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Under-Secretary-General (USG) - Subject files

S-1834 contains the subject files from the offices of the following DPKO officials:

Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG)
Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (ASG)
Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping

Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG)
Records of the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG) consist of: briefs on the distribution and allocation of responsibilities in DPKO, and on DPKO staff functions; reports on the USG’s annual programme objectives; annual and periodic work plans for DPKO offices, including the Office of Operations, Office of Mission Support, Mission Planning Service, the Mine Action Service, the Lessons Learned Unit, and the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit; organization charts and organigrammes of DPKO; outlines on the status of implementation of recommendations proposed by DPKO offices; reports and flow charts for strategic planning within DPKO and for UN-wide planning and inter-departmental coordination of peacekeeping operations; briefs on financing peacekeeping operations; draft agreements between the United Nations and host countries and non-governmental organizations on the operation of peacekeeping missions; memoranda and briefs produced by DPKO staff for preparation of the Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs and the Repertoire of Practice of the Security Council; and articles and discussion papers on aspects of peacekeeping prepared by government and private sector sources.

Records include summaries of meetings, conferences, and summits attended by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, the Secretary-General, and representatives of: regional organizations; non-governmental organizations; and intergovernmental organizations. There are also summaries of meetings between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and Permanent Representatives of diplomatic missions to the United Nations. Meeting summaries outline principles, modalities, and mechanisms for cooperation in conflict prevention, early warning and preventive action, peace support operations, human rights protection, humanitarian action, regional security, and relations with the United Nations. Also included are briefs, communiqués, and memoranda related to the meetings, and statements delivered at the meetings by the Secretary-General, the President of the Security Council, and meeting attendees.

Files relating to the safety and security of United Nations personnel deployed in peacekeeping operations include: memoranda on the preparation of a joint declaration on cooperation between the United Nations and the European Union for civilian and military crisis management; comments provided by DPKO for the Secretary-General’s report on the security of United Nations personnel; and briefs and outlines on authority and responsibilities for the United Nations Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD) in security management in peacekeeping operations. Additionally, there are: background notes and briefs on the safety and security of the DPKO premises; drafts of the DPKO Crisis Management Plan detailing critical functions, responsibilities, and procedures of the department during crisis; comments prepared by DPKO staff on United Nations security reform; and briefs and memoranda on the United Nations’ response to the attacks of September 11, 2001.

Records also document DPKO’s consideration for human rights and humanitarian issues in the creation of peacekeeping mission policy. There are reports and memoranda exchanged between the USG, the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit, the SRSG for Children and Armed Conflict, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), and the Commission on Human Rights. Topics include: a minimum age for soldiers participating in peacekeeping operations, developing policies and disciplinary procedures to combat sexual exploitation and abuse, and the adherence of peacekeeping missions to the guidelines set out in “Observance by United Nations forces of international humanitarian law,” the Secretary-General’s bulletin issued 6 August 1999. In addition, Memoranda of Understanding, studies, and summaries of meetings concern the division of responsibility between DPKO, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), and the Commission on Human Rights in cases where peacekeeping missions include humanitarian work or a human rights component.

Other Memoranda of Understanding, approved by DPKO and Member States, address standby arrangements for rapid deployment of peacekeeping troops, facilities for logistics bases, training in logistics co-sponsored by DPKO and Kenya, and contingent-owned equipment. There are also suggestions for improvements in peacekeeping operations, including the 16 December 1993 “United Nations Logistics Working Group Recommendations and Products.”

DPKO’s Civilian Police Unit was incorporated into the Military and Civilian Police Division in October 2000; the Military and Civilian Police Division was then split into the Military Division and Civilian Police Division in 2002. Records of the Civilian Police Unit and Civilian Police Division include memoranda and policy documents exchanged between the Police Adviser and USG on such topics as guidelines for police contributing countries, police training, deployment, and acceptance of Member States’ retired police officers for peacekeeping. In addition, there are reports and speeches from DPKO seminars on the role of police in peacekeeping operations, which were attended by Member State diplomats and police, regional organizations, NGOs, and other UN offices. Other Civilian Police Unit and Civilian Police Division records consist of fact sheets about the civilian police components of various missions and presentations by the Police Adviser about the work of civilian police components and the generation of resources for civilian police.

Included are chronological files of the Under-Secretaries-General for Peacekeeping Marrack Goulding (1992-1993) and Kofi Annan (1993-1996). Chronological files consist of: talking points for the USG’s meetings with government officials of Member States about developments in peacekeeping missions, mandate implementation, and Member States’ contribution to peacekeeping missions; the USG’s notes to the Secretary-General; notes to the USG written by the DPKO Principal Officer Elisabeth Lindenmeyer; press statements delivered by the USG on developments in peacekeeping missions; correspondence between the USG and the UN Legal Counsel; and statements delivered by the USG at troop contributors meetings. Chronological files also include: letters exchanged between the President of the Security Council and the Secretary-General; drafts of DPKO contributions to the Secretary-General’s reports to the Security Council about conflict areas and peacekeeping operations; statements delivered by the Secretary-General during informal consultations of the Security Council; and talking points for the Secretary-General’s meetings with high-level officials and government representatives of Member States. There are also memoranda sent by the USG to Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG) of peacekeeping missions in the field regarding: mandate implementation, the staffing of peacekeeping missions, the security of mission personnel, Force build up and reduction, mission withdrawal, and meetings of the Security Council. A significant volume of documents in the USG’s chronological files relates to UNOSOM I, UNOSOM II, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR), and the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM).

There are also records relating to gender balance and gender mainstreaming in peacekeeping. These records primarily consist of memoranda and reports exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit, the DPKO Focal Point for Women, the DPKO Gender Focal Point, the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women, the Inter-Agency Committee on Women and Gender and Equality, the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), and the Division for the Advancement of Women of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). The memoranda and reports detail DPKO’s progress in the implementation of: the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action adopted at the September 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women; the Windhoek Declaration and Namibia Plan of Action of 31 May 2000; the outcomes of the 23rd special session of the General Assembly June 2000; and Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000). Topics of memoranda include: creating gender balance and a gender sensitive work environment in DPKO, work-family issues related to gender, inclusion of gender perspectives in reporting, the role of women in peace-building and conflict resolution, and establishing gender units and gender advisers at DPKO headquarters and in missions. Memoranda also address the impact of both conflict and United Nations peacekeeping on women and include discussion of rape, hostage-taking, mine injuries; sexual trafficking, sexual exploitation, and the spread of HIV. In addition, there are statistics provided by peacekeeping missions and troop-contributing Member States, about the numbers of female members of peacekeeping missions.
Country files primarily consist of correspondence and notes exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs and the Secretary-General about: strategies for United Nations response in countries experiencing political and military conflict, civil strife, and humanitarian crises; the coordination of DPKO and United Nations system-wide meetings in support of peace and ceasefire negotiations and economic stability; and missions undertaken to conflict areas by special envoys of the Secretary-General to asses the political and military situation on the ground.

The country files also contain several reports about UN assessment missions dispatched to conflict areas to determine assistance, or to initiate a mission’s preparatory work for deployment. Documents include: a report of the United Nations Survey Mission on Existing Administrative Structures in Cambodia, undertaken from 2-18 December 1991; a report of the United Nations Assessment Mission to Bougainville, Papua New Guinea from 26 April - 5 May 1998 to monitor the implementation of the Agreement on Peace, Security and Development in Bougainville, signed in New Zealand on 23 January 1998; a report of the Security Assessment Mission to the Republic of Chechnya, undertaken from 15-25 April 2000; and a report of the Preparatory Mission to the Sudan, 27 November - 16 December 2003. The country files also contain assessment reports of missions undertaken by the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), a section of the DPKO.

Other records concern United Nations peacekeeping operations in Africa, African regional peacekeeping operations, and African efforts to enhance African capacity for peacekeeping. Included are overviews of peacekeeping operations prepared by DPKO’s Africa Division, and briefs authored by the Under-Secretary-General and sent to the Secretary-General, about the DPKO’s peacekeeping operations in Africa. There are also: summaries of ministerial meetings of the Security Council about United Nations intervention in conflicts and crises in Africa; updates and meeting summaries about the work of the thematic groups set up to review the recommendations included in the Secretary-General’s report of 28 May 1998, 'The Causes of Conflict and the Promotion of Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa”; briefs and notes to the file about various UN-led and international initiatives to enhance peacekeeping capacity in Africa; and periodic reports prepared by the Head of the United Nations Liaison Office and the African Union (AU), located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, about AU activities and United Nations support to the AU.

Also included are several records documenting the establishment of the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC). These include: briefs about logistical preparations for the deployment of MONUC; directives for the Chief Military Liaison Officer dated December 1999; summaries of meetings of the international Joint Military Commission (JMC), which was established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1291 (1999) and which co-deployed with MONUC in the DRC; notes drafted by the Under-Secretary-General and sent to the Secretary-General about developments in the DRC, particularly about military and security matters, in the wake of the signing of the Lusaka Agreement on 10 July 1999; and draft Rules of Engagement dated April 2000.

The Under-Secretary-General’s files relating to the United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) and United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) include: briefs and memoranda on political and military developments in Somalia; timelines for the implementation of the mission mandate; papers presenting options for the United Nations in Somalia and outlining the mission’s political strategy; reports detailing interfactional fighting and the security situation in the city of Kismayo; briefs and correspondence documenting logistics support for the mission and analyzing infrastructure conditions; outlines and memoranda pertaining to the United Nations assistance in rebuilding the justice, police, and prison systems in Somalia; license agreements for the mission’s use of premises in Somalia; and summaries of informal meetings of the Security Council on Somalia.

There is also material related to the attack occurring on 5 June 1993 in Mogadishu which killed 24 peacekeepers serving in the Pakistani Battalion while they were inspecting an ammunition depot. These records include: a report of an independent inquiry conducted by Tom Farer on the events of 5 June 1993; briefs and correspondence related to UNOSOM II’s detention of Somalis held for their suspected involvement in the attack; reports describing the status and background of individual detainees; reports describing the findings and recommendations of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) about the detention of the Somalis, including a report of the ICRC’s visit to the UNOSOM II Central Detention Facility; and correspondence and terms of reference pertaining to the Independent Jurist tasked to review the cases of individuals being detained by UNOSOM II.

The records of the USG also include subject files of the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL). Annan served as USG during the mission; Bernard Miyet succeeded him in January 1997. The records contain incoming and outgoing code cables exchanged between the USG and the SRSG of the mission: Trevor Gordon-Somers (November 1992 – November 1994); Anthony Nyakyi (December 1994 - April 1997); and Tuliameni Kalomoh (April - September 1997). The cables comprise summaries of the Security Council proceedings about UNOMIL; final report of the UNOMIL Human Rights Section (September 1997); and summaries of meeting of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Committee of Nine on Liberia.

The records also contain drafts and final progress reports of the Secretary-General to the Security Council about the mission; End of Assignment reports from each SRSG to Liberia; and reports prepared by the Secretary-General’s Special Envoys to Liberia, James O.C Jonah and Ibrahima Fall. Also included are UNOMIL assessment reports regarding: the security assessment mission to Liberia; a visit to Monrovia central prison by the UN Political Officer in charge of human rights; and the Secretary-General dispatched, fact-finding mission to Liberia, undertaken in August 1994 to ascertain the situation in the country and the status of the peace process in order to advise him on the course of action to be recommended to the Security Council. Daily situation reports from the UN Peace-building Office in Liberia (UNOL) sent from the Representative of the Secretary-General, Felix Downes-Thomas to UN Under-Secretary- General for Political Affairs, Kieran Prendergast are also present in the records.

The records also contain memoranda pertaining to UNOMIL and ECOWAS strategy for faction disarmament and weapons disposal as well as reports on investigations carried out by UNOMIL, or jointly with the Ceasefire Violation and Disarmament Committees. Incidents investigated comprise: the 28 December 1995 Tubmanburg incident; the Sinje Massacre of 28 October 1996; and the 31 October 1996 assassination attempt on President Charles Taylor’s life.

Records pertaining to the United Nations’ involvement in Guinea-Bissau consist primarily of code cables forwarded to the Department of Political Affairs (DPA) from the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS), whose headquarters was located in Bissau. The code cables consist of: yearly briefs on the mission’s objectives; summaries of meetings between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the President of Guinea-Bissau Kumba Yalá, who served from 17 February 2000 until the military coup of 14 September 2003; summaries of meetings between the SRSG and General Ansumane Mané, the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Guinea Bissau and Head of the Military Junta, who led the uprising against the government of President João Bernardo Vieira; briefs about the volatile political situation in Guinea-Bissau; memoranda about the activities of the National Assembly; and summaries of informal consultations of the Security Council on United Nations activities in Guinea-Bissau.

The UNOGBIS records also include briefs about a variety of topics, including: the implementation of the Abuja Peace Agreement of 1 November 1998 signed between the Government of Guinea Bissau and the Self Proclaimed Military Junta; and the investiture of President Kumba Yalá on 17 February 2000; plots to overthrow the government and assassinate the President. There is also information about the revision of the country’s Constitution; civil discontent manifested in demonstrations and labor strikes; the status of political prisoners and military detainees; demobilization and reintegration of former combatants; the involvement of Bissau-Guinean forces in the factional fighting occurring in Casamance, a southern province of Senegal.

In addition, the UNOGBIS files contain: the report of United Nations Heads of Agencies to Guinea Bissau, 2-9 August 1998; the report of the United Nations Multidisciplinary Mission to Guinea-Bissau, 2-8 December 1998; and memoranda about the role of the United Nations in Guinea-Bissau, drafted prior to the establishment of UNOGBIS in 1999.

The records of the USG also contain situation reports, code cables and subject files relating to the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT).

Daily and weekly situation reports were sent from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in the Tajik capital of Dushanbe, Tajikistan, to United Nations headquarters in New York. Political developments noted in situation reports include: activities of the Government of Tajikistan and of the Majlisi Oli, the Tajik Parliament; meetings between the SRSG and Tajik government officials; and visits of foreign government officials to Tajikistan to meet with Tajik government officials. Military activities noted in situation reports include: patrol activities, activities at checkpoints and road tolls, interactions between UNMOT military officials and field commanders of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) forces, tensions along the Tajik-Afghan border, and attacks and ambushes carried out by alleged Opposition groups against Government forces. The situation reports also indicate humanitarian activities, such as: exchanges of prisoners of war and detainees; the monitoring of Tajik returnees from countries bordering Tajikistan, particularly Afghanistan and Kyrgyzstan; and the monitoring of local populations affected by outbreaks of malaria and typhoid. Security incidents are also noted, particularly hostage-taking and the activities of Rizvon Sodirov, a renegade commander in the Opposition forces, and his brother Bakhrom Sodirov.

Code cables were exchanged between UNMOT Special Envoys of the Secretary-General, Heads of Mission, and Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSGs), with United Nations headquarters in New York. Outgoing code cables consist of memoranda, briefs, and informal consultations of the Security Council about developments in the mission. Topics of outgoing code cables include: the killings of four UNMOT staff near the city of Garm on 20 July 1998, the trial held by Supreme Court of Tajikistan for those accused of the murders, and negotiation over the possibility of death sentences for the accused; hostage crises; harassment of UNMOT staff by the Presidential National Guard and other warring factions; extensions of the UNMOT mandate; and an attempt on the life of the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmonov on 30 April 1997.

Incoming code cables include: minutes of the SRSG’s meetings with the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmonov and the leader of the UTO Sayid Abdulloh Nuri; statements issued by the Government of Tajikistan and the UTO; investigations of ceasefire and other peace agreement violations; and lists of incident complaints submitted to UNMOT. Incoming code cables also include memoranda about: the appointments of Mirzo Zioev, Akbar Turajonzoda, and other UTO members to government posts; exchanges of prisoners of war; the involvement of Uzbekistan in the civil war; amnesty for UTO supporters; drug trafficking; the establishment of the Commission for National Reconciliation (CNR); humanitarian aid for refugees; and the death of UNMOT Lieutenant Wolfgang Sponner in an exchange of fire that occurred on 18 September 1995.

The subject files relating to UNMOT contain: directives for UNMOT’s Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and Head of Mission; end of tour of duty reports prepared by high-ranking UNMOT officials; letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmonov, as well as the leader of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) Sayid Abdulloh Nuri; summaries of meetings of the Task Force on Tajikistan, which convened DPKO and UNMOT officials, with representatives of United Nations agencies and the ICRC; summaries of meetings between the President Rakhmonov and Sayid Abdullo Nuri; and organization charts of the Government of Tajikistan.

Records relating to pre-UNMOT establishment include summaries of goodwill and fact-finding missions to Central Asia carried out by the United Nations in the early 1990s; and assessments of technical requirements for a peacekeeping mission in Tajikistan.

There are also summaries of meetings of the Contact Group, which oversaw the peace process and which was coordinated by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG). The Contact Group was attended by: representatives of Guarantor States neighboring Tajikistan, including the Islamic State of Afghanistan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan; and representatives of the Organization of Security and Coordination in Europe (OSCE) and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Additionally, there are briefs about the activities of the Commission on National Reconciliation (CNR), the organ responsible for implementing the General Agreement signed 27 June 1997. Also present are communiqués and progress reports forwarded from the mission to United Nations officials covering inter-Tajik negotiations. The inter-Tajik negotiations were held under the aegis of the United Nations and were officially inaugurated in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, on 30 November 1995; they were attended by delegations of Tajik government representatives and leaders of the UTO, as well as representatives of observer countries, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Briefs, memoranda, and analyses on a variety of topics are present in the subject files, covering: relations between the UTO and Afghan authorities; denationalization and privatization in Tajikistan and the Tajik government’s economic policy; amendments to the Tajik constitution and the drafting of new laws affecting political parties; exchanges of prisoners of war; the role of the United Nations in the parliamentary elections; coordination between UNMOT and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). There are also discussion papers about: the history of Tajikistan and Central Asia; poverty in Tajikistan; political and military developments occurring in Central Asian countries in the late 1980s and 1990s; and relations among Central Asian countries.

Other records include: analyses and periodic reports issued by the Mission to Tajikistan of the Organization for Security and Exchange in Europe (OSCE); notes for the file prepared by DPKO officials about political and military developments in Tajikistan and in neighbouring countries; and code cables exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the UNMOT SRSG.

Summaries of meetings of the Security Management Team, which was comprised of representatives of UNMOT, United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations, and the OSCE, describe the unstable security climate in Dushanbe and in various regions throughout Tajikistan. The summaries note: outbreaks of fighting between Government forces and forces of the UTO; the activities of gangs; updates about incidents of hostage-taking, kidnappings, abductions, and death threats; political motivations for violence in the region; meetings with officials of the Tajik Ministry of Interior (MOI); the safety of United Nations personnel in the region; and changes to the UNMOT-administered curfew. In addition, there are memoranda exchanged between the Designated Official of UNMOT, Chief Security Officer of UNMOT, and the United Nations Security Coordinator, which cover hostage negotiation policy, security arrangements for UTO leaders, recommendations for reduction of psychological stress in UNMOT personnel, and the development of the Special Detachment for Security (SDS) of United Nations Personnel. The detachment was made up of members of both the Tajik government and UTO and was tasked to protect UNMOT operations and property.

Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Included are files of Shashi Tharoor, who served as the Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping from 1992 to 1996. Prior to this assignment, Mr. Tharoor was a Senior Political Affairs Officer in the Office for Special Political Affairs, where he worked with Marrack Goulding, the Under Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs. Records include summaries of meetings dating from 1990-1991 and attended by Mr. Tharoor of: the Senior Planning and Monitoring Group on Peacekeeping Operations, which was set up to improve the need for interdepartmental coordination of peacekeeping operations; and the Logistics Planning Subgroup, which assessed the personnel, material, and technical resources offered by Member States for peacekeeping operations. Files of Shashi Tharoor largely pertain to the conflict in the former Yugoslavia and pre-date the establishment of the United Nations Protection Force (United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)) in 1992. They include: background notes on developments in Yugoslavia for the Secretary-General; Mr. Tharoor’s notes for the file; speaking notes, meeting summaries, and communications documenting the activities and negotiations by Cyrus Vance, the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General; and remarks delivered by attendees of the London Conference on Yugoslavia, held from 24-29 August 1992.

The records of the Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping also contain the USG’s instructions to all senior officials, divisions, and offices in DPKO, including: the Office of the Under Secretary-General; the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit (PBPU); the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping; the Military Adviser; the Africa Division; the Asia and Middle East Division; the Europe and Latin America Division; the Office of Mission Support (OMS); the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS); and the Civilian Police Division. The USG’s instructions date from 2003-2007 and consist of: notes and briefs prepared by senior DPKO officials for the Under-Secretary-General, as well as for the Secretary-General; interoffice briefs exchanged between senior DPKO officials featuring remarks, recommendations, and requests for approval; email exchanged between senior DPKO officials; talking points for and summaries of the Under-Secretary-General’s meetings; discussion and concept papers on peacekeeping; code cables received from missions in the field; analytical and executive summaries on mission developments; and end of mission reports. The records feature the USG’s handwritten comments and notes to receiving DPKO officials about the matters described in documents.

Included among the files of the Special Assistant are records pertaining to the conflict in the Middle East. Code cables submitted to headquarters by the Chief of the Observer Group in Beirut (COGB) date from 1986 to 1988 and report on: political developments in Beirut and in various regions in Lebanon; armed clashes and outbreaks of fighting occurring in Lebanon between Palestinian, Iranian, Syrian, Lebanese, and Israeli armed forces; and activities related to splinter groups and resistance operations in Lebanon.

There are also summaries of meetings of the Security Committee associated with the Observer Group in Beirut, which was comprised of representatives of: the Observer Group in Beirut (OGB), the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO), the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)), the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and other United Nations agencies. These summaries detail: the security of UN staff and incidents involving international staff; abductions of civilians and information about hostages; car and garbage bomb attacks in Beirut, including information about the locations of attacks and resulting casualty figures. Additionally, there are: letters to the Secretary-General received at United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquarters from the general public, mayors (muktars) of towns and villages in Lebanon, and from non-governmental organizations; and summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and government representatives on issues related to the Middle East.

Also included among the files of the Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General are records pertaining to the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)). These records include: plans for the implementation of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) mandate and concept of operations, including input from the European Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and United Nations agencies; drafts of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)-FRY Common Document and correspondence related to its signing; reports on the framework and operations of the four Pillars enacted through the collaboration between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the European Union; correspondence regarding the preservation of cultural heritage sites in Kosovo and Methohija which were damaged during the war; monthly reports to the Security Council on operations of the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR); letters addressed to the Secretary-General and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping concerning efforts to locate missing persons in Kosovo; analyses of the assassination of the Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic, which occurred in Belgrade on 12 March 2003; Rules of Engagement and Status of Mission Agreements for United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK); and discussion papers on lessons learned from the administration of post-war Kosovo. There are also briefs and reports on such topics as: human trafficking in Kosovo; the cooperation between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the Kosovo Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG); amendments to the Constitutional Framework for the Provisional Self-Government of Kosovo; security incidents in Kosovo, including murders motivated by political rivalry or linked to organized crime; economic policy for Kosovo; and the establishment of a new judicial system in Kosovo.

Records documenting visits by United Nations officials to United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) headquarters and to other areas in the Balkans include: programs and meeting agenda for the Secretary-General’s visits to the region; briefs on topics such as the Dubrava Prison, cooperation between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and NATO’s Kosovo Force (KFOR), anti-corruption measures, and privatization; political and security assessments of United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) regional administrations, including the Gnjilane Region, the Mitrovica Region, the Pec Region, the Prizren Region, and Pristina; biographical and career information about Kosovan political figures; and lists of laws promulgated by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in the Kosovo Assembly. There are also summaries of the Under Secretary-General’s meetings in Pristina and Belgrade with: United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) senior staff; religious leaders in Kosovo, including Mufti Naim Ternava and Bishop Marko Sopi; representatives of the Contact Group; the President of Kosovo Ibrahim Rugova; members of the Kosovo Assembly; and representatives of civil society.

Also included are records of meetings about United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and Kosovo, and these consist of talking points, notes for the file, summaries of telephone conversations, and summaries of meetings. Included are summaries of meetings held individually by the Secretary-General, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, and the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Special Representative of the Secretary-General’s (SRSG) with: Mr. Vojislav Kostunica, the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); Ambassador Dejan Sahovic, Permanent Representative of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); Mr. Nebojsa Covic, the Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia; Crown Prince Alexander II of Yugoslavia; and government representatives of Serbia and Montenegro. Additionally, there are summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and government representatives of Member States on developments in Kosovo. Also included are summaries of meetings held by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, as well as by the Secretary-General, with incoming and outgoing Special Representatives of the Secretary-General for United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), and Deputy Special Representatives of the Secretary-General for United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) (DSRSG). Meeting summaries of the High Level Steering Group (HLSG), which was coordinated by the European Commission and the World Bank, and of the Working Level Steering Group set up by the HLSG, concern the process of economic reconstruction, stabilization, reform, and development in Kosovo and the Balkans. Files on steering group meetings also include briefs and notes on: economic and fiscal policy in Kosovo; the promotion of private sector development in Kosovo; the impact of the Kosovo crisis on neighboring countries; and the role of United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) in the development of economic and social policy in Kosovo. There are also summaries of meetings of the Contact Group, consisting of representatives of France, Italy, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Germany.

There are also memoranda, correspondence, and program plans relating to United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)’s administration of the Mitrovica region in northern Kosovo, including: reports on the eruption of violence in the region against UN peacekeepers and among ethnic minorities; analyses of the tensions between Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo Albanians in the Mitrovica region; and briefs on the cooperation between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) for establishing law and order, and for establishing political co-existence of minorities in Mitrovica.

Documents pertaining to humanitarian assistance provided by United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) include: memoranda outlining steps for the return of refugees and internally displaced persons to Kosovo; memoranda about the airdrop of food over concentrations of IDPs in Kosovo; briefs on the atmosphere of humanitarian coordination in Kosovo among non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations, and United Nations agencies; briefs for the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping on issues concerning Kosovan refugees and displaced persons; petitions and letters submitted to the Secretary-General and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping from groups urging action on locating missing persons, including ethnic Albanians, Serbs, Roma, and Muslims; and memoranda and updates on Kosovo Albanian political prisoners detained in prisons in Serbia. Records concerning the transportation of deceased Kosovans from the United States for burial in Kosovo include correspondence, death certificates, and vital records.

Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (ASG)
Records from the office of the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG), Office of Operations, are included. Mr. Iqbal Riza served in this position from March 1993 to January 1996. The Office of Operations was responsible for: the executive direction of peacekeeping operations and field missions; relations with members of the Security Council and troop-contributing countries; discharge of the Secretary-General’s reporting obligations to the Member States; and assisting the Under-Secretary-General in the elaboration and execution of policy and procedures for the overall implementation of the DPKO. The ASG’s records largely encompass files that are mission-specific, or specific to conflict areas.

Many records in the ASG’s files pre-date the creation of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) in 1992 and reflect the history of peacekeeping in United Nations. These records include: correspondence exchanged between the Secretary-General and heads of state and ambassadors; and summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and government representatives. Also included are: working papers and summaries of meetings of the Consultations on Namibia, held between United Nations officials, representatives of African governments, and representatives of Namibian political parties in Geneva in November 1979; analyses and briefs on the deteriorating political and military situation in Chad in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and on the possible intervention of the United Nations in the conflict; letters from the general public dating from 1987 addressed to the Secretary-General about the actions taken by the governments of India and Sri Lanka, and also about activities of militant Tamil groups; cables issued in the early 1980s by the United Nations Information Centre (UNIC) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, detailing political relations and military aggression between Argentina and the United Kingdom; and reports about Argentinean press coverage of the Falklands Islands conflict.

Records pertaining to the United Nations Emergency Force II (UNEF II) include: summaries of discussions in the Security Council about the mandate of UNEF II which was deployed from 1973-1979; summaries of meetings with representatives of counties contributing contingents to UNEF II; and cables about mission developments authored by the UNEF II Chief Information Officer. Additionally, there are several files dating from the 1970s and 1980s on the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, and these include: analyses on the question of Korean unity issued by the Department of Political and Security Council Affairs; statements on the question of Korea made to the General Assembly by representatives of North Korea and South Korea; and press releases issued by the Office of the Permanent Observer to the United Nations of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the Office of the Permanent Observer to the United Nations of the Republic of Korea.

There are also historical reports about peacekeeping and field operations submitted to the Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs, a position held at various times by Ralphe Bunche, Brian Urquhart, and Roberto Guyer, among others. There is a draft of a manuscript dating from the mid-1960s for the book “History of the United Nations Operation in the Congo” by Ian E. Berendsen. Berendsen served in the United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC), which was active from 1960 to 1964. Included are memoranda on the progress of the book exchanged between Berendsen and Ralph Bunche. There is also a historical report on the United Nations Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM), which was active from 1963 to 1964. In addition, there is a draft dating from 1968 called “Historical Report in the United Nations Operation in Cyprus,” by George L. Sherry. Also included is a draft of a 1974 report called “The United Nations and Bangladesh: A Private History” by Tom Oliver, which details the activities undertaken in the early 1970s by the United Nations East Pakistan Relief Operation (UNEPRO), the United Nations Relief Operation in Dacca (UNROD), and the United Nations Special Relief Office in Bangladesh (UNROB).

Briefs authored by the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and exchanged with the Secretary-General and DPKO senior staff pertain to a wide variety of political, military, and operational matters related to peacekeeping. Briefs pertain to: the Assistant Secretary-General’s meetings with government officials of troop-contributing countries; the management and structure of the DPKO; information management and media strategies for the DPKO; relations between the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); the United States support for United Nations peacekeeping activities; and other topics. Additionally, there are: notes for the file authored by the Assistant Secretary-General about developments in peacekeeping missions; letters exchanged between the ASG and ambassadors; draft submissions prepared for the Secretary-General’s report to the Security Council on developments in peacekeeping missions; weekly reports for the Secretary-General on developments in peacekeeping missions; reports on amendments to guidelines for peacekeeping missions; and summaries of meetings of the Secretary-General's Task Force on United Nations Operations dating from 1993-1996, which were attended by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping.

Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Included are the records held in the office of Mr. Lamin Sise, who served as Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary-General beginning in 1994. From 1993 to 1994, Mr. Lamin Sise served as a Senior Political Affairs Officer in DPKO.

Mr. Sise’s chronological files on Somalia consist of: notes for the file and to senior DPKO officials written by Mr. Lamin Sise; summaries drafted by Mr. Sise of meetings between DPKO officials and various parties on political and security matters in Somalia; briefs on developments in Somalia exchanged between Mr. Sise and the DPKO Principal Officer Elisabeth Lindenmeyer; a report of the Special Mission to Somalia carried out from 28 July to 4 August 1994; analyses and discussion papers on prospects for national reconciliation in Somalia; correspondence between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs on matters relating to Somalia; chronologies of recent events in Somalia; and daily digests of the UNOSOM Military Information Office. Also included are summaries of meetings between the UNOSOM II Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and: General Mohamed Farah Hasan Aidid of the Somali National Alliance (SNA); and Mr. Ali Mahdi Mohamed, the President of Somalia. There are also briefs on: incidents in Somalia, including ambushes on UN convoys by armed militia, grenade explosions and small arms fire, and hostile breaches of protocol; the UNOSOM II detention mechanism; the security of United Nations staff in Mogadishu; and United States forces supporting UNOSOM II.

Other records held in Mr. Sise’s office include: briefs on the Civilian Police program in UNOSOM II and on the establishment of the police and criminal justice systems in Somalia; agreements and Memoranda of Understanding between the United Nations and various parties on legal matters pertaining to UNOSOM II operations; reports, analyses and briefs detailing the political and security situation in Burundi; and remarks delivered by Mr. Sise at public engagements on UN peacekeeping.

There are also agenda and summaries of decisions taken at DPKO Weekly Directors’ Meetings, which were attended by Mr. Lamin Sise. Topics of Weekly Directors’ Meeting include: UN interdepartmental coordination of complex field operations; proposals for efficiency in DPKO in such areas as organization and structure, administration, budget processing, and information technology; stress experienced by staff in peacekeeping missions; the development of the lessons learned mechanism in DPKO; and amendments to the code of conduct for peacekeepers.

First United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF I) - Military Advisor Records

UN. Office of the Secretary-General. Office of the Military Advisor to the Secretary-General (1963-1977)

Series consists of letters, memoranda, reports and incoming and outgoing clear and code cables (copies) relating to military activities and administration, including operations, logistics, troop deployment, rotations, repatriation and miscellaneous personnel matters. Primary correspondents are UNEF I force commanders and permanent missions to the United Nations.

United Nations Operations in the Congo (ONUC) - Provinces

UN. Executive Assistant to the Secretary-General (1946-1961: Cordier) Office for Special Political Affairs (1958-1972: Bunche)

Series consists of incoming and outgoing clear cables, correspondence, reports, press releases and photographs relating to the six provinces of the Congo: Equateur, Katanga, Kasai, Kivu, Leopoldville, and Orientale. Katanga province makes up the bulk of the records which detail the conditions at Elisabethville Refugee Camp, general ONUC military operations, and incidents regarding the United Nations Peace-Keeping Troops.

Files include information on air missions; famine (Kasai); refugees (Kivu); military operations (Leopoldville); Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba (Orientale); and maps of all the provinces. Correspondents include Under-Secretary for Special Political Affairs Ralph Bunche, Officer-in-Charge R. K. Gardiner, and Officer-in-Charge B. F. Osorio-Tafall.

Actual series size: 3.5 feet
Accession Numbers: 75/7, 72/88

Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General

S-1116 contains the records of the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), which includes the Office of the Senior Legal Adviser, the Office of the Child Protection Adviser, and the Human Rights Section.

Records of the Office of the SRSG include the office’s central registry files. These files consist of the SRSG’s public addresses and correspondence, as well as documents pertaining to the Working Group on the Utilization of United Nations Resources (Regional Approach). Correspondents of the SRSG include the government of Sierra Leone, diplomatic missions and UN agencies, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

Records of the Office of the Senior Legal Adviser consist of correspondence and legal briefs concerning a variety of subjects including: UNAMSIL offices and building rentals, thefts, labor strikes, human remains, allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse, and the Yenga border dispute. Also included are notes and advisory opinions of the Senior Legal Adviser to the SRSG and investigations into aircraft crashes. Documents from crash investigations include crash site assessments, witness statements, Board of Inquiry proceedings, medicolegal and autopsy reports, death certificates, movement of personnel request forms, and aircraft accident response procedures. S-1116 also includes proceedings of the Special Court for Sierra Leone and documents pertaining to United Nations assistance and cooperation with the International Criminal Court.

Records of the Office of the Child Protection Adviser consist of: situational analyses; meeting minutes; program and workshop proposals; and reports and papers pertaining to the status of children, including child soldiers and foster children in Sierra Leone. The Office of the Child Protection Adviser also documents the activities of the Children’s Forum Network; the National Steering Committee for Military Training on Child Rights and Child Protection; the National Commission for War Affected Children (NACWAC); and the National Committee on Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (NCDDR) during UNAMSIL’s mandate.

Records of the Human Rights Section consist of monthly reports; daily human rights reports from UNAMSIL sectors and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs); reports from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC); reports from the High Commissioner for Human Rights; and subject files. Topics of subject files include the training of personnel; the Human Rights Stakeholders Conference held in December 2005; and the National Forum for Human Rights.

United Nations Military Observer group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

Series documents the activities of the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), particularly in mediating the Kashmir problem. Also documented are the efforts of the office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (HICOMREF) in resolving the refugee crisis during the civil strife in East Pakistan (1971), which led to the creation of Bangladesh. Represented are the following United Nations missions: UNEPRO, UNROB, UNROD, and UNIPOM (United Nations East Pakistan Relief Operation, United Nations Relief Operation in Bangladesh, United Nations Relief Operation in Dacca, and United Nations India/Pakistan Observer Mission). Records relate to visits (1965) by Brian E. Urquhart as well as Secretary-General U Thant to the UNMOGIP area. Code cables, reports and other documentary evidence relate to the Kashmir mission (1965); other records relate to the Kashmir/Karachi Agreement. Records include correspondence, which includes clear and code cables, letters, photographs, maps, reports, and press clippings.

Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General - Subject files

Series documents the substantive work of the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General covering a broad array of subject matters. The series is arranged into three sub-series: Somali political parties and factions (S-1000-0001-01 to S-1000-0003-08), conferences (S-1000-0004-01 to S-1000-0007-04), and general mission activities (S-1000-0007-05 to S-1000-0035-03), with each sub-series arranged alphabetically therein.

The series' title is based on series contents. Files in this series need re-foldering, dates, and screening.

Administrative Files of the Office of the Special Assistant to the Personal Representative of the Secretary-General, Dr. Ralph Bunche

Office of the Special Assistant to the Personal Representative of the Secretary-General

Series consists of correspondence, memoranda, incoming and outgoing cables, itineraries, reports, agendas for meetings, maps of Palestine, notes from informal meetings, and written testimonies. Subjects include but are not limited to the following: outline of a confederation scheme; draft of rules of procedure for hearings, testimonies, and expert advice; Arab and Jewish claims and formal disagreements; drafts of project to create a federal state; code list; proposals, correspondence and written testimonies from many Jewish and Arab organizations including the Arab Bank, Mr. David Ben-Gurion of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Palestine, Hadassah: The Women's Zionist Organization of America, and League for Jewish-Arab Rapprochement and Cooperation. Correspondents include Secretary-General Dr. Ralph Bunche; Mr. Emil Sandstrop, Chairman, UNSCOP;and Peter Anker, UN Mission Somoa.

Information Management and Public Information

The title of S-1889 was drawn from two function series of the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS): Information Management (PKH.INM) and Public Information and Communications (PKH.PUC).

S-1889 contains records relating to the creation, management and dissemination of DPKO and DFS materials that promote the department’s work (PUC). S-1889 also contains records relating to the management of records, information and knowledge in field missions; the use of communication systems and information technology in field missions; and geodata and cartography in field missions (INM).

Records consist of memoranda and briefs about: policy for records management at DPKO headquarters and in field missions; cooperation between DPKO and the Department of Public Information (DPI); and relations between DPKO and the media. Additionally, there are DPKO-issued standard operating procedures on such topics as the reporting of casualties, the submission of situation and incident reports, and public briefings relating to sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping missions.

Also included are: press releases issued by peacekeeping missions; media digests and analyses of national and international news sources, compiled by the Public Information Offices of peacekeeping missions; and plans for the communications infrastructure in peacekeeping missions. Maps and graphical sketches of the peacekeeping host country depict: the deployment of Military Observers, Member State-supported contingents, and mission Team Sites; disarmament sites; zones and areas occupied by military factions; and sectors and geo-political boundaries.

Political Affairs - Coordination, partnership - Discussion and negotiation

The title of S-1833 was drawn from the function category Political Affairs (PKH.POL) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS). Records primarily fall under PKH.POL004, PKH.POL005, and PKH.POL006, and PKH.POL008.

Records contained in S-1833 document negotiations conducted by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping on conflict in peacekeeping mission host countries, fulfilment of mission mandates, and the support of peacekeeping missions from Member States. Records also document the DPKO’s role in advising and contributing to the Secretary-General’s negotiations on peacekeeping matters. Also contained in S-1833 are records documenting developments in peacekeeping operations as reported by the Secretary-General to the Security Council.

S-1833 also includes weekly reports on mission operations produced by the DPKO Situation Centre for the Secretary-General (these reports exclude press or outside agency coverage of the mission). Documented also are visits to peacekeeping mission areas undertaken by DPKO officials, the Secretary-General, and other United Nations officials. Files pertaining to visits include visit programmes and itineraries; briefs on key issues prepared for visiting officials; summaries of meetings; and reports of visits.

Included in S-1833 are talking points prepared by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping for the Secretary-General’s meetings and telephone conversations with heads of state, foreign ministers, ministers of defence, foreign dignitaries, ambassadors, Permanent Representatives of Member States; as well as representatives of international organizations and non-governmental organizations. There are also briefs for the Secretary-General’s meetings and trips. Additionally, there are notes for the file summarizing the Secretary-General’s meetings and telephone conversations. The files also contain briefings on peacekeeping operations delivered by the Secretary-General to the Security Council. The Secretary-General’s meetings cover mission operations; contributions to missions; political developments and elections in countries; troop developments in national civil, judicial, police institutions in countries; views of the international community on the peace process; and UN/Member State relations. These files are arranged alphabetically by country.

Mission-specific files in S-1833 contain timetables and calendars for the implementation of peace agreements, and reports detailing phases of the peace process; and briefs and reports on issues pertaining to peace agreements, such as constitutional reform, ceasefire and human rights monitoring, the reintegration of ex-combatants, demobilization and weapons destruction, the release of prisoners of war, and the return of refugees and displaced persons. There are also code cables, reports, and figures on the work of monitoring and verification bodies enacted by peace agreements, such as the Commission on the Truth for El Salvador, and the Identification Commission, which was active during the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO).

In addition, the mission-specific files contain notes for the file authored by DPKO staff about political developments in mission host countries; notes and briefs exchanged between DPKO staff and Executive Office of the Secretary-General; letters between the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council about major developments in the peace process in mission host countries and conflict areas; notes for the file describing consultations of the Security Council on mission developments; and draft reports by the Secretary-General to the Security Council about recent developments in peacekeeping missions and the status of compliance with peace agreements.

Mission and Region-Specific Files

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
Records pertaining to MINURSO include: summaries of negotiations attended by James Baker, the Special Envoy for the Secretary-General for Western Sahara, on the peace settlement; briefs on legal, economic, and regional perspectives of the conflict; analyses on the way ahead options for action; analyses of the process of identifying members of tribal groups for participation in the Referendum; notes to the Secretary-General; letters to the Secretary-General from foreign dignitaries; and briefs on the implications of the Paris-Dakar Rally crossing through the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Also included is a country brief prepared by the DPKO Situation Centre which provides a general overview of the political and military conflict and of MINURSO operations.

United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)

Records related to the electoral monitoring conducted by UNAMSIL consist of: the report of the Electoral Assistance Needs Assessment Mission to Sierra Leone conducted in May 2001; the UNASMIL Operational Plan for the presidential and parliamentary elections scheduled to be held on 14 May 2002; memoranda describing the political and institutional context of the elections; and memoranda on the Sierra Leone electoral process as described by the National Electoral Commission.

Congo-Brazzaville and African Great Lakes
There are also notes for the file, analyses, and briefs about political developments, the security situation, and the humanitarian needs in Congo-Brazzaville. In addition, there are: consultations of the Security Council on Congo-Brazzaville, outlines for a potential UN peacekeeping presence in the region, and summaries of meetings with potential troop contributors. Records related to the African Great Lakes Region consist of briefings to the Security Council, and daily notes for the Secretary-General about political developments in the region, activities of the Great Lakes Task Force, and humanitarian and refugee activities.

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
Records related to UNAMIR include: Situation Centre Information Digests gathered from commercial and academic media sources covering the regional political outlook and economic and infrastructure development in Rwanda; claims by the Government of Rwanda against UNAMIR for failing to protect citizens’ lives during the chaos of the genocide and the withdrawal of UNAMIR forces; and reports of security assessment missions conducted in November 1995 by the United Nations Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD) of the International Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha, Tanzania, and of the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) in Kigali, Rwanda. There are also memoranda concerning the Kibeho Massacre, which occurred in a camp for internally displaced persons near Kibeho, in south-west Rwanda on April 22, 1995.

Rwanda Updates (memoranda provided by Member States to the Situation Centre) report on activities in UNAMIR, such as: insurgent and bandit activities against civilians, the Rwandan government, and military forces; activities of ex-members of the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR); activities of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA); activities of non-governmental organizations and foreign aid agencies; security and living conditions in refugee camps; figures on the population and ethnic makeup of displaced persons at refugees camps; refugee activity in Burundi; mass repatriation of Rwandan nationals; tensions and incidents along Rwandan borders with Zaire, Tanzania, and Burundi; and discord between UN and Rwandan forces.

Burundi
Included are records relating to the peace process in Burundi in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These records consist of: communications and memoranda related to the United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB); analyses produced by DPKO’s Africa Division about the political and security climate in Burundi; statements about the situation in Burundi delivered to the Security Council; country analyses of Burundi; outlines on negotiation for a ceasefire agreement for Burundi; and briefs about humanitarian developments in Burundi. There is also report titled “Political and Strategic Appraisal of the Situation in Burundi,” December 2003, prepared by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Burundi of the United Nations Office in Burundi (UNOB).

UNAVEM I and UNAVEM II
There are records documenting Secretary-General’s negotiations on the Angola peace process in the late 1980s through the 1990s, and of the operations of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I) and the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II). Notes of the Secretary-General’s meetings with the President of Angola José Eduardo dos Santos are present, as well as letters they exchanged. Memoranda concern the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola, Angola’s relations with Namibia and South Africa, presidential and parliamentary elections in Angola in September 1992, and other topics.

Angola Updates (memoranda provided by Member States to the Situation Centre) report on activities in the United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III), including: political steps and manoeuvres in the Angolan peace process; conditions in quartering areas and the troop quartering process; and developments in military discussions between the Government of Angola and leaders of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).

Sudan
Records pertaining to Sudan include briefing notes to the Secretary-General and high-level DPKO personnel regarding: recent military and operational developments in Darfur; International Criminal Court investigations in Darfur; rounds of the Inter-Sudanese Peace Talks on Darfur, held in various locations from 2003 to 2006; assessments of peacekeeping requirements in Sudan; the establishment and progress of the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), as well as its coordination with the United Nations; meetings between high-level DPKO personnel and Sudanese politicians; demining; and violence against women.

Chronological files on Sudan contain: summaries of Meetings of Experts on Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Sudan, held by the African Union from 5-6 December 2005; talking points for high-level meetings between the Secretary-General and politicians such as the President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir; statements by United Nations Member State representatives on the financing, establishment, and progress of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS); summaries of meetings of the United Nations Interdepartmental Task Force on the Sudan, which concern the Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (IGADD) Peace Process and obstacles to humanitarian work in Darfur; and a Sudan Task Matrix defining the responsibilities of the United Nations and other entities in the Sudanese peace process. Also present are memoranda, articles, and copies of protocols relating to the Abuja Agreement signed on 5 May 2006 and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), a set of agreements signed between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan.

United Nations Protections Force (UNPROFOR)

Files related to UNPROFOR contain memoranda and notes exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and high-level UNPROFOR staff on issues relating to the implementation of the Vance-Owen Plan in the early 1990s. These issues include: military aspects of implementation; meetings between Cyrus Vance, David Owen, and UNPROFOR staff; views of Member States; logistical planning; and UNPROFOR mandate negotiations. There are also memoranda concerning coordination between UNPROFOR and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The memoranda detail meetings between UNPROFOR and NATO officials such as the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe Exercise conference (SHAPEX) and informal meetings with the Chiefs of Defence Staff from NATO troop contributing countries. There are also position papers on strengthening UNPROFOR prepared by NATO troop contributing countries.

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
Records pertaining to UNOMIG consist of: informal consultations of the Security Council on developments in Georgia and on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia; memoranda summarizing demarches of the Friends of Georgia (FOG), a group of Member State representatives and UN officials; and notes for the file. Notes for the file cover such topics as: the future status of Abkhazia and negotiations between Georgia and Abkhazia; living conditions in Tbilisi, Georgia, and the location of the UNOMIG headquarters; humanitarian aid operations in Georgia, including aid to Tkvarcheli, Abkhazia; the approach of the Russian Federation in peacekeeping in Georgia; contributions to UNOMIG from Member States; and telephone conversations between DPKO officials and UNOMIG military leaders.

The UNOMIG files also contain: notes for the file describing visits of the Secretary-General and DPKO and DPA officials to Moscow, Georgia, and Tajikistan; notes for the file on political developments concerning the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, a landlocked region in Azerbaijan with a majority ethnic Armenian population; briefs on military and political developments among countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); and transcripts of news conferences on the Georgian conflict.

United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
UNGOMAP was mandated to monitor the implementation of the Agreements on the Settlement of the Situation Relating to Afghanistan, also known as the Geneva Accords, signed 14 April 1988 between the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The records consist of note verbale submitted to UNGOMAP officials by the parties to the agreement describing violations of the Accords. Also included are reports by UNGOMAP officials of their investigations of alleged violations. The alleged violations occurred in provinces along the Afghan-Pakistani border, and include: the operation of military training camps for extremists; explosions of bombs and rocket attacks; civilian discoveries of caches of arms and explosives, and unexploded bombs and rocket missiles; the transportation of arms and ammunition across the border; the distribution of weapons to local tribal groups; intrusion into parties’ airspace; Pakistanis’ prevention of the voluntary repatriation of Afghan refugees; and the broadcasting of political propaganda. The investigation reports include photographs, hand-drawn sketches of the scene of the incident, witness statements, information about fatalities and casualties, and maps depicting incident locations.

United Nations Observer Mission in Bougainville (UNOMB)
Files pertaining to UNOMB, which was headquartered in Arawa, Papua New Guinea, consist of: working papers, analyses, communiques, and records of understanding related to the peace and ceasefire process between the Government of Papua New Guinea and leaders of the island of Bougainville; minutes of ceasefire anniversary celebration ceremonies; funding requests for reconciliation ceremonies between clans; briefs on weapons hand-in and disposal activities; and memoranda and correspondence of Noel Sinclair, the Director of UNOMB.

United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
Notes for the file cover: meetings between United Nations officials and Ambassadors on MINUGUA operations; functions and activities of the Guatemalan Assembly of Civil Society; anti-narcotics operations in Guatemala; and MINUGUA’s electoral assistance and results of elections. There are also summaries of meetings of the Group of Friends of the Guatemalan Peace Process attended by United Nations officials and government representatives. Also included are presentations, briefings, and outlines of MINUGUA operations related to a visit undertaken from 15-18 May 1997 of the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping to MINUGUA headquarters.

United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)
Notes for the file cover: contributions to ONUSAL by troop-contributing countries; reductions to ONUSAL’ s Military Observer strength; consultations of the Security Council on ONUSAL operations; assassinations of high profile Salvadorans; relations between El Salvador and Honduras with regard to land pockets (bolsones). Also included are: talking points about ONUSAL and the Central American peace process for the Secretary-General’s meetings of the Four Friends; report, forms, and lists documenting technical assistance provided by ONUSAL for the Salvadoran general election in 1994; progress reports of the ONUSAL Electoral Division; and DPKO Situation Centre reports on ONUSAL operations.

Haiti
S-1833 also includes records pertaining to the International Civilian Mission in Haiti (MICIVIH), the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), and the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH). Document types consist of notes for the file, correspondence, memoranda, analyses, discussion papers, and talking points.

Topics covered in the Haiti-related records include: the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping missions in Haiti; strength of the military force and Civilian Police; UN observation of the Haitian elections; environmental conditions in mission areas; public information activities of Haiti missions; appointments to mission posts; contributions by Member States to Haiti missions; the Haitian refugee crisis and Haitians’ right to asylum; the state of democracy and human rights protection in Haiti; assistance to Haiti provided by the international community; cooperation between the United Nations and the Organization of American States (OAS); the Governors Island Agreement signed in July 1993; and relations between the United Nations and the United States on the operation of Haiti missions. Informal consultations of the Security Council on Haiti missions are also included.

Additional Haiti-related records include: summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; summaries of meetings of the Friends of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the Question of Haiti; summaries of meetings by members of the Security Council and governments contributing military and police personnel to Haiti missions; talking points and briefings of the Secretary-General’s meeting with heads of governments of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM); summaries of meetings between representatives of Haiti, the United Nations, and the United States; and summaries of United Nations interagency meetings on Haiti. The Haiti Updates relate to United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) and were issued by the DPKO Situation Centre. They describe: the general security situation in Port-au-Prince (PAP) and other locations in Haiti; incidents of vigilante justice and actions of street gangs; activities of the Haitian National Police (HNP); mass demonstrations; activities of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; political developments in local governments; developments related to elections; and economic development and improvements in the standard of living in Haiti.

Management and Integration - Reporting to United Nations Headquarters

The title of S-1829 was drawn from the function series PKH.MAT002 “Management and Integration – Reporting to UNHQ” from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1829 consists of code cables and clear cables exchanged between peacekeeping mission headquarters in the field and Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters, and situation reports sent from peacekeeping mission headquarters to Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters on a daily and weekly basis. Monthly reports sent from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) or Head of Mission (HoM) to Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters are also included.

Additionally, S-1829 contains a collection of end of mission reports, end of tour of duty reports, and debriefings of Heads of Missions, Force Commanders, Police Commissioners, and other high-ranking personnel deployed in the peacekeeping missions. Often written in the first person, the reports contain a wide variety of information about the missions, including: political and military background about specific conflicts; mission mandates and concepts of operations; functions of the missions’ components and offices; the history of mandate fulfilment in the mission; the achievements of the mission component or office under the command of the reporting staff; firsthand experiences of staff; difficulties and setbacks encountered in discharging duties and responsibilities; lessons learned about the mission; inter-mission relations; recommendations on policy, management, mission structure, and operations; the exit strategy for the mission; and the way ahead for the United Nations in the region.

Included in S-1829 are code cables and situation reports for the following peacekeeping missions and field offices:

United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I)

United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II)
United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III)
United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA)
United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS)
United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL)
United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)
United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)
United Nations Peace-Building Support Office in Liberia (UNOL)
United Nations Mission in Côte d’Ivoire (MINUCI)
Opération des Nations Unies en Côte d'Ivoire (ONUCI)
United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)
United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)
United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)
United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB)
United Nations Office in Burundi (UNOB)
United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)
United Nations Operations in Somalia I (UNOSOM I)
United Nations Operations in Somalia II (UNOSOM II)
United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS)
United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
United Nations Office of the Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq (UNOHCI)
United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI)
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process (UNSCO)
United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
United Nations Military Liaison Officers-Yugoslavia (UNMLO-Y)
United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Zagreb
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Belgrade
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Skopje
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Tirana
United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF)
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)
United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
Office of the Secretary-General in Afghanistan and Pakistan (OSGAP)
Office of the Secretary-General to Afghanistan (OSGA)
United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA)
United Nations Special Mission to Afghanistan (UNSMA)
United Nations Military Observer Group in India & Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)
United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET)
United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)
United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET)
United Nations Office in East Timor (UNOTIL)
United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)
United Nations Mission in El Salvador (MINUSAL)
United Nations Support Unit in El Salvador
United Nations Verification Office in El Salvador (ONUV)
United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
Mission Civile Internationale en Haïti (MICIVIH), OEA/ONU
United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH)
United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH)

United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)
United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)

United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II)
United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III)
Clear cables and code cables consist of: summaries of visits of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) Military Adviser Major General Van Kappen to UNAMVEM III; summaries of meetings between the SRSG and the President of Angola Jose Eduardo dos Santos; updates on the freeing of prisoners by the Government of Angola registered with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); updates on the induction of troops of the Forcas Armadas Angolanas (FAA) into the Quartering Areas; summaries of meetings among members of the Security Council and representatives of troop-contributing countries, and statements delivered at these meetings; papers on the special status of the president of UNITA, as granted by the Lusaka Protocol; and transcripts of the SRSG’s press conferences. There are also memoranda and reports covering such topics as: the collection of weapons handed over by UNITA to United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM); the transformation of the UNITA radio station “Vorgan” into a non-partisan station; the condition of roads in Angola; the methodology for the extension of state administration; the repatriation of mercenaries; and the extension of the mission mandate.

Daily situation reports provide updates on topics such as: the free circulation of people and goods in both Government- and UNITA-controlled areas; the appointments of government ministers and leadership changes occurring in UNITA; the extension of state administration; the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol; activities at the demining school in Viana; discoveries of mass graves; and military activities in the Eastern, Central, Northern, Southern, North Eastern, South Eastern regions of Angola. Situation reports note the SRSG’s meetings with: the Joint Commission, consisting of representatives of the Government of Angola, UNITA, and the Observer States (the Russian Federation, the United States, and Portugal); Dr. Jonas Savimbi, the president of UNITA, at the headquarters of UNITA in Bailundo; representatives of United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations; and heads of UNAVEM components. Daily situation reports also note incidents reported by the Civilian Police and allegedly carried out by elements of UNITA and FAA, such as: armed attacks against civilians by UNITA elements; the ambushing of vehicles by armed bandits; kidnappings and abductions; arson carried out against homes in villages; the mounting of road blocks; landmine explosions; the forced conscription of young men into UNITA forces; the unlawful arrest and detention of civilians; and cattle theft.

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
Code cables consist of: correspondence and communiqués exchanged between representatives of the POLISARIO Front and the SRSG; summaries of Security Council consultations; assessments by the Force Commander on the current situation in Western Sahara; correspondence and memoranda describing the Identification Commission and its work; memoranda describing logistics support provided to the mission; memoranda and notes about the establishment and living conditions of refugee camps, and on the movements of Saharawi people within the territory; memoranda on the release of Moroccan prisoners of war by the Frente POLISARIO.

In addition, code cables consist of: summaries of the meetings held by the Force Commander and the SRSG with POLISARIO Front authorities, and with authorities of the Royal Moroccan Army (RMA); summaries of meetings between officials of the United Nations Office of Special Political Affairs (OSPA) and United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) officials during their visit to United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) in January 1992; and summaries of meetings between POLISARIO Front representatives and United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) officials held at the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) Liaison Office in Tindouf, Algeria.

Code cables exchanged between the SRSG and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping include memoranda about a variety of subjects, including: negotiations about the Baker Plan and the resignation of Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General James A. Baker III; the development of confidence-building measures such as family visits exchanged between Saharawi refugees and their relatives living in Moroccan-held territories; demonstrations by pro-POLISARIO Front non-governmental organizations at the Moroccan Wall, which divides Moroccan-controlled and POLISARIO Front-controlled areas; and illegal immigration routes through Western Sahara to Morocco and Europe.

Daily and weekly situation reports detail: relations between the SRSG and Moroccan, Algerian, and Mauritanian government officials; violations of the ceasefire allegedly committed by the Frente POLISARIO and by the Royal Moroccan Army; visits by the Force Commander to the North and South Sectors; the manning of Observation Posts; and activities of Team Sites in the North and South Sectors. Also noted in situation reports are activities of the Identification Commission, which was established by the mission in 1994 to identify potential voters for participation in the referendum on the future sovereignty of the territory. Notes about operations carried out at Identification Centers detail: daily and weekly volume of voters identified; and the Saharawi tribes, fractions, and subfractions participating in the identification process.

United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS)
Code cables forwarded to Department of Political Affairs (DPA) from the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS), consist of: summaries of meetings and telephone conversations between the SRSG and Bissau-Guinean political officials, including the former president João Bernardo “Nino” Vieira, former President Kumba Yalá, and Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Júnior; letters exchanged between the Secretary-General Kofi Annan and the President of Guinea-Bissau Henrique Pereira Rosa; memoranda noting visits of heads of state of neighbouring West African countries; the activities of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC); and briefs about the legislative elections held 28 March 2004 and the presidential elections held 19 June 2005. There are also memoranda and briefs on: the UNOGBIS mandate; elections of individuals to the Supreme Court; and the activities of the Transitional Government in 2003 and 2004. Notable records include: the End of Mission Report prepared by David Stephen, Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) in Guinea-Bissau, dated 16 April 2004; the report of the Multidisciplinary Review Mission requested by the Security Council and dispatched to Guinea-Bissau during 12-17 February 2005; and the report of the End of Mission of the Special Envoy for Guinea-Bissau, dated 1 August 2005.

United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)
Included among code cables are: summaries of meetings conducted by the SRSG, including with the President of Sierra Leone Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, and with General Issa Sesay, a commander in the Revolutionary United Front (RUF); summaries of meetings of the High-Level Contact Group held between officials of the Government of Sierra Leone (GOSL) and UNAMSIL officials; summaries of Police Steering Committee meetings held between members of the Sierra Leone Police, the Commonwealth Community Safety and Security Project, and UNAMSIL; summaries of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Donor Coordination meetings held between embassy officials, UNDP staff, UNAMSIL staff, and representatives of the European Union and the World Bank; reports about liquidation and the transition to the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL); and periodic reports by the United Nations Assessment Team on the progress of UNAMSIL. The end of mission reports of the Police Commissioner and Force Commander are also found in the code cables.

In addition, the UNAMSIL code cables contain: consultations of the Security Council about the situation in Sierra Leone; draft reports of the Secretary-General on United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for the Security Council; analyses of the general elections of 1996 and 2002, the local government elections of 2004, and the presidential and parliamentary elections of 2007; analyses of Paramount Chieftaincy elections; analyses on the reform of Sierra Leon’s National Electoral Commission and Political Parties Registration Commission; profiles of political parties; briefs on the diamond mining trade in Sierra Leone, regulation measures enacted by the GOSL on the diamond mining trade, and implementation of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme for diamonds; weekly assessments of the demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants into civil society; statistics on child soldiers; briefs about the protection of civilians in armed conflict; and briefs on the facilitation the repatriation of refugees.

There are also monthly reports prepared by the UNAMSIL Human Rights Section, which detail: activities of the Sierra Leonean judiciary and the Special Court for Sierra Leone, including trials of President of Liberia Charles Taylor and prominent members of the Civil Defence Forces (CDF), Revolutionary United Front (RUF), and Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC); the mission’s monitoring of police stations; conditions in prisons and internment centers; developments in cases of human rights violations being monitored; investigations of mass graves conducted by forensic experts; activities of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission; training in human rights awareness provided to civilians and local police; statistics concerning refugee movements and humanitarian needs. Monthly reports by the Child Protection Adviser detail: training in child protection and child rights for mission personnel; updates on strengthening child protection measures in Sierra Leonean civil society; the reintegration of child ex-combatants and children separated from their families and communities; child trafficking; and issues concerning street children and refugee children.

Additional code cables, including monthly and daily situation reports, detail topics such as: relations between the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) and the Sierra Leone Police; amputee rights; alleged violations of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora by UNAMSIL staff; the border dispute between Guinea and Sierra Leone over the town of Yenga; and youth unrest.

United Nations Peace-Building Support Office in Liberia (UNOL)
Code cables consist of: letters exchanged between the President of Liberia Charles Taylor and the Secretary-General, and letters exchanged between President Charles Taylor and the President of the Security Council; summaries of meetings between the SRSG and Liberian government ministers; analyses of activities of the Government of Liberia (GOL); text of President Charles Taylor’s addresses to the national legislature and to the nation; position statements of political parties and non-governmental organizations; comments and analyses of the UNOL mandate; annual reports on UNOL and overviews of its objectives; meeting summaries and reports about the Mano River Union, a regional economic union which during the mandate of UNOL comprised representatives of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea; updates on UNOL’s weapons disposal program; briefs on border hostilities and tensions between Guinea and Liberia; and security briefs on activities of insurgents representing the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), a rebel group that sought to remove the Taylor government.

United Nations Mission in Côte d'Ivoire (MINUCI)
Code cables consist of: briefs on activities of the Monitoring Committee, and on the implementation of the Linas-Marcoussis Agreement, signed on 23 January 2003; briefs for the Security Council on the situation in Cote d’Ivoire, describing developments affecting the political climate and activities of the SRSG in promoting the peace dialogue; briefs describing the Ivorian conflict and the challenges faced by the country in transitioning from a one-party state and patriarchal regime to a multi-party constitutional and democratic system; memoranda on demonstrations and incidents of small arms and machete violence resulting in the killing and injuring of civilians; and briefs on staffing and deployment. Additionally, there are summaries of meetings between MINUCI officials and leaders of FANCI (Forces Armée Nationales of Côte d'Ivoire), and summaries of meetings between the SRSG and: the president of Côte d'Ivoire Laurent Gbagbo; the Ivorian Prime Minister Seydou Diarra (May - October 2000); and heads of state of West African countries.

United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (ONUCI)
Code cables consist of: briefs on the security situation in the Zone of Confidence (ZOC), a buffer zone established between the Ivorian government and rebel groups, and patrolled by Opération des Nations Unies en Côte d'Ivoire (ONUCI) peacekeepers; reports by the Tripartite Monitoring Group, which detail major developments in the peace process in Cote d'Ivoire (the Tripartite Monitoring Group was established by the Accra III Agreement of 30 July 2004); updates on political and military developments for Security Council consultations on Cote d’Ivoire; reports on human rights violations in Cote d'Ivoire, including reports on incidents in Bouaké and reports by the Fact-Finding Mission on Human Rights Violations in Korhogo; briefs relating to the mediation effort led by the African Union and South African President Thabo Mbeki, which culminated in the Pretoria Agreement, signed on 6 April 2005; Media Monitoring Reports; briefs on the status of disarmament, dembilization, and reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants in Cote d'Ivoire; and briefs and memoranda on the activities of militia groups in Cote d’Ivoire, and on the Young Patriots, a youth movement supportive of Gbabo and his ruling Ivorian Popular Front party. There are also summaries of meetings between the SRSG and: the President of Cote d'Ivoire Laurent Gbagbo; the Prime Minister of Cote d'Ivoire Charles Konan Banny (2005-2007); leaders of the Forces Nouvelles; and heads of state of neigboring countries, including Burkina Faso, Niger, and Senegal.

United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)
Code cables consist of: summaries of meetings of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General’s (SRSG) with the President of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Joseph Kabila; summaries of meetings of the SRSG with heads of state of countries neighboring the DRC, including the President of Rwanda Paul Kagame and the President of South Africa Thabo Mbeki; summaries of meetings of the Force Commander with the Minister of Defence of the DRC; outlines of the political, military, security, and humanitarian strategies of MONUC in the Ituri region and the eastern provinces; memoranda related to the activities and arrest of Mathieu Ngudjolo, a former senior commander of the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI); reports about the taking and release of hostages; minutes for meetings of the Security Management Committee; informal consultations of the Security Council on the situation in the DRC; and letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and heads of state in the Great Lakes Region.

Additionally, code cables include briefs and memoranda about: the efforts of the Transitional Government, set up in July 2003, to re-establish state authority throughout the DRC; the activities of the International Commission to Accompany the Transition (CIAT), a body that was composed of the five permanent members of the Security Council plus representatives of Angola, Belgium, Canada, Gabon, South Africa, Zambia, the African Union, the European Union and MONUC; cooperation between MONUC and the International Criminal Court (ICC); measures issued by the SRSG to combat sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) perpetrated by MONUC personnel; and diamond mining and the local economy. Also included are Memoranda of Understanding relevant to MONUC’s operations and activities.

There are also: weekly summaries describing MONUC military activities; a Campaign Plan for MONUC Eastern Division forces dated 14 March 2005; and the MONUC Rules of Engagement dated 14 February 2006; correspondence on the operations of MONUC’s Ituri Brigade, which coordinated with the Armed Forces of the DRC to intervene in the Ituri conflict; and briefs about arms trafficking in the Ituri region. Additionally, there are reports about the brassage process, the formal integration, beginning in 2004, of combatants from various armed groups in the DRC, to dismantle faction loyalties and form a National, Restructured and Integrated Army (NRIA). Also present are: Standard Operating Procedures, dated 8 January 2004, for arrests and detentions carried out by the MONUC Ituri Brigade; and updates about individuals held in detention at MONUC military camps, the status of accused individuals awaiting trial, and the conditions of prisons in the DRC.

Daily reports sent from the MONUC Office in Bunia, located in the Ituri district in the north east, note: political developments; field trips undertaken by MONUC staff to towns and villages near Bunia to verify human rights protection and the humanitarian situation; relations among ethnic groups in the Ituri region, particularly between the Lendu farmers and the Hema herdsmen; meetings between MONUC military officers and leaders of a rebel groups, particularly the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI); the exodus of local populations of towns and villages to camps for internally displaced persons (IDP); and the discoveries of mass graves.

Monthly reports of the MONUC Human Rights Section note: obstruction of justice, maltreatment, looting and destruction of property, arbitrary arrest, extrajudicial executions, massacres, killings done by machete and other crude instruments, disappearances, family separation, hostage taking, forced labor, detention in clandestine underground cells, and sexual violence carried out throughout provinces in the DRC by members of armed rebel groups on the civilian population. These groups include: the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI), Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), former troops of the Congolese National Army (ANC), Mai-Mai militias, and Forces Armées du Peuple Congolais (FAPC). Monthly human rights reports also describe incidents of cannibalism. There are also briefs about the arrests and trials of warlords who operated in the Ituri region and in the eastern provinces of North Kivu and South Kivu, who were suspected of orchestrating massacres and large scale human rights violations targeting various ethnic groups, including Rwandaphone community, the Hunde ethnic group, the Banyamulenge ethnic group, and the Alur ethnic group.

The “MONUC Ituri Special Report” dated 20 April 2004 describes gross violations of human rights in the Ituri region between January 2002 and December 2003. There is a report dated 13 September 2004 about the massacre that took place on 13 August 2004 at a transit centre housing Banyamulenge and Burundian refugees in the village of Gatumba, Burundi, that killed approximately 166 civilians. The Gatumba report was jointly authored by MONUC and the United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB). There are also reports about killings, abductions, forced labor, and sexual slavery in communities along the shore of Lake Albert.

Monthly reports of the MONUC Child Protection Section cover such topics as: child soldier demobilization, child victims of sexual abuse, and health and vaccination campaigns for children.

United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)
Code cables consist of briefs and memoranda on a variety of topic, including: the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), brokered in 2005 and signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A); inter-factional fighting in Darfur; troop movements and militia attacks in Eastern Sudan, and on the deployment of the Sudanese People’s Liberation Army; and violence and political and military tensions along the Sudan/Chad border. There are also: summaries of the SRSG’s visits to Asmara, Eritrea, to meet with leaders of the Eastern Front (a coalition of rebel groups opertating in eastern Sudan along the border with Eritrea), Eritrean government officials, and Sudanese political groups; meeting summaries and notes to the file on negotiations among the parties in conflict attended by United Nations Missions in Sudan (UNMIS) officials and held in Abuja, Nigeria, which culminated with the signing of the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) on 5 May 2006 between the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM); briefs on the human rights situation in Darfur, and meeting summaries of the Sub-Committee of the Joint Implementation Mechanism for Human Rights and Protection (Sub-JIM); updates for the Security Council on developments in United Nations Missions in Sudan (UNMIS); briefs on camps for internally displaced persons (IDP); and analyses and discussion papers on topics such as countering violence against women in Darfur and mine action support in Sudan. There are also summaries of meetings held by the SRSG with: President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir; President of Eritrea Isaias Afwerki; leaders of the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS); and John Garang, a Sudanese politician and leader of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLM/A).

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
Code cables include: notes on proceedings and informal consultations of the Security Council on the situation in Rwanda; briefs exchanged between the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) Military Adviser Franklin van Kappen and the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR) Force Commander; military assessments authored by the Force Commander Major General Romeo A. Dallaire; letters exchanged between United Nations officials and representatives of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF); reports of mass murders and atrocities; memoranda and reports pertaining to the work of the Commission of Inquiry on Kibeho; briefs and analyses on the location and security of United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR) headquarters, anti-United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR) sentiment, and prison conditions in Rwanda; briefs on United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR)’s withdrawl plan Operation Harbour Lights; memoranda detailing visits by members of the Commission of Experts to Rwanda in 1994 and actions of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and of its prosecutors. There are also: analytical summaries of broadcasts on the Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM), a Rwandan radio station that played a role in the genocide; transcripts of broadcasts on Radio Rwanda and Radio Muhabura; and memoranda and updates on the operations of Radio United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR). Records related to the refugee crisis detail: logistics operations and the collection of intelligence in refugee camps; the categories of refugees in the camp population; camp infrastructure; humanitarian activities; and reasons for the delay of repatriation. There are also: briefs on the refugee situation in Burundi: and reports about Rwandan refugee camps in Zaire and Tanzania, which describe security in the camps and the intimidation of refugees by extremist elements. Also included are summaries of meetings of the Force Commander with the Chief of Staff of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and summaries of the SRSG’s meetings with: Rwandan President Pasteur Bizimungu; Rwandan Vice-President General Paul Kagame; and Prime Minister Pasteur Twagiramungu.

Daily situation reports detail: the SRSG’s and Force Commander’s activities; patrol, reconnaissance, and investigation conducted by Military Observers in sectors; incidents of banditry, cattle theft, raiding of homes, landmine explosions, beatings, machete killings, and discoveries of mass graves; visits to prisons; arrests due to alleged participation in the 1994 genocide; civil demonstrations and conditions at primary schools; activities of bourgemestres in communes; the delivery of humanitarian aid; and the safe and voluntary return of refugees to locations in Rwanda, conditions experienced by returnees to Rwanda, and the registration of returnees at commune offices.

United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)
Code cables sent from United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Asmara, Eritrea, consist of: summaries of meetings of the SRSG with Ethiopian and Eritrean government ministers, foreign ambassadors, representatives of the African Union, and the Friends of United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE); reports of incidents in the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ), a 25-kilometer buffer zone created by the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities between Ethiopia and Eritrea, signed on 18 June 2000; reports of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) Human Rights Office on conditions experienced by residents of contested areas along the Ethiopian-Eritrean border, including harassment, disputes over the use of good grazing land, looting of houses, and abductions; summaries of meetings of the Military Coordination Commission (MCC), a body mandated by the Agreement; briefings and informal consultations of the Security Council on United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE); letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and the Heads of State of Ethiopia and Eritrea; analyses and briefs on the work of the Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission (EEBC); correspondence and memoranda concerning such topics as drought and food security, Ethiopia’s release of Eritrean prisoners of war and Eritrean civilian internees, animal rustling, and landmine clearance; and implementation plans and outlines of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) mandate.

Situation reports note: political developments in Ethiopia and Eritrea as monitored by the SRSG; battalion training, patrolling, and reconnaissance carried out in Sector East, Sector Centre, and Sector West; battalion encounters with local militia; denials of freedom of movement of United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) military units; humanitarian activities, such as visits by humanitarian workers to local schools and medical clinics, and conditions and infrastructure requirements at camps for internally displaced persons (IDP); and mine action activities.

United Nations Operations in Somalia I (UNOSOM I)
United Nations Operations in Somalia II (UNOSOM II)
Code cables include: memoranda pertaining to the Addis Ababa Agreement of 1993 and the 1993 Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia; summaries of informal consultations of the Security Council about the situation in Somalia; summaries of meetings between United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM) officials and representatives of humanitarian agencies; briefs on the security situation in Mogadishu; and statements issued by Mohamed Farrah Aided, Chairman of the Somali National Alliance (SNA).

Situation reports detail military, political, humanitarian, and civil affairs activities of the United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM) and United Nations Operations in Somalia II (UNOSOM) missions. Noted about the military situation are: organized violence, including ambushes, battles, mortar attacks, and sniper activity; activities of armed gangs, factional militia, and militia on sea; inter-clan fighting in villages; convoy escort and troop movements; discoveries of weapons and explosives caches; demonstrations around United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR)-occupied buildings; and activities of United States Marines. Political developments described in situation reports include: progress of peace and reconciliation conferences and factors impeding the reconciliation process; political developments in Mogadishu, Belet Weyne, Hargeisa, Baidoa, and other cities in Somalia; meetings of UNOSOM political officers and clan elders; discussions between the Political Affairs Division officials and clan representatives about the formation of district and regional councils in Somalia; inaugurations attended by the SRSG of district councils; training workshops for new district councilors; meetings of the SRSG with the President of Somalia Ali Mahdi Mouhammad and Somali factional leaders; and visits by the SRSG to villages in Somalia. Humanitarian activities noted are: activities of humanitarian agencies, such as World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Food Programme (WFP), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and OXFAM; agricultural assessments; drought and locust control conditions; measures to address malnutrition and starvation; locations and statistics of cholera outbreaks; assessments of small scale social service projects; the rehabilitation of school buildings and restoration of education services; and refugee movements.

United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS)
Code cables sent to Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters from the UNPOS headquarters operating from Nairobi, Kenya consist of: briefs concerning the 3 January 1997 signing of the Sodere Declaration in Sodere, Ethiopia, in which Somali leaders agreed to set up a National Salvation Council and a National Executive Committee in preparation for the establishment of a transitional government in Somalia; briefs concerning the cancellation of a peace conference in 1998 in Baidoa, Somalia, due to security concerns; briefs concerning the Mbagathi Conference, which was organized by the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) and held in Kenya between 2002 and 2004, and addresses delivered at sessions of the conference; and briefs on the 10 October 2004 elections for the President of the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG).

UNPOS code cables also include: summaries of the SRSG’s political visits to countries neighbouring Somalia, including Ethiopia, Djibouti, Egypt, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia, and summaries of the SRSG’s meetings with heads of state and politicians; letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and the President of the Republic of Somalia Dr. Abdikassim Salad Hassan, as well as the Prime Minister of Somalia Khalif Galaydh; analyses of the situation in Mogadishu and the activities of faction leaders and warlords; analyses of the activities of the de facto government in Somaliland, a region in northeastern Somalia which declared itself an autonomous state in 1991; memoranda and analyses of the constitutional crisis in Puntland, a region in northeastern Somalia which declared itself an autonomous state in 1998; and draft reports by the Secretary-General about the situation in Somalia.

Memoranda exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General of UNPOS describe: the security situation in Somalia, including banditry and threats to the safety of humanitarian workers; violations of ceasefire agreements; droughts, floods, and other natural disasters; diseases affecting UN staff, such as Rift Valley fever and cholera; the declaration made on 29 July 1998 by the president of Somaliland that United Nations Development Programme staff members were personae non gratae; reform of Somalia’s parliament structure and membership; and other political incidents, such as accusations by President Abdiqasim Salad Hassan of the Transitional National Government (TNG) that Ethiopia violated the arms embargo on Somalia by supplying weapons to warlords opposed to the Transitional Government.

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
Code cables consist of: summaries of meetings between United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) officials and Iraqi and Kuwaiti government officials; briefs on tensions in the Iraq-Kuwait border area, the security situation in Umm Qasr, the deployment of infantry battalions, and on the maintenance of ammunition bunkers; updates on the pillar demarcation of the border between Iraq and Kuwait; updates on activities of the Iraqi police; summaries of meetings of the Technical Sub-Committee of Military and Civilian Missing and Mortal Remains, chaired by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); and analyses and updates on United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)’s monitoring of the Khawr Abd Allah waterway.

Situation reports received from United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) headquarters in Umm Qasr, Iraq, detail: Iraqi and Kuwaiti violations in the demilitarized zones (DMZ), including the sighting of aircraft, machine gun fire, and weapons possession; activities at border checkpoints; restrictions on the freedom of movement of United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) personnel; shipping activities on the Iraqi and Kuwaiti sides of the border, including patrolling and dredging; the movement of international cargo ships in the Umm Qasr Port; illegal fishing activities; the repatriation of Iraqi and Kuwaiti nationals and their families; civilian demonstrations; and abductions, disappearances, and causalities of civilians.

United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI)
Code cables consist of: analyses of Security Council meetings on Iraq; summaries of meetings attended by United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) officials on issues relating to the Iraqi Kurdistan Region; reports of human rights violations in Iraqi detention centers; papers on the humanitarian needs of refugees and internally displaced persons in Iraq and in neighboring countries; updates on proceedings of the Iraqi High Tribunal (IHT), and on the trial of Saddam Hussein held in 2005-2006; reports and analyses of security incidents, including explosions of roadside bombs, abductions, kidnapping for ransom, unlawful arrest, and torture; reports and briefs and on Sunni-Shiite intercommunal violence and sectarian violence in Iraq. In addition, there are memoranda, briefs, and analyses about: elections in Iraq; the formation of a new government and the constitution-making process in Iraq; the role of the United Nations in Iraq; the activities of the Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I); and the International Compact with Iraq. Code cables also include summaries of meetings between the SRSG and: Iraqi Prime Ministers Ibrahim al-Jaafari and Nouri al-Maliki; the Iraqi President Jalal Talabani; Iraqi government ministers; and foreign ambassadors. There are also summaries of high-level meetings on the situation in Iraq held at United Nations headquarters in New York between United Nations officials and United States officials.

Security risk assessment (SRA) reports detail structural and non-structural vulnerabilities, mitigating factors of threats, and risk levels for identified threats. Included are SRA for: the Forward Support Base at the Baghdad International Airport; the compound of the Independent Electoral Commission of Iraq (IECI) in Baghdad; the Tamimi Compound in Baghdad; the Erbil International Airport in northern Iraq; the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) Compound in Amman, Jordan; the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) Compound in Kheitan, Kuwait; and additional locations.

United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process (UNSCO)
UNSCO code cables were sent from offices located in Jerusalem and Gaza, and consist of: summaries of meetings between UNSCO officials and Palestinian, Israeli, Lebanese, Jordanian, Egyptian, and Syrian government officials; summaries of meetings of the Middle East Quartet; notes on informal consultations of the Security Council on the Middle East and on the question of Palestine; summaries of public meetings on the Middle East held by the Security Council; briefs addressed to the Security Council, which cover Palestinian and Israeli political developments, the Road Map for peace proposed by the Middle East Quartet, and security incidents and the humanitarian situation in the region; briefs on UNSCO visits to the West Bank; briefs and technical surveys about the supply and utilization of the Hasbani River and the Wazzani Springs situated between Lebanon and Israel; and updates on incidents occurring along the Blue Line, a border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel established by the United Nations in June 2000.

United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
Code cables were sent from United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) headquarters in Nicosia and consist of: analyses of United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)’s mandate and its renewal; reports on human rights violations allegedly carried out by Greek Cypriot police; Quarterly Gender Reports; reports on the security of the fenced area of Varosha, a quarter in the abandoned Cypriot city of Famagusta monitored by the United Nations, and on the proposed transfer of control of Varosha to the Government of the Republic of Cyprus; and correspondence pertaining to Turkish and Greek relations in the village of Pyla, located in the Buffer Zone, and to the village’s administration and building plans. Code cables also include summaries of meetings of the Head of Mission with: Rauf Denktash, President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1983-2005); Mahmet Ali Talat, President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (2005-2010); Glafcos Clerides, President of the Republic of Cyprus (1993-2003); and Turkish and Greek ambassadors and government officials. There are also memoranda and reports pertaining to such topics as: violations of the ceasefire and incursions in the Buffer Zone; the activities of the Turkish terrorist organization Grey Wolves; political parties in Cyprus; mine clearance; and confidence-building measures (CBM) aimed at the reopening of the Nicosia International Airport. Also included are memoranda, correspondence, and summaries of meetings documenting the activities of the Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus (CMP), including the establishment of the Forensic Anthropological Laboratory, and its work on the exhumation and identification of human remains. The committee was set up in 1981 by the General Assembly to search for Greeks and Cypriots missing as a result of the conflicts in 1963-1964 and 1974.

United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Zagreb
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Belgrade
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Skopje
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Tirana
Included are records received from United Nations Liaison Offices in: Zagreb, Croatia; Belgrade, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); Skopje, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); and Tirana, Albania. Among these records are: briefs and memoranda about developments taking place in politics and government, such as appointments, election results, constitutional amendments, pending laws, activities of government officials, activities of political parties, and civil unrest; weekly reports; reports of visits undertaken by UNMO officials to locations in the region; summaries of meetings between UNLO officials and government representatives; and summaries of meetings between UNLO officials and heads of missions in the former Yugoslavia. There are also analyses and briefs on such topics as: the role of the European Union in regional stability; border delineation and demarcation; ethnic tensions; relations between the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and governments; the arrests of individuals accused of war crimes; and reactions to ICTY sentencing.

United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA)
Code cables sent from the headquarters of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) in Kabul, Afghanistan consist of: summaries of meetings between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai; summaries of meetings between the SRSG and heads of state of neighboring countries, including the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, and the Russian Federation; papers about the implementation of the Bonn Agreement, signed by Afghanistan on 5 December 2001 under the auspices of the United Nations, which note reconstruction developments in Afghanistan and the drafting of a new Constitution; updates about meetings of the Constitutional Loya Jirga, or grand assembly of representatives of Afghanistan’s tribes and factions, on the approval of the Constitution in January 2004; and reports about the implementation of the Afghanistan Compact, adopted at the 2006 London Conference on Afghanistan, which convened representatives of the Government of Afghanistan (GoA), donor countries, and the United Nations.

Other briefs concern: the presidential election held 9 October 2004; the parliamentary and provincial council elections held 18 September 2005; the activities of the Joint Electoral Management Body (JEMB), the independent body mandated to oversee the electoral process during the transitional period; the activities of the Afghan National Assembly, made up of the Wolesi Jirga (House of the People) and the Meshrano Jirga (House of the Elders); strategies proposed by UNAMA on strengthening the authority of the Afghan government in remote provinces; and assistance provided by UNAMA and United Nations agencies for the reform of the Afghan justice, police and security sectors. There are also briefs prepared by the UNAMA Liaison Office in Tehran, Iran which describe the situation in Afghanistan from the Iranian perspective. Periodic analyses of the political situation from UNAMA’s Liaison Office in Islamabad, Pakistan cover: relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan; the activities of the Taliban in northern Pakistan, including the movement of the Taliban across the Afghanistan-Pakistan border; the question of support by Pakistan for the Taliban; and military activities on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border and in the areas of Waziristan and Baluchistan in Pakistan.

Additionally, there are briefs and updates about: the United Nations-assisted disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programme (DDR), noting weapons collection in various locations throughout Afghanistan; the development of the Afghan National Army (ANA); and the activities of national and international military forces operating in Afghanistan, including the Afghan National Army (ANA), the Coalition Forces under the command of the United States, and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF).

Security reports describe violent incidents occurring throughout Afghanistan. Noted are: suicide and car bombings, explosions of and/or removal operations for improvised explosive devices (IED), beheadings, civilian unrest, drug-related violence, criminal activities, fighting between insurgents and anti-Government elements (AGE), and assaults on United Nations staff and property. The security reports note the number of individuals killed and injured, the group claiming responsibility for the attack, and possible political and military motivations for the attacks.

Other briefs and memoranda cover: activities of the UNAMA Gender Unit and the Afghan Ministry of Women’s Affairs; media coverage of national and international reporting on events in Afghanistan; and poppy planting trends and counter narcotics measures. Additionally, there are briefs that note alleged sites of mass graves in Afghanistan and forensic investigations of these sites proposed by Physicians for Human Rights in conjunction with Afghan authorities and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.

United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
Clear cables and situation reports received from United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) headquarters in Kabul, Afghanistan, and Islamabad, Pakistan, provide information about: violations of the Agreements on the Settlement of the Situation Relating to Afghanistan signed on 14 April 1988 (also known as the Geneva Accords), which were registered with the mission by Afghanistan and Pakistan; investigations carried out by United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) personnel of reports of violations of the Geneva Accords; fighting in Kabul between the Afghan Army and the de facto forces (DFF); the battle for the Afghan city of Jalalabad enacted by the Mujahidin; Mujahidin-led fighting in other Afghan cities, including Kandahar and Lashkarhgar; and movements of Afghan refugees returning to Afghanistan. The violations describe: air and ground incursions; militia training camps in Pakistan for Afghan opposition groups; acts of sabotage; and captured arms and ammunition.

United Nations Military Observer Group in India & Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
Situation reports were sent from United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) headquarters in Srinagar, India, and Rawalpindi, Pakistan, to Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters in New York. They detail: the military situation along the Line of Control (LOC), which was the ceasefire line agreed to by India and Pakistan in 1949; activities of Military Observers along the LOC; alleged ceasefire violations (ACFV) lodged with the mission; investigations of ACFVs undertaken by the mission; international diplomatic interventions in the conflict; activities of Benazir Bhutto, a leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party; activities of the All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC); and military and political developments as reported by the Indian and Pakistani press. Situation reports also note the military and political situation in the Kashmir Valley, the Jammu and Kashmir state, and in the Poonch District, a district of Kashmir divided between India and Pakistan. Also noted are hostilities and armed clashes carried out by Muslim militant groups, including the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) and the Hizbul-Mujahidin, such as: small arms fire; bomb and grenade throwing aimed at civilians; attacks on military training areas; the destruction of village homes; abductions; and the hijackings of vehicles. Additionally, the reports note: parties declaring responsibility for terrorist acts; United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)’s interventions in the kidnappings of six western tourists by the Al-Faran terrorist group in 1995; casualties; the release of detainees and prisoners; the activities of Amnesty International; and civilian demonstrations and the imposition of curfew.

United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET)
Code cables sent from United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) headquarters in Dili, East Timor, consist of: briefs and memoranda about the admission of East Timor to the United Nations on 27 September 2002; outlines of United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) military operations; reports on belligerence between the Falintil-Timor Leste Defence Force (F-FDTL) and the National Police of East Timor (PNTL); briefs on the functions and deployment of the Rapid Deployment Service (RDS), the mission’s specialist police unit that dealt with threats posed by armed groups in border areas and rural areas in East Timor; reports on demonstrations organized by Catholics, university students, and other groups; reports prepared by the International Observer to the Ad Hoc Human Rights Court in Jakarta; briefs on the activities of the Commission of Experts (COE), a group tasked by the Security Council to review the prosecution of crimes against humanity committed in East Timor in 1999 and reports of oral briefings to the Security Council on developments in United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET). There are also briefs, analyses, and communiqués on such topics as: support for the East Timorese justice sector; elections of local Chefes de Suco; the activities of armed groups in East Timor; disturbances in prisons; and riots and civilian unrest.

Additionally, there are summaries of the SRSG’s meetings with: the President of East Timor Xanana Gusmão; the Prime Minister of East Timor Mari Alkatiri; the President of the National Parliament of East Timor Francisco “Lu Olo” Guterres; government officials of Indonesia and neighboring countries; and foreign ambassadors. Meeting topics cover: the demarcation of the land border between East Timor and West Timor, the Indonesian portion of the island of Timor; Indonesian opposition to the work of the COE; the gathering of prosecutorial evidence against suspects under investigation for atrocities committed in 1999, the year the referendum on East Timor’s independence was held; human rights abuses allegedly committed by the National Police of East Timor (PNTL); state institution-building and industry development in East Timor; Australian-Timorese discussions on oil and gas resources in the Timor Sea; the grievances of veterans and ex-combatants; the resettlement and repatriation of Timorese refugees; and the language of instruction in Timorese schools.

United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
Code cables sent from United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) headquarters in Guatemala City include: United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)’s reports on the verification of the Agreement on the Definitive Ceasefire between the Government of Guatemala and the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (URNG), which was signed in Oslo on 4 December 1996; summaries of meetings of the Consultative Group; reports on activities of armed groups in Guatemala; memoranda on security threats to United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) staff; briefs on activities of the Guatemalan Human Rights Ombudsman; reports about prison riots and inter-gang violence in prisons; memoranda pertaining to United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)’s support of leaders of indigenous communities in the peace process; and briefs on strikes carried out by agencies in the private sector. Also included are summaries of meetings between the SRSG and: the President of Guatemala Alfonso Portillo (2000-2004); the former President of Guatemala Ramiro de León Carpio (1993-1996); the Guatemalan Congressional President Efraín Ríos-Montt, and other government ministers; foreign ambassadors; and representatives of the Group of Friends of Guatemala.

Situation reports provide information about: political developments and activities of the Government of Guatemala, including constitutional reforms and activities of political parties; the SRSG’s visits to departments in Guatemala; incidents of politically-motivated violence; the activities of United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) operating in Guatemala; developments related to the murder of anthropologist Myrna Mack, the murder of Monsignor Juan José Gerardi Conedera, and other high-profile human rights cases; and the resettlement of former combatants and internally displaces persons (IDPs).

United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
Code cables sent from United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) headquarters in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, to United Nations headquarters, New York, encompass: summaries of meetings of the Friends of the Secretary-General for Haiti; summaries of the Trilateral Commission, attended by representatives of the Government of Haiti (GOH), United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), and Friends of the Secretary-General for Haiti, which detail measures taken to transfer to the GOH, the responsibilities and functions United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) had been carrying out on behalf of the GOH; military situation reports noting activities in mission-designated zones; comments and corrections to the Secretary-General’s report to the Security Council about United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) operations; and summaries of informal consultations of the Security Council on developments in Haiti. There are also briefs on: the United States presence in Haiti; the activities of President of Haiti Jean-Bertrand Aristide; elections; the future of United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH); infrastructure developments; and civilian demonstrations. Weekly executive summaries by the SRSG detail: political, economic and humanitarian developments; and developments in the Haitian Nation Police (HNP) and in the justice sector. They also provide maps on deployment and figures on incidents, such as vigilante and non-vigilante murders, threats against United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) personnel, assault, armed robbery, looting, and jail escapes.

United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)
Code cables sent from the MINUSTAH headquarters operating from Port-au-Prince, Haiti consist of memoranda and briefs on the following topics: the 2004 Haitian coup d’etat, and resulting exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; MINUSTAH operations against armed groups illegally occupying Haitian National Police commissariats post-coup; the occupation of Aristide’s home by former members of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), led by rebel leader Ravix Remissainthe; the interim government of Prime Minister Gérard Latortue and President Boniface Alexandre; the arrest and illegal detention of Prime Minister Yvon Neptune on charges of participation in the La Scierie Massacre in Saint Marc from 9 to 11 February 2004; the February 2006 election of René Préval as President, and related security incidents and demonstrations; MINUSTAH and Haitian National Police armed operations against gang leaders in Cité Soleil, such as Gren Sonnen and Emmanuel Wilmer; accusations by human rights organizations that MINUSTAH’s operations against gangs had caused civilian deaths; and the activities of the Group of 184, the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH), and other militant groups. There are also minutes of meetings of the Core Group on Haiti established in 2004, which was chaired by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and promoted cooperation between MINUSTAH and the donor and diplomatic communities. Other records include meeting minutes of the Friends of Haiti and proceeding of the Security Council about MINUSTAH.

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