primarily consist of dossiers of human rights violations reported to MICIVIH and allegedly perpetrated by members of the FADH or armed civilian groups. Violations include: beatings; illegal arrest and detention; intimidation and death threats; rape; extra-judicial executions; and shootings and machete killings. Memoranda of the Investigation Unit detail cases of abductions, forced disappearances and discoveries of cadavers. Additionally, there are memoranda about individuals’ asylum status prepared by MICIVH and sent to the International Organization for Migration (OIM).

Also included are records of MICIVIH’s Protection and Promotion of Human Rights Section (PPHR), which was tasked with: planning and producing human rights educational material; executing training seminars on human rights, civic education, and conflict resolution; and reinforcing the human rights monitoring capacity of government institutions and human rights non-governmental organizations.

Records of the PPHR include weekly reports that detail seminars conducted by the PPHR, meetings between PPHR personnel and representatives of Haitian government ministries and non-governmental organizations, and media activities about human rights carried out in collaboration with the mission’s Press and Information Unit. There are also yearly evaluations of human rights promotion and civic education activities and outlines of priorities for the Section, as well as monthly activity tables for the PPHR Section. Summaries of seminars describe the audience, subjects covered, the performance quality of the seminar leader and guest speakers, and audience impressions. Seminars were targeted at demographics such as women, professions such as teachers, and groups such as members of a church or organization. Seminars covered children’s rights, the structure of local government, the Constitution of Haiti, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the judicial system, and the police. Local officials, lawyers, judges, human rights activists, or police officers often participated as guest speakers.

PPHR records also include: strategy papers on human rights promotion authored by MICIVIH personnel; outlines of human rights and civic education campaigns; draft sketches and text for posters and leaflets in French and Creole; letters and program brochures documenting MICVIH’s work with Haitian cultural organizations to promote human rights education; and profiles of the public and private sectors, and religious institutions, and non-governmental organizations in Haiti. Records also document the Section’s planning for cultural projects and events about human rights and civics. Cultural events included plays, radio spots, art contests, poetry, a travelling exhibit on human rights displayed from 2-11 September 1998, the celebration of Human Rights Day (December 10), and the celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Records of the MICIVIH’s Protection and Promotion of Human Rights Section (PPHR) also include final reports about technical assistance MICIVIH provided to the Office de la Protection du Citoyen (OPC). These reports were prepared by the MICIVIH Deputy Executive Director and by international consultants assigned to the OPC. The Office de la Protection du Citoyen (OPC) was an independent institution mandated in the Haitian Constitution of 1987 that was set up to protect citizens against abuse by the government. The institution was revitalized in 1997 after receiving international donor aid and MICIVIH’s technical assistance. Included are draft and final reports, as well as correspondence between MICIVIH staff and Dr. Louis E. Roy, the Protecteur du Citoyen. The reports address a variety of topics, including: the role of MICIVH, the Haitian constitution and the protection of human rights, and cooperation between Haiti and international organizations in the protection of human rights. There are also reports, prepared by consultants, about a seminar on the challenges and dilemmas faced by the OPC, which was held from 4-6 March 1998. Additionally, there are organization charts of the Office de la Protection du Citoyen (OPC); action plans of the OPC; and an annual report of the OPC’s first year.

In addition, there are records documenting the work of the Inter-NGO Working Group for Visitation of Prisons and Places of Police Custody, which MICIVIH created to increase the effectiveness of non-governmental organizations in overseeing the protection of human rights in prisons and detention centers. These files contain: strategy proposals and discussion plans, summaries of meetings and seminars, and activity outlines. Also present are operational memoranda, statements of purpose, discussion papers, and project summaries documenting MICIVIH’s collaboration with a wide variety of local NGO’s, including the Assistance to Victims of Violence Movement (MAPVIV), Platform of Haitian Human Rights Organizations (POHDH), and Community Organization for Rural Development (OCODER).

MICIVIH’s Human Rights Observers operated from bases throughout Haiti, and their records consist primarily of investigations of human rights violations. Included are memoranda describing Observers’ visits to court houses, city halls, commissariats, military casernes (barracks), churches, and citizens’ residences in towns and communes, and their interactions with local authorities and victims about the status of past and current violations. There are also case/incident reports and follow-up forms with attachments, including witness statements, medical records, and photographs of victims’ injuries. Many incidents are identified in the documentation with base-specific case numbers that can be referenced for further documentation in S-1880. Violations investigated include: arbitrary and summary execution, forced disappearances, politically-motivated torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, cruel and inhuman treatment, death threats and intimidation, and the destruction of citizens’ residences and property. Observers also investigated cases of citizens in marronage (hiding). The records also include statistics on types of human rights violations.

Prison visitation was carried out by teams of Human Rights Observers to assess: the conditions of detention; the state of prisoners; the respect for human rights in prisons; and the procedures followed by the authorities for imprisonment. The prison visit summaries often include the names of prisoners, and detail interviews with prisoners and circumstances of their detention.

Base records also document Observers’ monitoring of land conflicts, legal and sometimes violent disputes over conflicting claims to land ownership resulting from political instability. Records include reports summarizing interviews with disputants, judges, local officials, and members of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH) or Multinational Force (MNF). There are also memoranda about MICIVIH providing training in conflict resolution to those involved in land conflicts.

Records originating from bases also document coordination between MICIVIH and the National Truth and Justice Commission (CNVJ), which was formed by President Jean-Bertrand Aristide in December 1994. Records include memoranda exchanged between the President of the CNVJ, the CNVJ Working Group, the MICIVIH Liaison to the CNVJ, and the Executive Director of MICIVIH on the establishment of the CNVJ and its relationship with MICIVIH. Topics include finding international experts to serve on the CNVJ and the possibility of MICIVIH providing technical, logistical, or financial support to the CNVJ. There are also Observers’ reports on the CNVJ’s activities, and on the 17 December 1994 Presidential Decree establishing the CNVJ and announcing its mandate. Additionally, there are: the CNVJ’s requests for case dossiers on human rights violations investigated by MICIVIH; file transfer authorization forms signed by the victim or his or her family; lists of sent case dossiers; and case dossiers, with information summaries and attachments.

International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH)
MICAH’s Human Rights Section was tasked to: work with state agencies, local non-governmental organizations and civil society to increase respect for human rights; and to provide theoretical and practical training on human rights to institutions and the local population. The Human Rights Section was headed by a Chief, and consisted of: a Capacity-Building/NGO Team, a Civil Society Team, a Verification Team, a Training Coordinator, and a Human Rights Legal Advisor. Headquartered in Port-au-Prince, the Section also set up and oversaw three Human Rights Regional Teams which were stationed in the cities of Gonaives, Les Cayes, and Cap Haitien. Additionally, advisors were assigned to: the Law and Human Rights Section of the Police Academy, known in French as the Direction des Écoles et de la Formation Permanente de la Police Nationale d’Haiti (PNH); the Inspection Générale de la Police Nationale d’Haiti (IGPNH); and the Office de la Protection du Citoyen (OPC).

Records of the Human Rights Section include: End of Mission Reports prepared by the Chief and by Section Teams; briefs on the mandate of the Human Rights Section; terms of reference and work plans for the Human Rights Section staff; and discussion papers and reports about the justice system in Haiti, the human rights record of the Haitian National Police (HNP), and the state of prisons in Haiti.

Weekly reports of the Human Rights Section note: field trips undertaken by staff; investigations carried out by Human Rights Advisors on incidents of human rights abuses, arrests, detentions and criminal trials; interviews conducted by Human Rights Advisors with police, judicial, and prison officials, representatives of local human rights organizations, and Haitian citizens; assessments of local police stations; and celebrations of international commemorative days led with the local population to raise awareness of human rights. The weekly reports also note training activities carried out by the Section with: the Police Academy, the Director of Studies at the École de la Magistrature; and non-governmental organizations.

Records of the Monitoring Team include diagnostic reports about the respect of human rights within the Haitian Nation Police (HNP), as observed by advisors within departments and at local commissariats in communes. There is also a file on the trial of a police chief and several officers accused of killing eleven civilians in the Carrefour-Feuilles area of Port-au-Prince in the wake of a demonstration on 28 May 1999. Records of the Civil Society Team consist of a final report and project programmes outlining the Team’s work in promoting a culture of peace and respect for human dignity. There are memoranda and correspondence relating to: a writing contest held in 2000 for young people between the ages of 15-23; and the promotion of human rights around several commemorative days, including the International Day of Peace on 5 September 2000, the International Day of Tolerance on 16 November 2000, and the International Day Against Violence Against Women on 25 November 2000. Records of the Human Rights Section’s Regional Teams in Gonaives, Cap Haitien, and Les Cayes consist of the teams’ final reports; and weekly reports with updates on cases of human rights violations being investigated and details of meetings with local government authorities and representatives of non-governmental organizations.

Human resources – Health, welfare – Medical team regional visits

International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
Records in S-1878 document the work of the MICIVIH Medical Unit, which was established in June 1993 to complement the work of Observers, who conducted investigations of human rights violations throughout Haiti. The Medical Unit operated under the authority of MICIVIH’s Director of Human Rights. The Unit treated victims of human rights violations and provided medical documentation of abuses for use in criminal trials. The Unit also documented the health and hygienic conditions in Haitian prisons, and the health of prison inmates in the context of human rights observation. Additionally, the Unit made recommendations for the rehabilitation of the Haitian medical infrastructure.

The files contain a variety of reports prepared by the Medical Unit. One dating from 1995 offers recommendations to the National Truth and Justice Commission (CNVJ) about victims of human rights abuses. The monthly reports describe: activities of the Medical Unit in specific departments; the Unit’s work with the French non-governmental organization Médecins du Monde (MDM); and updates about victims interviewed or treated by Unit personnel.
Reports on medical examinations of victims of human rights violations include information about the incident; the category of violation; clinical observations of the victim; medical treatment history; and the victim’s long-term medical ailments.

The reports prepared by the Medical Unit also describe visits to prisons. These reports note: the hygienic and sanitary conditions in prison cells, showers, latrines, and kitchens; the health status of prisoners with acute conditions; disease outbreak; the supply of medicines and medical equipment; and interviews with prison authorities about medical treatment practices.

Other records include: the terms of reference for the Medical Unit; summaries of meetings of the Medical Unit; discussion papers about human rights, medical ethics, and mental health; and lists of victims and case descriptions. Statistics on the work of the Medical Unit note the ages and gender of victims treated, and the category of human rights violations. Violations include: illegal arrest and detention; forced disappearance; cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment; torture; death threats and attempted murder; intimidation; rape; and violation of the right to free movement.

There are also photocopies of the emergency room and morgue registries dating from 1992-1994 from the Hôpital d l'Universite d'Etat d'Haiti (HUEH) located in Port-au-Prince. These list the names and ages of individuals admitted, date of admittance, and injuries.

Human rights - Investigation and verification

International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
S-1880 consists of case files for human rights violations investigated by MICIVIH Human Rights Observers stationed at bases throughout Haiti from 1993 to 2000. The case files are arranged geographically by base, and then by number. A three-letter series prefix indicates the base. Each series of case files is accompanied by lists of case numbers with the name of the victim, date, location, and type of human rights violation. Violations and incidents investigated include: cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment; torture; murders and shootings; rape; illegal arrest, detention and imprisonment; illegal house searches; destruction of property; false criminal accusations; excessive use of force by members of the Haitian National Police (HNP); intimidation and death threats; extortion; threats to freedom of speech and association; popular justice killings; marronage (hiding); and land conflicts.

The case files for some series consist of a brief intake or incident reporting form, with basic facts about the incident and victim. In other series, the case files contain documentation about the case, compiled by MICIVIH Observers, such as: memoranda drafted by Observers, statements submitted by the victim, correspondence about the incident from various Haitian authorities; assessment reports about the victim prepared by MICIVIH’s Medical Unit, and photographs of the victim’s injuries.

Judicial and Legal Systems

International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
S-1876 contains records of MICIVIH’s Section des Affaires Juridiques et du Renforcement Institutionnel (SAJRI). SAJRI was tasked with: advising the Haitian justice system on legal and administrative measures in order to improve respect for law and legal procedures; assisting courts and prosecutors’ offices in correctly applying criminal prosecution; strengthening judicial and police capacity to address systematic impunity; and training judicial officers on human rights issues and the administration of justice. Rodolfo Mattarollo served as Director of SAJRI and as Deputy Executive Director of MICIVIH.

A large number of MICIVIH files document the technical assistance provided by MICIVIH at the request of the Government of Haiti for the trials of those convicted in the Raboteau massacre, which took place in the town of Raboteau, Gonaives, in northern Haiti between 18-22 April 1994. During a four-day period, members of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH) and the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH) raided homes and beat, tortured, and killed an unknown number of pro-democracy supporters of Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

Records pertaining to the Raboteau massacre consist of: summaries drafted by MICIVIH Observers which describe the town of Gonaives and its hospital in the days immediately following the massacre; witness testimony collected by MICIVIH Observers; summaries of visits by MICIVIH personnel to courts in Gonaives and briefs about court proceedings and the progress of trials; letters exchanged between the MICIVIH Executive Director and the Bureau de Coordination, Préparation de Procès du Massacre de Raboteau, Gonaives, of Haiti’s Ministry of Justice and Public Security; documents issued by both the Cabinet d'Instruction du Tribunal Civil des Gonaives and the Cour d’Appel des Gonaives; legal complaints by or on behalf of victims of the massacre; and lists of victims and perpetrators. There are also profiles gathered by MICIVIH Observers describing the human rights violations suffered by victims during the massacre, and background information about the perpetrators.

Also included are records documenting a ten-day mission to Raboteau from 24 July - 7 August 1999 by two military experts secured by MICIVIH, Colonel Horacio Pantaléon Ballester and Colonel José Luis García. Included are the experts’ draft and final reports prepared for the leading prosecutor (Juge d’Instruction) for the Tribunal Civil des Gonaives, Me. Jean Sénat Fleury. The reports analyze the structure and accountability of the Haitian military chain of command, the climate of repression, and the implication of military leaders in the events of 18-22 April 1994.

Other MICIVIH files relate to a lengthy report by MICIVIH officials titled "La lutte contre l'impunité et pour la reparation en Haiti" (The Fight Against Impunity and for Reparations in Haiti). The report identified the causes of impunity and examined the failure of the Government of Haiti to provide justice to victims of human rights violations that occurred during the coup d’etat period from 1991 to 1994. The report analyzed and presented statistics about the state of impunity evident in legal proceedings in five jurisdictions in Haiti – Hinche, Gonaives, Mirebalais, Port-au-Prince, and Saint Marc. Also covered in the report are the efforts made in the fight against impunity by Haitian civil society and the international community. MICIVIH’s recommendations in the areas of judicial reform, the promotion of the rule of law, and the respect for human rights are also discussed in the report. The report, based on three years of research, was released on 28 September 1999, the eve of the eighth anniversary of the coup d’etat of 29 September 1991. An earlier version of the report was presented to the Government of Haiti in May 1999.

Records pertaining to the 1999 report on impunity include lists of violations of human rights committed against Haitian civilians during the de facto regime, and lists of people in the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH) and the former Haitian Armed Forces (FADH) suspected of carrying out human rights violations. The location, date and type of violation is also indicated. There is also correspondence between MICIVIH officials and representatives of non-governmental organizations, particularly the Haitian non-governmental organization Assistance to Victims of Violence Movement (MAPVIV). Questionnaires providing factual data about victims are also included. These were used for the compilation of statistics for the report. A large volume of questionnaires are about victims residing in the town of Gonaives who suffered human rights violations primarily in the years preceding the massacre in Raboteau on 18-22 April 1994.

SAJRI also monitored prominent cases of impunity involving Haitian civilians and high-profile Haitian political and military figures, including: Jean-Claude Duvalier, the former President of Haiti; Justice Minister Guy Malary, who was assassinated on 14 October 1993; Emmanuel Constant, the founder of the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haïti (FRAPH); and Antoine Izméry, a prominent Haitian businessman and pro-democracy activist who was assassinated on 11 September 1993. These records consist of: fact sheets and case summaries; medical reports about victims; aide memoire commenting on major developments in the case, such as the arrest and deportation of suspects; summaries of assizes (trials) observed by MICIVIH officials; summaries of meetings between MICIVIH officials and judges (Juges d’Instruction); copies of legal documents pertaining to the cases, such as court proceedings, arrest warrants, and witness testimony; hand-drawn maps of crime scenes; eye-witness accounts of events; and articles from the Haitian and international press about the cases.

SAJRI’s efforts to promote awareness of habeas corpus are documented in: memoranda on the legal evolution of habeas corpus in the Haitian Constitution; research on the application of habeas corpus in Haiti; a MICIVIH pamphlet “Le Recours pour la protection de la liberté individuelle dans la Constitution de 1987,” dated September 1998; and a speech which was broadcast on Radio Haiti by Rodolfo Mattarollo, Director of SAJRI and Deputy Executive Director of MICIVIH. The records also document a round-table debate about habeas corpus and individual liberties held on 6 April 1999 at the École de la Magistrature. Participants included the Minister of Justice, the Haitian National Police (HNP) Inspector General, the Director of the Haitian Prisons Administration Directorate (DAP), representatives of NGOs, and MICIVIH staff members. The event featured a panel discussion between MICIVIH's Deputy Director and MICIVIH consultants (historian Claude Moïse and former Justice Minister Me Jean Joseph Exumé).

MICIVIH records also document SAJRI’s information-sharing with the Criminal Investigation Brigade of the Haitian National Police (HNP). Set up in October 1995, the brigade received case investigation files from MICIVIH via the UNMIH Civilian Police. The investigations are primarily about assassinations, including the assassinations of several prominent individuals: Antoine Izméry, a pro-democracy activist, on 11 September 1993; Mireille Durocher Bertin, an anti-Aristide lawyer, on 28 March 1995; and Jean Hubert Feuille, former bodyguard of Jean-Bertrand Aristide and Deputy of Port-Salut, on 7 November 1995. There is also accompanying documentation about the transmission of cases via CIVPOL, as well as press material and reports about violent crimes committed by members of the illegal paramilitary organization Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH).

The records relating to the National Truth and Justice Commission (CNVJ) primarily consist of case files for investigations of human rights violations perpetrated during the de facto regime between 29 September 1991 and 15 October 1994. The human rights violations include violations of individual rights such as the right to life, freedom, and security; violations of public rights such as freedom of expression; and violations of judicial rights such as the right to a fair trial. The incidents covered include rape, murder, assault, arrests without a warrant, torture, death threats, prevention of peaceful public demonstrations, and illegal imprisonment. Organized by geographical location, the case files consist of final reports, testimonies, medical and forensic anthropology reports, and memoranda prepared by Observers and base staff investigating complaints. Some case files contain memoranda about the transfer of the file from MICIVIH to the CNVJ.

There are also memoranda about: the creation of the CNVJ in December 1994 by an executive order issued by Jean-Bertrand Aristide; joint CNVJ and MICIVIH investigative field trips; base staff and Observers assisting with CNVJ case investigations; and the provision for technical assistance to the CNVJ.

There are also records documenting the work of forensic anthropology consultants secured from 1995 to 1998 by MICIVIH at the request of the National Truth and Justice Commission (CNVJ) and the Haitian Ministry of Justice and Public Security. The consultants provided training in the use of forensic sciences to members of the Ministry of Justice and Public Security and the Haitian judiciary, and assisted in the investigation and judicial proceedings of the Raboteau massacre. Records consist of: Terms of Reference for the forensic anthropology consultants; correspondence between MICIVIH personnel and the consultants; summaries of DNA analysis performed on the remains of Raboteau victims; and final reports for field investigations carried out by the forensic anthropology consultants in 1997 and 1998. A separate report dating from November 1995 presents the consultants’ findings on investigations carried out in various locations in Haiti, including Raboteau, Gonaives, of incidents of human rights violations which occurred from 1991 to 1994 during the de facto regime.

The records of SAJRI’s Legal Officer Chris Thomas primarily relate to the Section’s oversight of Haitian prison administration. The Legal Officer’s correspondence, often exchanged with the Director of SAJRI and Regional Coordinators, concerns a variety of topics, including: prisoners released from the National Penitentiary, prisoners arrested without warrants, meetings with the Haitian Director of Judicial Affairs about prisoner deaths, trials, and foreign nationals in detention. There are also letters sent to Thomas by prisoners. Summaries of meetings of the Commission des Affaires Pénitentiaires (CAP) describe audits of the DAP and the investigation of human rights violations on the part of prison staff. There are also summaries of meetings between MICIVIH officials and representatives of the Office to Control Pre-Trial Detention (BUCODEP) of the National Penitentiary, law faculty, and Checchi and Company Consulting, Inc. Meeting minutes of the Mixed Working Group on the Problem of Prison Overpopulation concern research on lasting solutions to prison crowding. Lists of prisoners contain information about the gender, age, infraction, date of arrival, and sentence.

Summaries of the Legal Officer’s meetings with representatives of DAP and the National Penitentiary Administration (APENA) are also included. These cover issues such as collective warrants, proper prison documentation, recruitment of prison staff, prison escapes, human rights violations experienced by prisoners, repercussions for guards maltreating prisoners, the development of internal prison regulations, prison security, the requisition of prison supplies, and establishing radio communication between prisons. Also included are program outlines, manuals, and regulations developed by DAP and APENA and collected and reviewed by SAJRI.

The records of SAJRI’s Penal Reform Officer Heiner Rosendahl include memoranda, meeting summaries, and reports. The memoranda were primarily exchanged between Rosendahl, and: the Director of SAJRI, the Director for Human Rights, and the Director of the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights Section (PPHR). They concern such topics as negotiation with the National Penitentiary Administration (APENA) staff, the establishment of APENA, releases of prisoners from the National Penitentiary, transfers of prisoners between prisons, corruption in the National Penitentiary’s security system, training and selection of prison wardens and staff, physical renovation of prisons, beatings of prison detainees by APENA officers, and hunger strikes by former Haitian Armed Forces (FADH) prisoners. There are summaries detailing meetings of the Prisons Steering Committee, which was comprised of representatives of MICIVIH, various Haitian agencies and NGOs. Rosendahl’s reports, some of which were forwarded to the Secretary-General for his reports to the General Assembly, cover: the standardization of prison documentation, prison nutrition and health care, human rights violations in prisons, medical conditions of prisoners, and prison crowding in individual prisons.

SAJRI files also include records originating from bases which pertain to MICIHIV-led judicial oversight and reform. Prepared by Observers, they consist of: briefs and reports describing the general state and organization of the judiciary throughout the department; plans for judicial reform; memoranda about the legal developments in cases being monitored by MICIVIH Observers, describing arrests, transfers and releases of detainees from prison, and decisions to refer cases to trial; profiles of cases awaiting trial; lists of judicial personnel present in communes; and organization charts of the Haitian court system.

MICIVIH base Observers’ records also include summaries of visits conducted to criminal assizes (assises criminelles) and tribunals (tribunaux de paix) in communes. These describe: the general functioning and atmosphere of the trial or hearing; the demeanor of judges and attorneys; the jury; arguments, testimony and cross-examination; the evidence; sentencing; the security presence inside and outside of courtrooms; and the public reaction to the cases. Additionally, there are summaries of Observers’ meetings with judicial personnel, including the Commissaire du Gouvernement, juges d'instruction, juges de paix, and doyen, regarding the functioning of the judiciary in communes, inaction on cases, and other obstructions in the judicial process. Crimes include murder, rape, armed robbery, illegal detention, beating and torture, conspiracy against the state, drug trafficking, extortion, infanticide, poisoning, forced evictions, and theft of property, cattle and goats. Also present are copies of legal proceedings obtained by MICIVIH.

There are also outlines and briefs about training seminars led by MICIVIH Observers for judicial, police, and prison personnel, and journalists. The seminars dealt with judicial reform topics such as: the application of the law, the preventive detention process, provisional release of detainees, and the rights of minors.

Of note are memoranda prepared by Observers stationed in Base 2 in Gonaives, which describe the legal proceedings involving Castera Cenafils, the former Captain of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), and other individuals on trial for the massacre of civilians in Raboteau on 18-22 April 1994. Included are Castera Cenafils’ handwritten letters sent to judicial personnel in 1996 and 1997.

International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH)
S-1876 also includes records of the MICAH’s Justice Section, which was tasked with assisting the Haitian authorities in reforming and strengthening the judicial system. Notable records of the Justice Section consist of: a report on the organization and structure of the Prisons Administration Directorate (DAP); a MICAH report, dating January 2000, about the Unit for the Protection of Women and Minors in Detention of the DAP; reports covering MICAH’s Projet d’Appui aux Juridictions; a summary, of the indictments from trials carried out in the latter half of 2000 for the Raboteau massacre of 18-22 April 1994, dated 20 October 2000 and prepared by a technical advisor for MICAH; and the End of Mission Report of the Justice Section.

Law Enforcement

International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
MICIVIH Observers stationed in bases throughout Haiti monitored the activities and human rights abuses of the Interim Public Security Force (IPSF), active from December 1994 to December 1995, and the new professional, non-military Haitian National Police (HNP), deployed in June 1995. Observers also conducted seminars on a variety of topics for the HNP. In addition to monitoring the deployment of the Haitian National Police (HNP), Observers monitored elements affecting the state of security in their areas of responsibility, including other police forces, criminal activity, public unrest, and threats to MICIVIH personnel at bases.

Records relating to the HNP include: decrees and laws pertaining to the establishment of the HNP; internal regulations; organizational charts; minutes of meetings with HNP leadership such as Departmental Directors; reports authored by Observers on the state of the HNP; statistics on deployment; and memoranda on perceptions of the HNP by the local population.

There are also reports, agenda, and invitations relating to MICIVIH-led training seminars for the HNP. Seminar topics include: police ethics, community policing techniques, conflict resolution, international treaties that protect human rights, relations with local government officials, maintaining public order, and human rights non-governmental organizations (NGO). In addition, memoranda between HNP officers and MICIVIH civic education staff discuss police involvement in seminars about their work directed to the civilian population.

Investigation reports by Observers detail alleged abuses of authority and violations of human rights perpetrated by police officers, including: bribery; shootings; brutality against detainees in custody or during interrogation; and undue use of force in arrests and public demonstrations. Memoranda authored by Observers discuss the HNP’s internal disciplinary mechanisms for police officers accused of abuses and the Inspection Générale de la Police Nationale d’Haiti (IGPNH)’s role in assuring compliance with police regulations and evaluating the force’s effectiveness. There are also copies of MICIVIH’s July 1996 investigation report "Haitian National Police (HNP) and Human Rights” in English and in French.

Reports prepared by Observers about visits to police commissariats in communes and towns describe: conditions in custody cells (garde-à-vue) at commissariats; detainees’ reasons for arrest and related judicial proceedings; summaries of interviews conducted by Observers with detainees about their treatment by police and judicial authorities; the maintenance of the registre de retention; meetings with police commissioners (commissaires); and irregularities in the functioning of the police station.

Other available records include memoranda prepared by Observers about such topics as: local criminal activity, including murder, assassination, and assault; public unrest such as political demonstrations and riots; acts of popular justice; and threats to the safety of Observers and base personnel by the military, the police, and civilians. Some of the memoranda detail the activities of armed groups that conducted policing activities but had no legal status as police forces, such as voluntary and communal police forces, as well as vigilance brigades established locally by civilians. There are minutes of meetings with vigilance brigade leaders, working papers on the history of vigilance brigades, and profiles of a few of the vigilance brigades based on interviews with their members. These profiles detail brigade history, frequency of arrests, arms caches, political affiliations, and alleged human rights abuses. In addition, there are base security plans and analyses of the department’s security situation.

United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)
Included in S-1867 are records of the MIPONUH Civilian Police (CIVPOL), headquartered in Port-au-Prince. Among individuals serving as Police Commissioner during the mission were: Colonel Jean Claude Laparra (December 1997 - March 1998); Colonel Claude Grude (April 1998 - May 1999); and Colonel George Gabbardo (June 1999 - March 2000). The records consist of: outgoing correspondence from the CIVPOL Commissioner to the RSG or to Chiefs of CIVPOL detachments; summaries of weekly CIVPOL meetings, chaired by the Commissioner; and detachment evacuation plans. Weekly syntheses, sent from the Commissioner to the CIVPOL unit at the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) in New York, describe: public demonstrations and major security incidents throughout the country, activities of the Haitian National Police (HNP), and activities of CIVPOL. The weekly syntheses are accompanied by tables noting the weekly training activities carried out by MIPONUH on subjects including: the conduct of searches and seizures, arrest and handcuffing procedures, the handling of firearms, investigation techniques, and traffic accidents. The records also contain directives describing the execution of the MIPONUH mandate and the Commissioner’s End of Mission report dating from March 2000. The MIPONUH programmes for police training are also present in the records, and they outline the duties of the Police Chief; diverse topics in law enforcement and the investigation of crime; traffic policing; and first aid.

International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH)
Also included in S-1867 are records of the MICAH Police Section. Staff of the Police Section, led by Chief of the Police Section Yves Bouchard, served as Technical Advisors to the Haitian National Police (HNP). In cooperation with Haitian government institutions, they advised the HNP on issues of justice, human rights, and the reform of procedures for criminal investigations and the prosecution system. Police Section Technical Advisors served in the HNP’s Direction Générale, Direction Départementales (Department-level HNP offices), and other administrative divisions of the HNP. In support of the Haitian National Police (HNP), the Police Section collaborated with the United States Department of Justice’s International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) and with programs run by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).

Police Section records include: an information manual for technical advisors consisting of reference material about the history, structure, and regulations of the HNP, MICAH, and Police Section; HNP security plans; and memoranda exchanged between the Chief of Police, Technical Advisors, the Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG), the Directeur Général of the HNP, and other mission staff and HNP officials.

Records authored by Technical Advisors assigned to the HNP’s Direction Générale, Direction Départementales, and other administrative divisions of the HNP consist of: visit reports, action plans, periodic reports, technical reports, and end of mission reports. Other notable records of the Technical Advisors include: “Redéfiniton des Missions des Agents aux Postes Fixes et aux Postes Mobiles du Service Aeroportuaire” authored by the Technical Advisor to the Commissaire de Police de l’Aeroport International de Port-au-Prince; a report on traffic in Cap Haitien authored by the Technical Advisor to the Direction de la Circulation des Vehicules et de la Police Routier; “État des Lieux Affecte a la Direction du Personnel de la DGPNH,” which was authored by the Technical Advisor to the Direction du Personnel; and a table detailing human rights violations forwarded to the Technical Advisor to the Inspection Générale de la Police Nationale d’Haiti (IGPNH).


International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
The records consist of legal documents such as the lease agreement for MICIVIH and UNMIH office space, United Nations and Organization of American States (OAS) cost-sharing agreements, and a letter of agreement between the United Nations and the Haitian Provisional Electoral Council (CEP) providing the CEP with technical assistance and funds. There are memoranda concerning Haitian law and the carrying of weapons and on the legal framework for disarmament in Haiti. The records also contain reports on preliminary investigations of incidents of violence involving the Haitian National Police (HNP) occurring in Cité Soleil in March 1996. Also present are summaries of coordination meetings of the Trilateral Commission for Justice, attended by representatives of the Government of Haiti, United States, and MICIVIH. Additionally, there are reports, correspondence and memoranda concerning the judicial and prison reform work of the Comité de Coordination des Bailleurs de Fonds (Coordinating Committee of Donors), which was chaired by MICIVIH Executive Director Colin Granderson. There is a program plan for the reform of the Haitian National Prison System, dated 1995. Memoranda on various types of audits carried out by the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) at headquarters on MICIVIH, UNMIH, UNSMIH, and MIPONUH are also included.

United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
Records primarily pertain to UNMIH legal matters and agreements. Included are: draft and final Status of Mission Agreements (SOMA) and extensions signed by UNMIH and the Government of Haiti; Status of Forces Agreements (SOFA) signed by UNMIH and the Government of Haiti; draft UNMIH Rules of Engagement (ROE); and agreements titled “Provision of Assistance between the United States and the United Nations” and “Agreement for the Return of Land by UNMIH to the Government of Haiti.” Additionally, there are memoranda evaluating the ROE and SOFAs. These were exchanged between the Legal Adviser, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, the Secretary-General, the Haitian Prime Minister, and the Canadian Ambassador. There are also Memoranda of Understanding (MOU), including an MOU made with the Government of Haiti on converting Fort National to a low-security prison. Another MOU, made with Telecommunications D’Haiti, focuses on reciprocal support in telecommunications tower projects. There are also model lease contracts, leases for Civilian Police (CIVPOL) headquarters and United Nations-occupied buildings, and a lease status report with details on continuing leases. Some memoranda concern the transfer of United States government leases to UNMIH, and the termination of leases at the expiry of the UNMIH mandate.

The files also contain correspondence, chronologies, subject files, reports and meeting materials.

There is outgoing correspondence written by the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) Lakhdar Brahimi and by Political Advisor Nicole Lannegrace and sent to members of the Government of Haiti and to Ambassadors of foreign countries. Memoranda authored by the Legal Adviser concern the extension of the UNMIH mandate by Security Council Resolution 1048 (1996), and other subjects. There are chronologies titled: “Decade in Haiti” (February 1986 -January 1996); and “Chronology of United Nations and Haiti” (September 1991 – November 1994).

The subject files contain information about: political parties; the National Truth and Justice Commission (CNVJ); the Haitian National Police (HNP); and the Haitian Ministry of Justice. The files hold diagnostic reports on justice, police, and prisons. The files on security have weekly threat assessments, and memoranda sent from the Security Advisor to SRSG Lakhdar Brahimi. The memoranda cover developments in the security situation in Haiti. UNMIH Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and the Police Commissioner’s Standing Orders are also included in the files.

The weekly reports summarize the activities and developments of the Trilateral Working Groups. The Working Groups were created to oversee advancement in areas such as: airport security; justice; human rights; prisons; police training; fire fighting; and presidential security. Trilateral Meetings between representatives of the Government of Haiti, UNMIH, and the United States are also documented. There are draft agenda, briefing documents, and notes for the record which summarize meetings and discuss the extension of the mission’s mandate.

United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH)
UNSMIH legal documents consist of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the United Nations and Canada regarding the country’s contribution of forces to the mission, and copies of lease agreements for UNSMIH office space. The records also contain files on the Haitian National Police (HNP), including memoranda evaluating the development of the HNP. Some agenda and summaries of monthly Trilateral Meetings are also present in the records. The meetings were attended by representatives of the Government of Haiti, Friends of the Secretary-General for Haiti (Argentina, Canada, France, the United States, Venezuela, and Chile) and UNSMIH.

United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH)
The records consist of legal documents such as the UNTMIH Rules of Engagement (ROE) and a lease agreement for headquarters. There also is a Military Campaign Plan for UNTMIH, with strategic guidance and military objectives, and several draft plans for the professionalization of the Haitian National Police (HNP).

United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)
The records consist of the Rules of Engagement (ROE) for the United Nations Special Police and a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the United Nations and Argentina, about contributions of forces to the mission. There are also memoranda about security and MIPONUH’s Security Plan for Haiti.

International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH)
The records consist of draft and final Status of Mission Agreements (SOMA) signed by MICAH and the Government of Haiti. Memoranda evaluating draft SOMAs were exchanged between the Legal Advisor, staff of the United Nations Department of Political Affairs, the Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) Alfredo Lopes Cabral, and the Haitian Minister of Foreign Affairs Fritz Longchamp. Additionally, there are working papers about cooperation between MICAH and the Government of Haiti, such as “Elements du Cadre de Cooperation,” February 2000. Also present is the MICAH End of Mission report, as well as final reports authored by MICAH’s technical advisor for prison administration, and by the technical advisor for the protection of women and minors in detention. Additional records include: United Nations Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) audit reports and related memoranda; Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) concerning contingent-owned equipment of countries that contributed troops to peacekeeping missions; and memoranda about United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) activities in Haiti.


International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
Records originating from MICIVIH’s bases reflect Observers’ relations with the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH), the Multinational Force (MNF), and the United States Special Forces (USSF). The records primarily consist of Observer-authored memoranda concerning: the USSF mandate regarding law enforcement and the Haitian judicial system; a shooting incident at a demonstration involving USSF on 22 November 1995, and monitoring of police and justice conditions after the shooting; cases of fourteen allegedly illegal arrests made by the Multinational Force (MNF) which occurred at Base 2 in November and December of 1994; arms caches reported to the mission; the legality of arms searches and associated arrests conducted by Haitian National Police (HNP) and judicial authorities; the Multinational Force (MNF) disarmament weapon buyback programs; and the use of arms during demonstrations.

United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
Many records of UNMIH’s U3 Operations concern the Haitian municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections held in 1995. These records are comprised of: Fragment Orders (FRAGOs) covering logistical, planning and security arrangements provided during the electoral process, and reflecting the mission’s close coordination with the Haitian electoral authorities; daily election summaries (ELECTSUM) about the monitoring of the voter registration, the delegate selection processes, the distribution of electoral material, and other activities in various geographic locations throughout Haiti; and maps indicating voting locations and electoral incidents. Also included are election returns drafted by the Haitian Provisional Electoral Council (CEP) for the 25 June 1995 and 17 September 1995 elections.

Also present in the records are FRAGOs that describe: UNMIH-named Areas of Interest (AOI) where incidents of violence often occurred; UNMIH support for the deployment of Haitian National Police (HNP) in Port-au-Prince; the furnishing of equipment to assist the HNP; enhanced security for President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, President René Préval, and visits to Haiti by diplomats and foreign government officials; coordination with the United States Department of State Security Team; the security of satellite communications; airport safety; aviation support; humanitarian convoys; and engineering improvements.

The records of U3 Operations also include: security analyses and planning for the inauguration of President Préval on 7 February 1996; a report titled “Estimate of the Situation” about the establishment of a temporary detention center for youth gang members, dated 1 January 1996; after-action reports detailing UNMIH activities with regard to safety at large public events; a program outline for UNMIH’s Special Operations Task Force (SOTF); summaries of routine and non-routine patrol activities; and security procedures for supporting food convoys.

United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH)
U4 Headquarters records consist in part of: a 23 July 1997 briefing for the incoming Force Commander, with a Force organizational chart; operation orders for responses to natural disasters and mass casualties; and a mission security plan to integrate civilian staff into the Port-au-Prince safe area.

U3 Operations records also consist of Fragment Orders (FRAGOs), which amend operation orders based on conditions on the ground, about: cooperation with the HNP; the protection of government officials; and military patrols in support of the parliamentary elections held in April 1997. UNSMIH records also include code cable executive summaries from the Special Representative for the Secretary-General (SRSG) Enrique ter Horst about military, humanitarian, and electoral issues, especially concerning the activities of the Provisional Electoral Council (CEP). There are also information summaries about: civil disturbances such as attacks against former de facto regime members and strikes for unpaid wages; arrests made and activities monitored by the Haitian National Police (HNP); and the electoral process, including summaries of political demonstrations and acts of political intimidation against civilians.

Additional records about electoral support include: a brief for the Force Commander on support for the April 1997 elections; an election timeline prepared by the CEP; a memorandum about election security planning, dated 6 February 1997; and a code cable about final election results, dated 28 April 1997, and sent from the SRSG to the Secretary-General Kofi Annan.

United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH)
The records of UNTMIH’s U4 Logistics Planning and Coordination Cell include: Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs); U4 briefings which include presentations about the role of the U4; and a 25 November 1997 End of Mission Report.

The UNTMIH Force Standing Operating Procedures (FSOPs) describe key military positions and staff guidelines. The records reflect the duties of the U3 Operations Officer, including: day-to-day planning, coordination and direction of all UNTMIH Force operations; supervision of duty watch staff in the UNTMIH operations centre; and preparation of Warning Orders (WngO), Fragment Orders (FRAGOs), and operations briefs. Additional duties of the U3 Operations Officer included: the preparation of the Force Commander’s briefing book; the provision of follow-up responses to the Force Commander’s queries; and planning and coordination of joint operations with Civilian Police (CIVPOL) and the Haitian National Police (HNP).

Prisons and Corrections Services

International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
S-1879 contains records documenting activities undertaken by MICIVIH Observers stationed in bases throughout Haiti, to: monitor and evaluate the state of respect for human rights in prisons and detention facilities; identify violations of Haitian law and international standards relating to the treatment of prisoners and detainees; ensure proper functioning of penal institutions; and assist in the reform of the penal system in Haiti. The Haitian Armed Forces (FADH) ran the prisons in Haiti until the FADH was dissolved in January 1995. Administration of prisons was then turned over to the Interim Public Security Force (IPSF) until the creation of National Penitentiary Administration (APENA) by Presidential Decree on 29 June 1995.

The records document human rights abuses of prisoners and conditions in prisons and detention centers in Haiti during two years (1993-1994) of the de facto regime (29 September 1991 - 14 October 1994), and up to the closure of MICIVIH on 15 March 2000. The records are arranged by base and geographic location. Major prisons visited by Observers include the National Penitentiary in Port-au-Prince, Saint Marc Prison, Gonaives Prison, Les Cayes Prison, Hinche Prison, and Cap Haitien Prison; detention centers; and jails located in military-occupied casernes (barracks).

Included are reports describing the overall state of the prison system in the department, as well as: the level of cooperation between the mission and the prisons; Observers’ access to prisons and prisoners; relations among the prison, judicial and police authorities in the department; the prevalence of human rights violations in prisons; and recommendations for reforms.

Summaries of periodic visits to prisons by Observers note: structural and hygienic conditions; the availability of potable water, beds, and adequate supply of food to prisoners; the severity of overcrowding; incidents, including riots, hunger strikes, and escapes; and the state of recordkeeping in prisons. The visit reports also provide information about the circumstances of arrest and detention for individual prisoners, their access to legal counsel, and the status of their case in the court system. Additionally, the visit reports document brutality carried out by prison guards and military officers, including: cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment of prisoners; deaths caused by beatings and medical neglect; verbal abuse; arbitrary punishment and detention; and administrative neglect of prisoners’ cases.

The reports of visits to prisons are accompanied by lists featuring prisoners’ names and aliases; dates of arrest; criminal accusations, lengths of sentences; and milestones in the prisoners’ legal processing.

Also included are memoranda, authored by Observers, about: meetings between Observers and prison guards and authorities; the number and status of juvenile and women detainees; interventions enacted by Observers on behalf of individual detainees, particularly meetings with judicial authorities to draw attention to the legal mishandling of their case; the medical state of individual detainees and treatment carried out by MICIVIH medical personnel; and seminars on human rights and prison reform conducted by Observers for prison authorities.

There are also statistics compiled by Observers about the prison population, covering: the genders of prisoners, types of crimes committed, length of detention; and prisoners’ appearance before judicial authorities. The series also includes: lists of prisons, detention centers, casernes, and garde-à-vue of police commissariats in the department; guidelines for Observers on how to conduct prison visits and prisoner interviews; and prisoner data sheets.

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