International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
The records of the MICIVIH Executive Director consist of Colin Granderson’s subject files, chronological files, and internal and external communications on a wide variety of topics related to: operations and activities of MICIVIH, the United Nations political and peacekeeping missions that were active in Haiti concurrently with MICIVIH from 1993 to 2000, UN agencies and non-governmental organizations operating in Haiti, the Government of Haiti, and the de facto regime.
The Executive Director’s records contain: a report of the UN Advance Team to Haiti, 8-12 September 1993, which evaluated the situation in Haiti for the creation of UNMIH; summaries of meetings between the Executive Director and the President of Haiti René Préval and former President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, and Haitian government ministers; briefs about the MICIVIH mandate; evaluations of conflict resolution activities; training materials provided to MICIVIH staff; briefs and memoranda on administrative operations; statements delivered to the General Assembly by the Haitian Minister of Foreign Affairs S. E. M. Fritz Longchamp, dating from September and October 1999; organization charts; reports concerning the activities and reform of the Haitian National Police (HNP); reports prepared for Granderson by the Chief of Operations, concerning communications, computers, and water shortages; the End of Mission report on the Institution Building facet of MICIVIH, dated March 2000; and background papers on Haitian history and culture.
Additionally, there are communications between Colin Granderson and officials of the Organization of American States (OAS) about the functioning of MICIVIH; updates on MICIVIH activities prepared by Granderson for the OAS; and records of the Administrative Liaison Office, which was set up in Port-au-Prince to coordinate activities between MICIVIH and UNMIH.
The Executive Director’s chronological files and correspondence consist of: letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and the President of Haiti René Préval; letters sent to Haitian government ministers, particularly the Ministry of Justice and the Minister of Foreign Affairs; letters sent to representatives of non-governmental organizations; job descriptions of MICIVIH personnel and Terms of Reference for high-level consultants to MICIVIH; agenda and panelist papers prepared for international conferences attended by MICIVIH personnel; draft reports prepared by the Secretary-General to the Security Council on the work of MICIVIH; weekly Situation and Activity reports on MICIVIH activities forwarded to the OAS; and press releases and press communiqués. The files also include briefs and memoranda on such topics as: mission premises, the status of the mission mandate, the progress of elections in Haiti, relations between MICIVIH and UNMIH, and the security environment in Haiti. Additionally, there is a MICIVIH-authored report, dated 25 March 1996, on the killings of several civilians by the Haitian National Police (HNP) in Cité Soleil on 6 March 1996.
Additionally, there are several files of code cables exchanged in 1993 and 1994 between Granderson and Dante Caputo, the Special Envoy for Haiti for the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and the OAS. The code cables concern: the evacuation of MICIVIH from Haiti to Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic on 15-16 October 1993; the return of mission personnel to Haiti beginning in January 1994; the de facto regime’s denial of the legitimacy of MICIVIH; the Haitian Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ declaration of MICIVIH’s undesirability in Haiti on 8 July 1994. In addition, files concerning security contain documents related to the mission’s evacuation and reestablishment in 1993 and 1994, and these include: mission evacuation plans, security briefings, reports of incidents targeting UN personnel, and outlines describing administrative changes due to the evacuations.
The records of the Executive Director also contain files detailing MICIVIH’s observation and monitoring of the human rights situation in Haiti. Included are MICIVIH-authored reports on human rights in Haiti: a report from a fact-finding mission to Haiti in 1993 titled, “Observations, Concerns and Recommendations Regarding the Role of the OAS/UN Civilian Mission in Haiti: A Report in Progress,” dated April 1993; “Rapport de la Mission Civile Internationel (OEA/ONU) en Haiti sur la Situation des Droits de l’Homme,” 31 Janvier – 30 Juin 1994; “Special Report: Analysis of the Assassinations in Port-au-Prince, November 1994 – July 1995, As Recorded by Base 1,” dated 31 July 1995.
There are also records documenting communications between MICIVIH and the National Commission on Truth and Justice (CNVJ), which was set up on 17 December 1994 by Jean-Bertrand Aristide to investigate human rights violations that took place during the de facto regime. The final report of the National Truth and Justice Commission, dating from 1995, “Si m Pa Rele (‘If I Don’t Shout’), 29 September 1991 - 14 October 1994,” is also included.
The records also include documentation of seminars and conferences on human rights awareness held by the MICIVIH’s Promotion and Protection of Human Rights Section (PPHR), and memoranda exchanged between mission representatives and local and international human rights organizations. Additionally, there are briefs and reports, authored by Observers at bases and copied to Granderson, concerning politically-motivated killings and killings of members of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), Haitians forcibly repatriated by the police and/or military forces, violence against women and children, and human rights violations involving street children.
The Executive Director’s files also include records pertaining to oversight and reform of the Haitian judiciary. Records include: descriptions of weekly activities of MICIVIH’s Section des Affaires Juridiques et du Renforcement Institutionnel (SAJRI); summaries of meetings between MICIVIH personnel and staff of the École de la Magistrature; memoranda about MICIVIH-led training of judges and lawyers at bases; and briefs on the management of the local court system. There are also: summaries of meetings of MICIVIH lawyers who operated at bases and consulted on a variety of judicial reform topics; and Observers’ memoranda and reports, copied to Granderson, about court proceedings, and interactions with local judicial personnel about irregularities. Notable documents include: “Quelques Reflexions à Propos d'une Eventuelle Reforme du Système Judiciare en Haiti,” dated 14 July 1993; an analysis dated 17 March 1994 and titled “Haitian Justice System: A Report by the MICIVIH Working Group on the Haitian Justice System”; a program of instruction dating from October 1997 of the École de la Magistrature; and "Analysis of the Haitian Judicial System," a report authored by the Haitian Ministry of Justice and Public Security, dating from March 1998.
Records pertaining to human rights monitoring in prisons and prison reform are also included. There are memoranda and reports detailing: training for MICIVIH Observers in prison matters, the role of MICIVIH in prison reform, management of the MICIVIH Prison Database System, training for prison wardens, incidents at the National Penitentiary and other Haitian prisons, and visits to prisons carried out by Observers stationed at bases. Additionally, there are communications between Granderson and the National Penitentiary Administration (APENA), and between Granderson and officials running the Assistance à la Réforme Pénitentiaire, a program of the United Nations Development Fund (UNDP). Also included are MICIVIH-produced evaluation reports on prison reform initiatives. A MICIVIH-authored report titled “Prisons in Haiti,” dated July 1997, provides analysis and statistics on the prison system, information about prison conditions, and recommendations for reform.
The files for the elections contain: the final report of the Electoral Assistance Team (EAT) dating from 1995; letters and position statements sent to the Executive Director from political candidates; briefs and correspondence exchanged between the Executive Director and staff of the Electoral Observation Mission (EOM) of the Organization of American States (OAS); and situation reports and final reports prepared by the OAS-EOM. Other records document the structure and work of Haiti’s Provisional Electoral Council (CEP), such as: organization charts of the CEP; letters exchanged between the Executive Director and the Secretary-General of the CEP; and timetables, lists and activity outlines related to technical operations managed by CEP for the elections.
The records also document activities of MICIVIH’s Press and Information Unit. Memoranda cover a variety of topics, including: the strategy to strengthen MICIVIH’s image in the Haitian public and the international community; MICIVIH’s television, radio, and internet communications; the writing of press releases; and journalist training seminars. Additionally, there are reports prepared by the Press and Information Unit, media project proposals, lists of Haitian radio stations, issues of the “MICIVIH News Summary,” MICIVIH press releases, scripts for television and radio and spots, and communications with journalists.
There are also records relating to the planning of a successor mission to MICIVIH and MIPONUH, which was preliminarily named Mission D'Assistance Technique Des Nations Unies Pour Haiti (MATNUH) and then became International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH). The records contain correspondence between MICIVIH and MIPONUH staff, draft resolutions, terms of reference, budget reports, and job descriptions.
MICIVIH’s Coordination, Analysis and Reports Unit (CARU) reported to the Executive Director, and liaised with the Section des Affaires Juridiques et du Renforcement Institutionnel (SAJRI) and the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights (PPHR) Section. The CARU was tasked with: maintaining daily links with MICIVIH’s regional offices with regard to the investigation of human rights violations; ensuring coordination of activities between regional offices and between headquarters and regional offices; preparing weekly and fortnightly reports on the activities of the mission; and assisting in the preparation of public reports for the Secretary-General of the United Nations and for the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States (OAS), about the situation of human rights and democracy in Haiti.
The records include a wide range of reports and publications generated by CARU. Weekly executive summaries cover such topics as the transition to MICAH, the Raboteau massacre of 22 April 1994, the 51st anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, activities of the Haitian Parliament, municipal government structures, and border control. Situation and activity reports discuss topics such as prolonged pre-trial detention, assistance for the Haitian Office de la Protection du Citoyen (OPC), and the UNIFEM campaign against violence towards women. Information about human rights violations is also contained in the CARU human rights situation reports and the publication “Human Rights Review.”
Notable reports collated by CARU include progress reports sent by the Executive Director to the Organization of American States (OAS). The reports summarize MICIVIH field visits and the activities of high-level staff and base coordinators. There is also correspondence about the history of MICIVIH sent from the Executive Director to OAS staff and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG).
In addition, there are memoranda and incident reports detailing the often criminal and illegal activities of the community vigilance brigades and security groups that exercised public order among citizens through intimidation and violent attacks with machetes. Statistics and tables listing incidents of popular justice killings are also included.
CARU records also document investigations undertaken by MICIVIH observers to identify officers of the Haitian National Police (HNP) responsible for brutality and violations of human rights. The investigations involved visits to HNP commissariats, prisons, and victims’ and witnesses’ homes to gather information about and confirm allegations. The records consist of: briefs and tables summarizing the circumstances of police officers suspected of murder, summary execution, excessive use of force, cruel and inhuman treatment, rape, theft, narcotic drug trafficking and other offenses; summaries of meetings between MICIVIH officials and representatives of the Inspection Générale de la Police Nationale d’Haiti (IGPNH); Standard Operating Procedures of the HNP; a Manual of the Commissioner of the HNP; and briefs describing the HNP’s disciplinary procedures. Also included are statistics tallied by MICIVIH on the number and type of human rights violations occurring in each department.
MICIVIH Observers were stationed at bases throughout Haiti to monitor and report on the political situation, elections, human rights violations, security, and the progress of institutional development in their areas on responsibility. The records describe Observers’ interactions with local authorities and organizations, as well as their community education and outreach efforts.
Regional Coordinator final and periodic reports, as well as Observer reports on visits to communes, cover the following topics: activities at elementary and high schools, hospitals, police commissariats, parquets (public prosecutor’s offices), cabinets d’instruction (judicial investigation offices), tribunaux de paix (tribunals); relations with local non-governmental organizations and local popular organizations; MICIVIH-led education activities on human rights, civic matters, and inter-institutional cooperation; interviews with Catholic priests and religious clergy about activities in towns and villages; meetings with local political authorities such as mayors and delegates, in which authorities outline their town’s infrastructural and institutional needs and issues; difficulties in the electoral registration process and local electoral campaigning; demonstrations by students, civilians and pro-Duvalier supporters; the presence in towns and villages of FRAPH, coup d’etat supporters, and supporters of François “Papa Doc” Duvalier (including those known as macoutes); the security climate as monitored by CIVPOL, the Interim Public Security Force (IPSF), and the Haitian National Police (HNP); the functioning of military-occupied casernes (barracks); incidents of brutality experienced by civilians and attributed to military personnel; arms trafficking; incidents of popular justice killings; incidents at the Haitian-Dominican Republic border; the status of persons in marronage (hiding); and activities of the United States Special Forces (USSF).
There are also overviews of departments, authored by the base team, which detail the department’s history, demographics, infrastructure, and political climate. In addition, lists of local authorities enumerate the names of town, communal, or departmental police officers, judges, electoral officials, military officers, politicians, and religious leaders. Minutes of base staff meetings and Regional Coordinator meetings describe planning for security and elections, designing civic education programs, and ways to streamline base functioning.
Visits of citizens of communes to MICIVIH offices are summarized in memoranda. They detail complaints about violations of human rights, obstructions to justice, land conflicts, and breakdown of law and order, including incidents of popular justice, and incidents involving the practice of vodou and sorcery. Other memoranda provide updates on human rights abuses allegedly perpetrated by the Haitian National Police (HNP).
Base records relating to the judiciary system include summaries of assises criminelles (assizes), as well as summaries describing killings and attacks against judicial personnel. Memoranda relating to the judiciary system detail: meetings with judicial personnel on the general functioning of the tribunals and developments in cases monitored by the mission; irregularities and corruption; members of the local judiciary (juges de paix); the condition of judicial building structures; and visits to the Cour d’Appel and Cabinet d’Instruction.
There are also briefs describing seminars and activities undertaken by Observers in collaboration with local authorities. Seminar participants often consisted of representatives of the HNP, non-governmental organizations, and the Conseil d'Administration de la Section Communale (CASEC). Other base educational and outreach initiatives are reflected in memoranda about MICIVIH-sponsored puppet shows, local drawing contests, and spots on radio and television stations.
Records relating to local popular organizations include information sheets profiling popular organizations’ activities, leaders, and history. Memoranda covering meetings with leaders of popular organizations describe challenges faced by the organizations and requests for assistance from MICIVIH. There are also documents about the limitations of MICIVIH’s involvement in community development projects, which define MICIVIH’s role primarily as an intermediary between popular organizations and funding agencies.
Memoranda exchanged between Regional Coordinators, Observers, the Deputy Executive Director, and the Executive Director of MICIVIH cover a range a topics, including: the Aristide government, vigilance brigades, disarmament, gang activity, crime, internally displaced persons, non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations, meetings with journalists on freedom of the press, plots against the state, political parties, base security, labor strikes, women’s rights, the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), medical care available in the commune, and the prevalence of common diseases such as typhoid, tuberculosis, and malaria.
MICIVIH files also included the records of: Dante Caputo, who served as the Special Envoy for Haiti for the Secretaries-General of the United Nations and the OAS from December 1992 to September 1994; and of Mr. Leandro Despouy, Political Advisor to the Special Envoy. Their records consist of: letters exchanged between Caputo and the Commander-in-Chief of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), Lieutenant General Raoul Cédras, and between Cédras and the Secretary-General; lists of senators and members of major Haitian political parties; and correspondence with representatives of political parties. Analyses and briefs cover: the implementation of the Governors Island Agreement, the role of the United Nations in Haiti, the security of the President of Haiti, the restoration of political stability in Haiti, and the economic effects of the embargo on Haiti. Additionally, there is a “Plan d’Action Humanitaire Integre, Nations Unies / Organisation des Etats Americaine: Haiti,” dated March 1993.
United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
Serving as Head of Mission and Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) were Daniel Caputo (September 1993- September 1994), Lakhdar Brahimi (September 1994 – March 1996), and Enrique ter Horst (March - June 1996).
The records of the Office of the SRSG (OSRSG) contain incoming and outgoing code cables exchanged between the SRSG and Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Kofi Annan at United Nations Headquarters in New York. Code cables consist of: draft reports to the Secretary-General on mission activities; weekly executive summaries detailing political and operational developments; and programmes and agenda for visits to Haiti by the Secretary-General and by United States President Bill Clinton (March 1995).
The records of the OSRSG also include code cables from the Force Commander (FC) and from the Chief of Staff (COS) to Annan. Code cables from the FC concern: criminal and security incidents, battalion activities, arrests, public demonstrations, and activities of the Interim Public Security Force (IPSF) and the Haitian National Police (HNP). They also note the 28 March 1995 assassination of Mireille Durocher Bertin, a lawyer for the Commander-in-Chief of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), Lieutenant General Raoul Cédras. The code cables sent from the COS contain: daily and weekly situation reports from the UNMIH Advance Team; drafts of UNMIH Rules of Engagement (ROE); and a brief titled “Proposed Multinational Force (MNF) to UNMIH Transition Plan,” dating from October 1994.
The records also include: copies of the Governors Island Agreement (3 July 1993) and the New York Pact (16 July 1993); talking points (28 October 1993) about the implementation of the Agreement; statements and correspondence of the Comité National de Resolution de la Crise Haitienne, which convened through the fall of 1993 to oversee the execution of the Agreement; and letters of appeal received by the mission urging the restoration of democracy in Haiti. There are also: bi-monthly situation reports forwarded from the SRSG to Annan; and guidelines for the Commander of the Military Component. Records also include faxes from 1993 concerning the security situation in Haiti, the political climate, and the attitude of the Haitian military; and a draft report of the Secretary-General on the deployment of the Advance Team for UNMIH, dated 10 October 1994.
Also included is correspondence between the SRSG and President Jean-Bertrand Aristide about the Governors Island Agreement and the change in Haitian political leadership; and correspondence between the SRSG and Lieutenant General Raoul Cédras. There are also memoranda, outlines and letters concerning such topics as: the petroleum embargo; amnesty law; and the provision of reparations to victims of human rights violations and political violence during the de facto regime.
United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH)
The Head of Mission was Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Enrique ter Horst. The records of the Office of the SRSG (OSRSG) consist of incoming code cables from Secretary-General Kofi Annan at United Nations headquarters in New York. Notable items from the code cables include draft Security Council resolutions on the mission and UNSMIH Rules of Engagement (ROE). There are also: Security Management Team agenda; the update of the Security Plan for Haiti dated March 1997; CIVPOL weekly reports; Watch Lists, which provide an overview of threats such as criminal activity, public unrest, and armed conflict by geographic location; and contingency plans outlining responses to potential threats.
The records of the UNSMIH Protocol Office include correspondence with the Office of President René Préval, the Directeur Général of the Haitian National Police (HNP), and other HNP officials. Records of the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) are made up of internal audit reports prepared by the Resident Auditor on road improvements, services contracts, Press Section equipment, disbursements charged to MICIVIH, rations purchasing, cost-benefits of using helicopters to patrol Port-au-Prince, and other topics.
United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH)
Enrique ter Horst served as Head of Mission and Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG). The UNTMIH records consist of: Force Standing Operating Procedures and amendments; weekly summaries of activities, about institution building, human rights promotion activities, meetings, the economic and social development of Haiti, etc.; and a 13 August 1997 UNTMIH Military Campaign Plan. Records of the UNTMIH Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) consist of reports from an external audit conducted by the Audit and Management Consulting Division of the United Nations Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) in 1997. The audit covered financial and cash management, funding for trust funds for the enhancement of mission capacity, liquidation planning and disposal of assets, asset management, procurement procedures, the Local Property Survey Board, deployment of CIVPOL members, and a new contingent-owned equipment lease system.
United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)
The Head of Mission and Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) was Julian Harston, who was succeeded by RSG Alfredo Lopes Cabral in October 1999.
The records of the Office of the RSG (ORSG) contain incoming and outgoing code cables and correspondence, exchanged between the RSG and Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations at United Nations Headquarters in New York.
Notable cables include: draft reports by the Secretary-General about MIPONUH; and In Brief reports prepared by Bernard Miyet, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG), detailing key developments in UN-wide peacekeeping operations and related world events. Other cables and situation reports discuss: activities of President René Préval, including his 1999 dissolution of the parliament and subsequent rule by decree; meetings of the Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) with government ministers; activities of the government as reported in the Haitian press; activities of the Provisional Electoral Council (CEP); financial, logistics, and monitoring support for elections provided in part by the United Nations Development Fund (UNDP) and the international community; incidents reported by the Civilian Police and by the Haitian National Police (HNP); anticipated Y2K security issues; CIVPOL training for the HNP on judiciary procedure, the functions of police chiefs, community policing, crowd control, traffic code implementation, and investigative techniques; activities of and viewpoints of members of political parties, such as Fanmi Lavalas, the National Committee of the Congress of Democratic Organizations (KONAKOM), and the Papay Peasant Movement (MPP); and arrangements for mission security.
The records of the ORSG also contain memoranda covering topics such as the Rules of Engagement (ROE) for the United Nations Special Police; developments surrounding the elections of 19 March 2000; the activities of the Civilian Police; and the liquidation of the mission. There are also memoranda and pamphlets sent to the RSG by political parties, primarily the Struggling People’s Organization (OPL).
In addition, there are End of Mission reports, mission terms of reference, administrative instructions, updates of the Security Plan for Haiti, a December 1999 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) report on the economic and social situation of Haiti, and an October 1999 copy of “MIPONUH Flying Orders and Standard Operating Procedures.”
International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH)
Alfredo Lopes Cabral served as the Head of Mission and Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) for the duration of the mission. The records of the Office of the RSG (ORSG) consist of incoming and outgoing code cables exchanged between the RSG and Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Kieran Prendergast at United Nations Headquarters in New York. Additionally, there are daily, weekly and monthly situation reports forwarded from the mission to United Nations headquarters.
The code cables and situation reports cover: meetings attended by the RSG with representatives of the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Group of Friends of Haiti; activities of Jean-Bertrand Aristide in garnering support for his government and cultivating opportunities for dialogue and confidence building; the activities of Fanmi Lavalas, the political party that supported Aristide, and Convergence Démocratique, a political coalition created in 2000 to oppose Aristide; preparations and security incidents related to the parliamentary and municipal elections held in 21 May 2000, and the presidential and senatorial elections held 26 November 2000; conspiracy activities and plots to overthrow the Haitian government and to eliminate President René Préval and Jean-Bertrand Aristide; and politically-motivated security incidents, such as bombings, violence targeted at political candidates, and armed clashes between rival political groups and rival gangs. Included among code cables are: summaries of meetings between the RSG and Haitian government ministers, and between the RSG and political party representatives; and periodic threat assessments detailing the security and safety situation in Haiti with regard to infrastructure, economic activities, public order and criminality, and public demonstrations.
Also present in the records of the ORSG are: End of Mission reports; daily itineraries of the RSG; correspondence between the RSG and representatives of political parties, including position statements and programme outlines; and Action Plans for the development of the Haitian National Police (HNP).
Memoranda exchanged between the RSG and the Chiefs of the Police Section, Justice Section, and Human Rights Section are also included. Notable memoranda from of the Police Section concern the massacre on 22 April 1994 in the neighbourhood of Raboteau in Gonaives, Haiti; and minutes of meetings between the director of the HNP and the MICAH Chief of the Police Section sent to the RSG. Memoranda from the Human Rights Section describe the objectives and structure of the Section, and include a Diagnostic Report on the Respect of Human Rights by the HNP and a draft report, dated September 2000, on the high-profile trial of several police officers accused of executing eleven civilians in the Carrefour-Feuilles neighbourhood of Port-au-Prince in May 1999. The records also include work plans of the Police Pillar, the Justice Pillar and the Human Rights Pillar.