The title of S-1884 was drawn from the function series that comprise PKH.MIL from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).
Many of the files in S-1827 originated from the Office of the Military Adviser of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They encompass the Military Adviser’s chronological files, correspondence files, records related to the Military Adviser’s trips, and subject files. Additional records contained in S-1827 relate to military operations of specific peacekeeping missions.
The chronological files of the Military Adviser date from 1993 to 1998. The Military Adviser served simultaneously as an adviser to the Secretary-General on current, closing, and future peacekeeping missions through the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, and as the director of the Military Division of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. During the years covered by the chronological files, the position of the Military Adviser was held by:
Major-General J. Maurice G. Baril of Canada, June 1992 - 23 June 1995
Major-General Franklin E. van Kappen of the Netherlands, 26 June 1995 - 30 June 1998
Lieutenant-General Giulio Fraticelli of Italy, 15 September 1998 - 15 September 2000
The chronological files consist of: analyses, advisory papers, and talking points prepared by the Military Adviser for the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping; military and political briefs prepared for the Military Adviser on trips undertaken to peacekeeping missions; summaries of the Military Adviser’s visits to peacekeeping missions; and summaries of meetings between the Military Adviser and Chiefs of Missions.
The chronological files also include: correspondence, notes for the file, and curricula vitae for the Military Adviser’s selection of senior military and Civilian Police personnel; memoranda providing an overview of the deployment strategy of infantry battalions and military units in specific peacekeeping missions; organization charts of the Force structure for specific peacekeeping missions; briefs, reports, and memoranda about provisions for transport equipment to peacekeeping missions, including armoured personnel carriers (APC), helicopters, and patrol boats; correspondence and memoranda related to the creation of United Nations medals for service in peacekeeping missions; and discussion papers about military leadership in peacekeeping missions.
Also included in the Military Adviser’s chronological files are agenda and programs related to the training of peacekeeping personnel. Training was conducted through the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) Training Unit and through the framework of the Member State sponsored United Nations Training Assistance Team (United Nations Training Assistance Teams (UNTAT) programme. Records are included for training events in such areas as: disarmament; mine clearance; the sustainable reintegration of ex-combatants; medical support and civilian training in peacekeeping missions; disaster preparedness in peacekeeping operations, such as for natural disasters, epidemics, terrorist activity, and industrial disaster; the role of regional and sub-regional organizations in international peacekeeping; peacekeeping in Africa; and international conflict resolution and negotiating skills. There are also program plans and correspondence related to the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO)’s participation in multinational military exercises as observers, advisors, and role players. In addition, there are briefing materials and programmes prepared for meetings between Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) officials and representatives of military training and education institutions in troop contributing countries, including the United States Naval Justice School, the French Joint College of Defence (Collège interarmées de defense of the Ecole Militaire), the South African Army College, the Zimbabwean Staff College, and the National Defence College of Pakistan.
Files on trips undertaken by the Military Adviser to attend meetings and training events, and to undertake familiarization and advising tours of peacekeeping operations, include: programmes and itineraries; country reports on regional political crises; briefs prepared for the Military Adviser on peacekeeping issues; and addresses and slide presentations publicly delivered by the Military Adviser.
Other records in S-1827 cover a wide range of military matters. There are: organization charts for the Office of the Military Adviser; outlines of current activities of the Office of the Military Adviser and of the Planning Division, which was overseen by the Military Adviser; and briefs and memoranda documenting the Military Adviser’s instructions to his staff. There are also statistics for casualties and fatalities of peacekeepers, which note names, nationality, and the cause of death, such as hostile action, accidents, mine explosion, and natural causes. Also included are records related to the appointment of high-level military and police personnel in peacekeeping missions. These include: curricula vitae and biographical summaries of Force Commanders, Chief Military Observers, and Police Commissioners serving in peacekeeping missions; programmes for visits by Force Commanders and Chief Military Observers to Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters in New York prior to and after deployment; and announcements on the appointments of high-level military personnel to peacekeeping missions. Additionally, there are records relating to named military operations active in peacekeeping mission areas. S-1827 also contains records documenting the geographic and operational layout of a peacekeeping mission’s team sites, weapons verification centres, and soldier quartering areas.
Records related to the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II), the United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III), and the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) include briefs authored by the Military Adviser about the military situation and recommendations for military action. There are also summaries of visits by Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) officials to Angola detailing: political aspects affecting the peace process, military operational aspects, human rights, the work of the Civilian Police, the quartering of UNITA troops, and demining activities. Memoranda and notes for the file, including some sent to the Under-Secretary-General, cover such topics as: Member States’ contributions to peacekeeping operations in Angola; the streamlining of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III) military component; figures on military staff positions; the deployment status of UNAVEM III military units; the problem of mercenaries in Angola; and road access and infrastructure conditions in Angola. Also included are summaries of telephone conversations between United Nations officials and representatives of UNITA; and between United Nations officials and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Alioune Blondin Beye.
Records concerning the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) consist of: briefs on restrictions to Military Observers’ freedom of movement induced by POLISARIO (Popular Front for the Liberation of Sagia el-Hamra and Rio de Oro); notes for the file and proposals about the communications logistics system employed in MINURSO, and on communications requirements for the referendum phase of the implementation plan; road safety standard operation procedures (SOP); and code cables relating to the activities of the Medical Unit. Also included are code cables, memoranda, and briefs on security matters pertaining to United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) personnel located in Tindouf, Algeria, and Laayoune, Western Sahara, which note: security restrictions in Algeria; recommendations for strengthening security arrangements; and directives to personnel in chemical, biological, and nuclear threat environments.
Documents pertaining to the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) include: notes for the file on UNAMSIL operations; briefs and maps related to Operation Scimitar and Operation Thunderbolt, and the security situation in Freetown; and a report concerning UNAMSIL’s military strategy which outlines the concept of operations, and provides details on troop composition and the phases of military activities in Sierra Leone.
Additionally, there are chronological files of Colonel Francois Dureau, the Chief of Staff of the Military Adviser, and these relate to the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic (MINURCA). Also present are files documenting his trips to the Central African Republic to advise on military matters in MINURCA. Dureau’s chronological files contain a variety of documents, including email messages, briefing notes on mission operations, and press reviews. They also contain briefs, papers and reports covering diverse topics, including: the intervention of the international community in the crisis in the Central African Republic; the restructuring of the Forces Armées Centrafricaines (FACA) and the formation of the national police; social and economic development in the CAR; the security situation in the country; disarmament and humanitarian assistance initiatives; relations between the CAR and Chad; technical requirements for MINURCA; and United Nations-provided technical support for elections.
Records related to the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) consist primarily of briefs and memoranda forwarded to the Military Adviser and his staff about various operational matters, and briefs exchanged between the Military Adviser and the Field Operations Division (FOD), as well as with the Field Administration and Logistics Division (FALD). There are also: briefs on the activities of Human Rights Observers in Rwanda; terms of reference for UNAMIR Liaison Teams, which conducted visits to assist countries in preparation for their participation in the mission; and a report about a Security Assessment Mission to Rwanda undertaken from 17-31 August 1993.
Records relating to the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) include: updates for the Security Council about events in Lebanon and in the UNIFIL area of responsibility; briefs and notes for the file on troop contributors’ meetings and on meetings held at Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) on rotation, senior staff appointments, the UNIFIL mandate, the deployment of the Lebanese Army in the UNIFIL mission area, and the reduction of UNIFIL strength; remarks made by United Nations officials at troop contributors’ meetings; chronologies of events in UNIFIL’s area of responsibility; and briefs on the supply of armoured personnel carriers (APC) to UNIFIL operations. There are also lists of casualties and fatalities of UNIFIL personnel, with statistics provided on fatalities occurring from 1978 to the early 1990s.
Records on the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) consist of: notes to the file about military administrative matters and Member States’ participation in staffing UNDOF; routine reports of inspections carried out by UNDOF on the Alpha and Bravo Sides in the Area of Limitation (AOL), noting the number and type of ceasefire violations observed; and lists of casualties and fatalities among UNDOF personnel, with statistics provided on fatalities occurring from 1978 to the 1990s.
Records relating to the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) consist of: summaries of security meetings among UNTSO staff, and definitions of security alert status levels and procedures for assigning levels; security advisories circulated among UNTSO staff noting general restrictions and terrorist threats in Lebanon, and around the Litani River, Israel, West Bank, and Gaza. Also included are drafts of the Security and Evacuation Plan for Israel and the Occupied Territories, which describe: the duties of key individuals responsible for security matters in the event of hostilities, internal disorder, and natural disasters; condition requirements for security phase implementation; and the names, job titles, and locations of current UNTSO staff.
S-1827 also contains records that pertain to the United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP); these concern UNGOMAP’s observation from 1988 to 1989 of the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Included are UNGOMAP plans which outline the Soviet troop withdrawal process. There are also debriefing reports and periodic reports prepared by UNGOMAP military personnel stationed at various locations in Afghanistan, which describe tank, vehicle, and aircraft movement of Soviet troops, and the number of Soviet personnel and vehicles crossing. There are also summaries of meetings between UNGOMAP officials and Soviet military authorities about compliance with the Geneva Accords, signed on 14 April 1988 between Afghanistan and Pakistan, with the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) acting as guarantors.
Notable documents related to other peacekeeping missions consist of: a study conducted by the Chief Military Observer of the United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) on the adequacy of the arms inventory presented by the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), featuring tables, figures, and discussion of FMLN arms; reports on the implementation of the Conakry Peace Plan by the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), and briefs on the ECOMOG concept of operations in Sierra Leone; outlines for demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants in Liberia; and assessment reports on medical support operations in missions. Records related to the United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) include operation orders for the military component and briefs on Close Air Support (CAS) provided to UNTAES by the NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) Fixed Wing Assets. In addition, there are summaries of meetings of the Tripartite Military Integration Committee, which was responsible for developing a national army for Namibia after the country’s independence. Meetings were attended by representatives of the United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG), the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO), and the South West African Territorial Force (SWATF).