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Claims

The records in S-1952 document the claims processing review procedures; evidentiary matrices; and logistics for claim payments submitted to the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC). The function of S-1952 is derived from the Secretary-General’s bulletin: Records of the United Nations Compensation Commission (ST/SGB/2007/10), dated 29 June 2007. S-1952 is arranged according to the six claim categories, “A” - “F”; in addition to Palestinian and Bedouin claims that fell under the late claims programme.

Category 'A' claims were submitted by individuals who departed from Kuwait or Iraq during the period between Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 and the date of the cease-fire on 2 March 1991. Category “A” records document the processing of claims for the first instalment and establishes methodologies for expediting future instalments. The records include: diagrams depicting work-flows; task lists developed to establish an improved workflow for future instalments; memoranda analysing fundamental issues regarding the processing of “A” claims; examples of “A” claim forms to be filled out by governments or international organizations; workflows for the computerized verification of “A” claims; guidelines for the preparation of arrival and departure records; guidelines for the matching programme; and protocols for processing duplicate claims.

The records also contain meeting minutes from working sessions with the “A” claims panel of Commissioners. These meetings were attended by the Commissioners as well as by the Executive Secretary, the Deputy Executive Secretaries, and the Secretariat’s legal staff. Meeting minutes contain updates on claims processing, including: analysis of methodologies for matching claims; review of the verification of claims; and developments in the processing of other claim categories.

In addition, there are departure reports that contain correspondence by the submitting Government describing its National Claims Programme and detailing claims statistics as well as summary reports that identify inconclusive and insufficient claims. The records also document a sampling of “A” claims and detail the methodology and guidelines for review of samples; statistical analyses; correspondence and memoranda addressing the handling of problems with submitting entities; progress reports; and reference material.

Category 'B' claims were submitted by individuals who suffered serious personal injury or whose spouse, child or parent died as a result of Iraq's invasion and occupation of Kuwait. Category “B” records contain correspondence, memoranda and reports outlining methodologies, guidelines and submission criteria. There are also workflow diagrams; instructions for filling out “B” claim forms, with sample forms; examples of required documentation, including health and birth certificates; summary and progress reports on the work accomplished; memoranda and correspondence that detail filing deadlines; explanations of how the filing process works and how to address factual and legal issues encountered in “B“ claims; as well as revisions and refinements to improve claims processing. The records also contain handwritten meeting minutes from working sessions with the “B” claims panel of Commissioners; agendas; and original signed reports and recommendations.

In addition, there are evidentiary and background materials assembled by UNCC or submitted by the Public Authority for Assessment of Compensation for Damages Resulting from Iraqi Aggression (PAAC). These contain non-papers; witness statements; statistical and historical information on countries; explanations of damages sustained; definitions of medical conditions caused or exacerbated by the Iraqi invasion; memoranda identifying after-effects that warrant compensation; and detailed explanations of how the evidence was collected.

Category 'C' claims were individual claims for damages of up to US$100,000 each. Category 'C' claims included twenty-one different types of losses, such as those relating to departure from Kuwait or Iraq; personal injury; mental pain and anguish; loss of personal property; loss of bank accounts, stocks and other securities; loss of income; loss of real property; and individual business losses. Within each loss type, claims were made for a variety of loss elements. Category 'C' claims were among the most complicated because almost anything connected with the lives, livelihood and possessions of individuals in Iraq or Kuwait at the time of the invasion could be the subject of a claim. The complexity associated with processing 'C' claims required the resolution of a myriad of legal, factual, evidentiary and valuation issues, and was compounded by the fact that more than 415,000 category “C” claims were filed. In addition, the Central Bank of the Government of Egypt submitted a consolidated 'C' claim on behalf of more than 800,000 workers in Iraq for the non-transfer of remittances by Iraqi banks to beneficiaries in Egypt. This consolidated Egyptian 'C' claim comprised 1,240,000 individual claims with an asserted value of approximately US$491 million.

Category “C” losses were organized into the following nine groups for filing purposes: “C1” claims for expenses incurred and other costs related to departure, inability to leave, or a decision not to return to Iraq or Kuwait, or from mental pain and anguish associated with hostage taking or other illegal detention; “C2” claims for medical expenses related to personal injury or from witnessing the intentional infliction of serious injury on a spouse, child, or parent; “C3” claims for compensation for the death of the claimant's spouse, child or parent; “C4” claims for loss of personal property; “C5” claims for losses related to bank accounts, stocks and other securities; “C6” claims for employment-related losses such as unpaid salaries and wages or for loss of financial support; “C7” claims for real property losses including costs of repairs; “C8” claims for individual business losses; a ninth 'catch-all' loss type was also included. Claimants were also able to request compensation for mental pain and anguish (MPA), subject to the standards and limitations set forth in Decisions 3 and 8 of the Governing Council for loss types 'C1', 'C2', 'C3', and 'C6'.

The records contain correspondence, reports and memoranda addressing the development of methodologies used for filing and evaluating different types of “C” claims. These include specific instructions and guidelines for each type of claim; examples of different types of “C” claim forms; examination and analysis of potential and actual issues that arose during the process, for instance the problem of double claiming of business losses; and comparisons to other types of claims, including matching between categories “B” and “C” to eliminate overlapping claims.

In addition, the records are also composed of correspondence, reports and memoranda detailing the results of pilot sample studies and establishing guidelines; development of a statistical model to allow mass payment; suggestions and recommendations for improvements and adjustments; development of a compensation formula and an explanation of how it works; reviews and summary reports on claims filed; valuation information, including who is eligible, what constitutes damage, and outlining any limits on claimant entitlements; datasets and detailed statistical information; formulas with explanation of calculations; analysis of data anomalies and outliers; graphs with distribution of claims by type; and computer action requests (CARs). The records also include meeting minutes from working sessions; agendas; and original signed reports with specific recommendations of the category “C” panel of Commissioners.

Category “C” records also contain reference material sent by PAAC to UNCC that provide detailed statistical and historical information on foreign populations living and working in Iraq and Kuwait before the war, their methods of departure, and the effect the invasion had on them. These documents contain affidavits and background material on the inheritance law in Kuwait and on currency exchange as well as decrees and laws of Kuwait from the private and public sectors. There are also reports produced by Adjusters International (AI), a disaster recovery consulting organization that assisted PAAC in preparing its war reparations submissions to UNCC. A compendium of Iraqi documents left behind by Iraq forces after the occupation of Kuwait is organized into four volumes and covers topics related to arrest, detention, or execution; the Ruling Family; confiscation of goods; and transport of goods to Iraq.

Reference material compiled by UNCC are organized by the following countries: Iraq, Kuwait, Egypt, Pakistan, Jordan, Palestine, India, and Sri Lanka and other countries in Asia. The reference material contains articles from various publications, including legal journals; selected laws pertaining to a specific country relevant to category “C” claims; and country profiles and reports. A portion of records composed of other reference material from publications not organized by country focus primarily on past corporate legal cases such as: Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Company, Limited (Belgium v. Spain) and International Technical Products Corporation v. Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Category “D” claims were individual claims for more than US$100,000 for various losses. These were similar to category “C” and used comparable methodologies and guidelines. Category “D” claims were organized into the following groups: “D1” claims for departure costs, and metal pain and anguish resulting from being taken hostage, illegally detained or forced to hide; “D2” claims for damages arising from personal injury; “D3” claims for death; “D4” claims for losses of personal property including motor vehicles; “D5” claims for loss of bank accounts and securities; “D6” claims for loss of income; “D7” claims for real property losses; “D8” and “D9” claims for business losses; “D10” claims for losses arising from relief payments; and a miscellaneous “D” category for any losses not covered elsewhere.

The records contain correspondence, memoranda and reports dealing with methodologies; guidelines for review of various types of “D” claims; valuation sheets; standard operating procedures (SOPs) for all types of “D” claims; refinement of claim methodologies; audit of “D” claims; examples of “D” claim forms and instructions for completing them; instructions on re-categorisation of loss types; and explanation of selection criteria. The records also contain meeting minutes from working sessions with the “D1” panel of Commissioners, agendas; and original signed procedural orders for instalments and decisions.

At the forty-second session of the Governing Council held in December 2001, the Council established a late claims programme for Palestinians who could demonstrate that they did not have a full and effective opportunity to file during UNCC’s regular filing period for individual claims from 1 January 1992 to 1 January 1996. The bulk of records concerning the Palestinian late claims focus on the five instalments under category “C”. These records are composed of memoranda, correspondence and reports that provide review and analysis of claims required for the different instalments; correspondence on improving quality assurance; reports and recommendations of the panel of Commissioners; results from testing of claims processing and compensation modules; and results of matching claims to determine claimants’ eligibility. In addition, there are memoranda and correspondence submitted by the Palestinian Authority (PA) enumerating the reasons that prevented Palestinians from filing claims on-time, including the frequent closure of checkpoints in the Gaza Strip; a lack of information in the press; and confusion on filing deadlines.

The records also include summaries regarding the issue of duplicate claims; computer action reports (CARs); guidelines for data-entry; proposals for the computation of compensation; a “Reasons Review of Palestinian Late Claims,” manual; worksheets and forms for applicants to justify late filing; procedures for identifying irregularities in Palestinian late claims; data entry guidelines; comparative analysis datasets; workflow charts and work-plans as well as reference material used to assist in the preparation of working sessions with the panels of Commissioners. The records also contain meeting minutes of the panel of Commissioners.

At the forty-seventh session of the Governing Council held in March 2003, the Government of Kuwait requested the Council’s authorization to file “late claims” on behalf of the Bedouin, a community that has lived in Kuwait for many years and over several generations and have frequently served in the police and the armed forces of Kuwait. Most members of the Bedouin community were not granted nationality by Kuwait or any other country. The Panel noted with regret that no Government or authority accepted responsibility for filing claims on behalf of the Bedouin community during the regular filing period. Consequently, members of the Bedouin community were unable to claim the full compensation that was available to other claimants.

After considerable deliberation of the Government of Kuwait’s request, the Governing Council concluded that claims had not been filed on behalf of the Bedouin community for various historical and political reasons. Since the Bedouins had suffered losses during Iraq’s invasion and occupation of Kuwait and based on humanitarian considerations, the Governing Council established a special late claims programme for the Bedouin (the Bedouin programme) at its fifty-second session held from 29 June to 2 July 2004. Under the programme a fixed amount of US$2,500 would be awarded to each Bedouin who met the criteria established by the Council and reflected in decision 225.

The records documenting Bedouin late claims include examples of claim forms with a list of required documents needed by claimants; examples of documents submitted by claimants, including hiring contracts, leases and partnership agreements; update reports on the programme; workflow documentation; a “Kuwait Mission” report that detailed the results of a mission by a UNCC team to Kuwait to interview and screen potential claimants; results of a Bedouin sampling project; reference and historical documentation on the Bedouin community; and memoranda from PAAC responding to questions submitted by UNCC. The records also contain “D1” meeting minutes of the panel of Commissioners.

Category 'E' claims were claims filed by corporations, other private legal entities, and public sector enterprises. They included claims for: construction or other contract losses; losses from the non-payment for goods or services; losses relating to the destruction or seizure of business assets; loss of profits; and oil sector losses. Category “E” claims were organized into the following groups: “E1” for oil sector claims; “E2” for non-Kuwaiti corporations that did not fall into any of the other sub-categories of 'E' claims; “E3” claims for non-Kuwaiti corporations related to construction and engineering, excluding those involved in the oil sector; and “E4” claims from Kuwaiti corporations, excluding those relating to the oil sector.

Category “E” records contain memoranda and correspondence detailing verification and valuation methodologies; summary of steps in the verification programme; workflow charts; briefing notes on legal and jurisdictional issues; requests for correction of previously approved awards; a “Report on the Stand Alone Claim Mission to Jordan and Syria;” protocol for adjustment of awards between competing “C”, “D”, and “E” claims; and criteria and examples of questions to use when evaluating overlapping claims. In addition, records are also composed of reference materials submitted by PAAC including auditor’s reports; financial statements; company lists; copies of Iraqi documents showing evidence of malicious damage perpetrated by the Iraqi Army; as well as background information on Kuwaiti recovery efforts immediately after the war.

Category “E” records also contain historical reference and research documentation such as translated copies of various Kuwaiti laws; excerpts from published legal precedents and judgements such as Portugal v. Germany (1930) and the Lusitania Cases (1923); photographs of damage to Kuwaiti infrastructure; memoranda on the Kuwait Difficult Debt Settlement Programme and the Private Vehicle Loan Exemption Programme; and UNCC requests for additional evidentiary information. In addition, category “E” records include meeting minutes and agendas from working sessions with the “E1” and “E2” panels of Commissioners.

Category 'F' claims were filed by Governments and international organizations for losses incurred in evacuating citizens; providing relief to citizens; damage to diplomatic premises and loss of, and damage to, other government property; and damage to the environment. Category 'F' claims were organized into four groups: “F1' claims were for losses incurred in connection with the departure and evacuation of individuals and for damage to property belonging to Governments and to international organizations; 'F2'claims were filed by the Governments of Jordan and Saudi Arabia; 'F3' were filed by the Government of Kuwait, excluding environmental claims; and 'F4' claims were for damage to the environment. Most of the 'F3' claims included multiple types of loss, such as damage to government buildings, loss of equipment, loss of the value of work carried out by contractors prior to the invasion and relief provided to the Kuwaiti population. The 'F4' claims fell into two broad groups: the first group comprised claims for environmental damage and the depletion of natural resources in the Persian Gulf region including those resulting from oil-well fires and the discharge of oil into the sea; the second group consisted of claims for costs incurred by Governments outside of the region for aid to countries that were directly affected by the environmental damage. This assistance included relief for damage caused by the oil-well fires; the prevention and clean-up of pollution; and the provision of manpower and supplies. In addition, a sub-category of mixed 'E/F' claims was also identified relating to export guarantee and insurance claims.

Category “F” records contain meeting minutes from working sessions with “F1”, “F2”, “F3”, “F4”, and “E/F” panels of Commissioners. The meeting minutes address the review of preliminary claim summaries including the evaluation of specific claims; updates on UNCC activities; review of different reports by UNCC such as “Currency Conversion Rate to Convert Amounts in Iranian Rials into US dollars, Preliminary Report: On-Site Technical Mission to Egypt;” and briefings on technical missions.

“F1” records include methodologies; claim review procedures; and memoranda and reports addressing the verification and valuation of claims and evidentiary standards. “F2” records document the verification and valuation of claims through reports such as the report titled “F2/2 Claims Instalment: Consultants’ General Report” that provided expert advice to the UNCC-appointed panel of Commissioners with respect to verification and valuation of amounts claimed by the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for losses incurred from Iraq’s invasion and occupation of Kuwait. The UNCC classified these claims as the second instalment of the “F2” claims (“F2/2” claims). The report titled “F2 Government Claims: Jordan: Alternate Methodology” outlines an alternative methodology to verify the humanitarian aid elements of the “F2” Jordan claims by explaining why an alternative methodology was developed and how it would be applied.

“F3” records include procedures for claim processing; verification and valuation; and record keeping. In addition, there are decision notes produced from meetings with the “F3” panel of Commissioners. “F4” records contain transcripts of oral proceedings for the second, third and fourth instalments. In addition, the “F4” records also include monitoring and assessment guidelines; reports and memoranda on tracking progress of environmental monitoring and assessment projects pursuant to Governing Council Decision 132; reports and memoranda for plans on the assessment of valuation review of claims for the third and fourth instalments; and background material documenting the transition from the tracking programme to the Follow-up Programme.

Records documenting the Follow-up Programme include reports issued by the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PME is the government body in charge of environment related issues in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and provides meteorological information as well as weather prediction. The reports include: 'Uses of the Risk Assessment and Survey Results to Design other Long-term Studies to Support their Findings: Final Report: Planning Document for a Long-term Health and Exposure Study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia;' '7th Biannual Report: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Remediation and Restoration Programme;” and the 'Outstanding Issues Report for Consideration at the 75th Session of the Governing Council: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Remediation and Restoration Programme.' Follow-up Programme records also contain reports issued by the National Focal Points and Independent Reviewers of Iran, Kuwait and Jordan.

The Verification and Valuation Support Branch (VVSB) and the Legal Service Branch (LSB) were both a part of the Claims Processing Division within the Office of the Executive Secretary. The two branches worked closely in the valuation of claims. LSB handled all organizational work related to the task of claims review, but when new issues arose, its teams worked with VVSB and the panels of Commissioners to develop appropriate methodologies.

VVSB records contain memoranda and correspondence dealing with valuation, verification, workflows and methodologies of category “D” and “E” claims, including an indemnity valuation guide provided by PAAC; valuation of intellectual property with discussions of specific cases; verification program methodologies; progress reports and other types of reports including “Evaluation of Losses Arising from the Destruction of Property.” In addition, there are operating and instructional manuals including “D4 Personal Property Training Manual,” “D7 (Real Property) Training Manual,” “D Miscellaneous Loss Types Training Manual,” “VVSB Tool Kit to the “E4” Methodology;” as well as a manual for new UNCC staff. The records also contain meeting minutes from working sessions with “D4” claims panel of Commissioners.

LSB records include correspondence and memoranda with corrections to previously filed claims, such as a provisional procedure for responding to Article 41 of the Provisional Rules for Claims Procedure (annexed to Decision 10 (1992)) that provided corrections to awards due to computational, clerical, typographical or other errors, in categories “D” - “F”; documentation of the investigation of duplicate claims and the attempts to return some previously expended funds; guidelines for reviewing claims that were either too low or too high; presentation slides, transparencies, and drafts of official UNCC reports.

Processing Archivists: Corinne O’Connor, Aleksandr Gelfand
Volume: 81 boxes

Registry Office

The Registry Office was established to receive and register all claims and supporting documentation submitted to the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC). S-1950 contains the reports and recommendations of the panel of Commissioners for consideration by the Governing Council, in addition to Procedural Orders. The function of S-1950 is derived from the Secretary-General’s bulletin: Records of the United Nations Compensation Commission (ST/SGB/2007/10), dated 29 June 2007.

The reports and recommendations of the panels of Commissioners are organized by claim and instalment. Categories “A-F” are represented in addition to Palestinian late claims. The reports and recommendations feature the original signatures of the Commissioners. However, there are instances where the original signatures are not present. In addition, while there are Procedural Orders with original signatures of the Commissioners for Categories “D, E, F” claims, there are also instances where the original signatures are missing.

S-1950 contains 25 official bound volumes titled “Reports of the Panels of Commissioners.” These volumes collect the final versions of reports and recommendations by the panels of Commissioners that were made available to the general public. In addition, there are bound volumes titled “United Nations Security Council Resolutions Pertaining to the UNCC”; “Decisions of the UNCC Governing Council” (volumes 1 and 2); and “Article 41: Reports of the Executive Secretary.” All of the volumes were published in 2014.

Processing Archivists: Corinne O’Connor, Aleksandr Gelfand
Volume: 34 boxes

Governing Council

The Governing Council is the body of the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC) that sets its policy within the framework of relevant United Nations Security Council resolutions. It established the criteria for the compensability of claims; rules and procedures for processing claims; guidelines for the administration and financing of the Compensation Fund; and outlined procedures for the payment of compensation. The records in S-1949 document Governing Council sessions 1 through 75 dating from 1991 to 2013. The function of S-1949 is derived from the Secretary-General’s bulletin: Records of the United Nations Compensation Commission (ST/SGB/2007/10), dated 29 June 2007.

The records are organized chronologically by session and include: working papers; conference room papers; correspondence from member states; session documents, including provisional agendas, schedules of meetings, lists of delegates; statements of delegates; reports of the Executive Secretary; draft decisions concerning individual claims; informational notes; press releases; fact sheets and conclusions; reports and recommendations of the panels of Commissioners; minutes from informal and formal meetings; reviews of UNCC procedures; procedural notes; proposals for adjustments to the UNCC budget; reports from the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS); and post session letters sent to the Security Council and the Secretary-General. S-1949 records also address topics such as the Follow-up Programme for environmental awards; UNCC archiving policy; and arrangements for ensuring payments were made to the Compensation Fund.

In addition, there is also correspondence and memoranda addressing administrative matters, such as communication between nominated candidates and the Office of the Executive Secretary (OES); announcements on the appointments of Commissioners; biographical information of Commissioners; and terms of reference.

Candidates for the position of Commissioner were chosen by the Executive Secretary, usually from a Register of Experts that had been established by the Secretary-General in 1991, that was regularly updated and maintained by the Secretariat. The Executive Secretary recommended the candidates to the Secretary-General, and if approved, the Secretary-General nominated them for the Governing Council’s decision. S-1949 includes records of the Register of Experts, containing lists of potential candidates and corresponding curricula vitae.

Processing Archivists: Corinne O’Connor, Aleksandr Gelfand
Volume: 45 boxes

Office of the Executive Secretary (OES)

The records in S-1946 document the activities of the Office of the Executive Secretary (OES) of the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC). The records are organized by incoming, outgoing, and internal correspondence and memoranda. The bulk of records are dated 1991 to 2007, during the tenures of Executive Secretaries Carlos Alzamora (1991-1997), Jean-Claude Aime (1997-2001), and Rolf Knutsson (2001-2007). The function of S-1946 is derived from the Secretary-General’s bulletin: Records of the United Nations Compensation Commission (ST/SGB/2007/10), dated 29 June 2007.

Records containing outgoing correspondence and memoranda were created by the respective Executive Secretaries or by staff members of the OES and sent to various offices and persons throughout the United Nations System as well as to external entities including: the Secretary-General; the Chef de Cabinet; Office of the Spokesman for the Secretary-General; Department of Political Affairs (DPA); Office of Legal Affairs (OLA); Office of the Programme Planning Budget and Accounts (OPPBA) of the Department of Management (DM); Office of Internal Oversight (OIOS); United Nations Board of Auditors; Permanent Missions of member states; the Public Authority for Assessment of Compensation for Damages resulting from Iraqi Aggression (PAAC); and offices of international organizations that had submitted claims to the UNCC. The correspondence and memoranda pertain to: UNCC budget proposals; responses to the Iraq and Kuwait governments regarding claimants, awards, and governing council decisions; responses to audits conducted by OIOS and reports of the Board of Auditors; comments provided after review of draft reports; updates on the status of processing and payment of claims; and notes regarding the funding required for payment of awards to claimants.

Incoming correspondence and memoranda contain records sent to the Executive Secretary and OES staff members from individual claimants; lawyers representing individual and corporate claimants; Permanent Representatives to the United Nations; PAAC; and other departments, divisions, and offices of the United Nations System. These include requests from claimant nations asking for an extension to file additional claims; appeals regarding decisions made by the UNCC; statements made at Governing Council sessions; protests by the Iraqi delegation over the legality of the UNCC; letters of introduction for newly appointed ambassadors; lists with the names of mission delegates; invitations to conferences, commemorations, and other events held at the UN and elsewhere; audit certificate reports submitted by PAAC that detail successful and unsuccessful payments made to approved claimants; reports of experts and consultants; and staffing authorization.

Internal correspondence and memoranda contain records sent to and from the OES, Governing Council, and the Commissioners. These include meeting minutes of senior management, the Legal Services Branch (LSB), the Committee on Administrative Matters (CAM), and the Committee for Archives, and document security and supply procedures for the UNCC offices in Geneva; archives and records retention policy; and the construction of a claims database. In addition, there are reports authored by UNCC staff and experts investigating environmental claims through site visits to Kuwait, Iran, Jordan, and Syria; reports from site visits to other claimant nations that analyse and document the competency of filing and payment mechanisms; as well as reports documenting instalment payments of D, E, and F claims. The records also detail issues encountered during the processing of claims such as late filing, overpayment, and duplicate claims.

Internal correspondence and memoranda document the administrative management of the UNCC Secretariat and contain information on staff appointments, promotions, and training; invoices submitted by staff members for reimbursement; travel itineraries; background checks; curricula vitae; personnel reviews.; balance sheets with monthly revenues and expenses of the Compensation Fund; and budget planning and requests for upcoming years.

A small portion of S-1946 records contain summary reports apprising the Secretary-General of the progress of the UNCC; notes and briefs from informal meetings and consultations; drafts of budget proposals and amendments; correspondence sent to regular sessions of the Governing Council; and records documenting the task of securing funding for the UNCC before Iraq agreed to contribute to the Compensation Fund through Security Council resolution 705 (1991).

Processing Archivists: Corinne O’Connor, Aleksandr Gelfand
Volume: 45 boxes

United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC) Index of Jurisprudence (IOJ) database

The United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC) Index of Jurisprudence (IOJ) database is a searchable research and document retrieval database containing documentation related to the work of the Commission up to 2002. The Table of Contents listed for the IOJ Main Navigation Screen include: Resolutions of the Security Council; Reports and Recommendations made by the Panels of Commissioners; Summary Records of the Governing Council Sessions; Summaries of Activities (1991-2002); Reports on Articles (16 and 41); Responses to the Reports; Memoranda on Legal Issues; Notes Prepared by the Secretariat for the Governing Council; Secretariat Summaries of the Panel Reports; Working Papers Prepared for the Governing Council; Procedural Orders issued by Panels; as well as Governing Council and UNHQ (New York) Documents including Original Documents from May 1 and 2, 1991. There are also Lists of Documents by Session; Type; and Date. The Main page also includes a primer on using the UNCC Index of Jurisprudence and an Analytical Index.

The database provides cross-referencing capabilities across many different resources. A portion of IOJ records are official documents published by the United Nations; however there is variation between IOJ documents and the official versions. Official and working documents were reformatted in order to facilitate searches throughout the database. Once a search is completed and displayed as reformatted text, often times missing page and paragraph numbers, an official version can be viewed by clicking on the icon marked “Original Document” located at the top of the screen. Most links are functional with the exception of the Decisions of the Governing Council, which are not stored in the database, though they can be retrieved from http://www.uncc.ch. In addition, official UN documents can be retrieved directly from the “List of UNCC Documents by Type” section. All documents are retrievable within several table views found in “Documents by Session, Type, Date, and Original Documents,” and text is searchable within the body of the individual documents.

The “User’s Help Guide,” provided with the IOJ software, explains site and document navigation, search strategies, how to save searches, and how to use the analytical index. Furthermore, the “User’s Help Guide” provides detailed instructions for searching across the database, and points the researcher to special menus applications and functions that allow specific navigation to relevant groupings of documents called “Infobases” by using links within the on-screen documents. The “Analytical Index” provides searches for documents that are categorized by terms such as Expedited Procedures Generally, Evacuation Costs, Expropriation, and Deprivation of Economic Resources.

Government Mission Access (GMA) database

The United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC) Government Mission Access (GMA) database was designed to provide secure online access to governments and submitting entities to process, distribute, and query their country’s claim award, payment, and refund information for claims submitted. The GMA system accurately reflects award, payment and refund activity of the UNCC until 27 September 2007. Subsequent payments made to successful claimants are not reflected in the GMA system.

The database was created with an Apache server, PHP language and Firebird databases. The system was secured by passwords and RSA cards. The central design and purpose of the database, to provide secure access to governments and submitting entities, allowed access to reference information for their claims only, which were updated by UNCC staff each evening. For the purpose of their work, the version of the GMA database used by UNCC staff was modified so that all countries could be referenced, albeit one at a time. Presently, when the database is viewed, the UNCC staff version is accessed.

The Main Navigation Screen allows for Claims Information searches by name, identification number, and country/entities within 15 Claim Categories. The results to queries are displayed in a Claims Detail Screen that provides information about awards, payment history, refunds, Instalment numbers, as well as a link to the relevant Governing Council Decision documents. Claim status and awards can also be queried through the Summary Reporting feature using search values such as the National Reference Number or Individual Claim Identifiers. The Main Navigation Screen provides ready access to the Governing Council Decisions displayed as a table of decisions pertaining to awards and payments. The Governing Council Decisions from 1991 to 2007 that are accessible within the database include: S/AC.26/1991/1 through 7/Rev.1; S/AC.26/1992/8 through 16; S/AC.26/Dec. 17 (1994) through S/AC.26/265 (2007). Subsequent decisions adopted by the Governing Council can be viewed at http://www.uncc.ch/decisions-governing-council (as of December 2016).

The Main Navigation Screen’s UNCC Documents - System User Guide also contains a 12-page document that provides instructions for secure log-on procedures and tips on navigating the site.

United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC) Database and Applications

The archival version of the United Nations Compensation Commission (UNCC) Database and Applications database stored at the United Nations Archives and Records Management Section (ARMS) is an amalgamated version of the database servers and applications used by UNCC staff for the work of the Commission through 17 August 2007. The Commission’s databases and applications sustained continuous software development throughout the era of its use by the Secretariat functioning within the role of a claims resolution facility. The final versions of the applications used by the UNCC in their day-to-day work have been preserved. Earlier versions of the software and applications were made redundant over the course of the Commission’s life and have not been kept.

There are two levels of access for the UNCC Database and Applications database: the ARMS system administrator log-in which allows full access to claimant data intended for limited use and following the approval of the Secretary-General, and the restricted user access which allows researchers to view the UNCC applications and databases but with all claimant identifiers hidden.

The computer desktop icon “UNCC ISS Doco” (United Nations Compensation Commission, Information Systems Section Documentation) opens the UNCC ISS Project Web Page that documents the development of the database design, the ISS Application Audit/MMP, software packages and applications, version information, access information, and commentary. It also provides the researcher with access to technical and instructional documentation that includes information on procedures for applications, processing and management of claims, as well as data on Security, Technical Services, and a UNCC Glossary of Terms.

The full database is operational and comprised of two component 10G Oracle databases, ARCDB and ARCBDN, and a Graphical User Interface (UNCC Main Menu). The initial Main Menu screen contains tabbed headings that will launch specific sets of applications and databases according to the following administrative functions: Registry Applications; Security Applications; Claims Payment Management Applications; Legal Services Branch Applications; Category “A” - “F” Claims; Bedouin Claims; Article 41; Archives; Verification and Valuation Support Branch; and the Information Systems Section (ISS). Within the initial Main Menu screen, there are 57 sub-tabs, of which 12 maintain access restrictions and cannot be viewed by a researcher. With the exception of Palestinian, “F4” Claims, and later Bedouin Claims, a researcher has a number of choices for viewing the history and details of payments for claims in all categories and instalments in the databases. The Claims Payment Management Applications (CPS) Maintenance sub-tab, for example, provides access to Summary Information, Total Amounts Distributed, and Number of Claims per Instalment in a table format with a flow-chart menu screen that details multiple access points within the claims processing procedures.

ARCDB and ARCBDN databases operate in the background and are viewed via the desktop icon (UNCC Main Menu). The ARCDB database contains all claims received, processed and paid by the UNCC through 17 August 2007. It contains all decisions made by the Governing Council in respect of these claims, as well as the metadata for pertinent documents registered by the UNCC’s Registry. It also contains the claimant data related to the processing, valuation and verification of the submitted claims. The ARCBDN database contains claim and claimant data pertaining to the Bedouin project of 2004/2005. This database is in Unicode format and contains information in Arabic and English.

Electoral Division

S-1939 contains the records of the Electoral Division of the United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA). The Electoral Division was established following the expansion of UNOMSA’s mandate through UN Security Council Resolution 894, adopted on 14 January 1994, to include international observation of South Africa’s election, held on 27 April 1994. The records in S-1939 contain correspondence, memoranda, faxes and reports documenting the work of UNOMSA staff and electoral observers.

Under the expanded mandate, the Electoral Division was responsible for observing the actions of the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC); noting the ability of South African political parties to campaign freely; verifying that qualified voters were not denied identification documents or temporary voter cards (TVCs); and ensuring that voting stations were free of intimidation. Any violations observed were reported to the IEC. The Electoral Division consisted of four sections dedicated to carrying out specific parts of the mandate: Voter Education Section, Operations Analysis Section, Adjudication Section, and the Public Information/Media Analysis Section.

S-1939 contains the records of Reginald H. F. Austin, Director of the Electoral Division. These files were maintained at UNOMSA headquarters in Johannesburg by Austin and Michael Maley, Deputy Director and document the work of the different sections of the Electoral Division, as well as other divisions within UNOMSA, including the Peace Promotion Division (PPD) and the Joint Operations Unit (JOU). These records consist of correspondence and memoranda from Electoral Division section chiefs; policy documents; and reports on electoral observations and security situations. Observation reports were initially produced by electoral observers deployed to each of the nine provinces and distributed through the hierarchy of UNOMSA: first to team leaders, then to Provincial Coordinators and Area Coordinators before being sent to headquarters, where they were delivered to the Director and Deputy Director and distributed among the sections of the Electoral Division.

Records in S-1939 also document the work of the Adjudication Section and Public Information/Media Analysis Section. The Adjudication Section was tasked with observing how the IEC handled violations of the Independent Electoral Commission Act, which mandated free and fair elections, while the Public Information/Media Analysis Section was responsible for monitoring major national, regional and local press and weekly and monthly magazines. The records consist of case reports on violations that were sent to the IEC; daily press analysis reports; and weekly reports of the sections’ activities and sent to Austin at UNOMSA headquarters.

Austin’s records also include subject files containing correspondence and memoranda, meeting minutes and agendas, press releases, faxes, and reports concerning International Electoral Observers (IEOs), diplomatic observer missions, and South African political parties, including the African National Congress (ANC), the Democratic Party (DP) and the Inthanka Freedom Party (IFP). These records also contain the IEO manual and information kit. Other files contain reference materials maintained by the Electoral Division, including press articles from South African newspapers, reports and studies on South Africa, and drafts of bills and legislation.

S-1939 also contains records created and maintained by the Voter Education Section and Operations Analysis Section of the Electoral Division, based at UNOMSA headquarters in Johannesburg. The records of the Voter Education Section, headed by Tatiana Androsov, contain meeting summaries, correspondence, and weekly and special reports by IEOs observing voter education initiatives of the IEC and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the various provinces. The records also contain the “African National Congress (ANC) Election Monitoring Manual.”

The Operations Analysis Section was responsible for the creation of electoral policy documentation, development of operational forms and reports, and analysis of IEC activities. The records consist of operational circulars, correspondence and memoranda, and handbooks and manuals issued by the IEC. These files also include daily and weekly reports, lists of voting stations, reports on voting stations preparedness, and fortnightly reports on the issuance of TVCs which were sent to Robert Drew, Chief of the Operations Analysis Section, from Provincial and Area Coordinators. Many records contain annotations, highlighting, and comments from UNOMSA staff of these sections.

The Electoral Division worked closely with the PPD to coordinate electoral observers stationed in the field. S-1939 contains records originating from the nine provincial offices of UNOMSA in Eastern Cape; Eastern Transvaal; KwaZulu-Natal; Northern Cape; Northern Transvaal; North West Province; Orange Free State; Pretoria, Witwatersrand and Vaal (PWV); and Western Cape. Each province was overseen by a Provincial Coordinator of the PPD who reported on peace promotion and electoral observations to an Area Coordinator responsible for multiple provinces. The records include administrative memoranda, daily observer reports, weekly reports, and voter observation forms. A majority of records are from the Northern Cape and contain operational circulars, press articles, and reports from observer teams in the province, as well as records of Sliman Bouchuiguir, Provincial Coordinator and Khalid Zaied, Deputy Provincial Coordinator.

The records in S-1939 also document the work of NGO Liaison Officer Raymonde Martineau who was responsible for coordinating and maintaining relations with domestic and foreign NGOs. Also included are correspondence and reports related to the deployment of NGOs; coordination with the National Electoral Observer Network (NEON); and reference material on South African political parties and the National Peace Accord.

S-1939 also contains records of the Joint Operations Unit (JOU) which was established in February 1994 as a joint centre for day to day coordination of efforts of the four Inter-Governmental Organizations (IGOs) in observing the elections in South Africa. The four IGOs consisted of representatives from the United Nations Mission Observers (UNMOs); European Union (European Union Election Unit to South Africa, EUNELSA); Organisation of African Unity (Organisation of African Unity Observer Mission in South Africa, OAU-OMSA); and the Commonwealth of Nations (Commonwealth Observer Mission to South Africa, COMSA), that worked together in March and April 1994. The records contain outgoing faxes which document daily responsibilities including the preparation and planning for the final deployment of additional observers and logistics related to transportation, communications, conference facilities and accommodations. The records also contain forms completed by observer teams, following visits to voting stations; organization of the arrival and deployment of IEOs prior to the elections; induction, training and briefing sessions in the Johannesburg area to acquaint observers with the electoral system of South Africa and with their roles in the elections; transportation to provinces where they were given further briefings on local conditions; and schedules of their departure.

S-1939 also contains the records of Jorge Espinal, Provincial Logistics Officer in Klerksdorp, North West Province. In each of the nine provinces, an UNOMSA Electoral Observer was appointed as a Provincial Logistics Officer (PLO) to serve as a JOU focal point and liaise directly with the JOU Headquarters in Johannesburg. The PLO worked closely with the Provincial Coordinator in each province to obtain and compile information relevant to the deployment of IEOs; liaise at the provincial level with the other IGOs represented in the JOU; and help coordinate the work of the United Nations Volunteers’ (UNV) Observation Support Officers. The records document the daily activities of Espinal through memoranda and reports contained in outgoing and incoming faxes. The records also include maps that were used by the JOU to assist in the logistics of and planning for the election.

Processing Archivists: Virginia Pastor, Corinne O’Connor
Volume: 56 boxes

Peace Promotion Activities

S-1938 encompasses an integration of records that document UNOMSA’s peace promotion activities under Security Council Resolution 772 (1992) and UNOMSA’s expanded mandate under Security Council Resolution 894 (1994). The function of S-1938 is derived from PKO.POL of the Peacekeeping and Political Operations Retention Schedule (PORS) through the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support, dated 1 August 2011. The records in S-1938 run primarily from 1992 to 1994, with reference to documents from as early as 1970. Records are arranged by location and subject.

Under the establishment of UNOMSA through Security Council Resolution 772 (1992), Chief of Mission (COM) Angela King oversaw the United Nations Mission Observers (UNMOs) that were deployed in all eleven regions of South Africa, with headquarters in Johannesburg and a regional office in Durban. S-1938 documents the responsibilities of UNMOs under this mandate such as observing demonstrations, marches, and other forms of mass action; investigating instances of intimidation, violence and related complaints; noting the conduct of all parties and obtaining information indicating the degree to which the parties’ actions were consistent with the principles of the National Peace Accord (NPA) and the Goldstone Commission guidelines. Observers supplemented their field observations by establishing and maintaining informal contacts at all levels with existing government structures, political parties, and organizations, as well as with civic associations.

S-1938 records regarding UNMOs’ observations include: situation reports covering special or significant events and meetings, real or potential flashpoints, and important breakthroughs in the NPA structures or objectives; weekly operational statistics focusing on regional activities for monitoring trends; weekly chronologies providing essential facts such as event, venue, date, parties involved, and significant outcome (if any). In addition, there are monthly trend analysis reports focusing on the functions of NPA structures; progress in dispute resolution and peace-building; progress of Social and Economic Reconstruction and Development (SERD) projects; and UNOMSA’s working relationship with other international observers.

The NPA built consensus by creating peace structures that were divided at the national, regional, and local levels. These structures included the National Peace Committee (NPC) and the National Peace Secretariat (NPS). The NPC established and administered regional and local structures including the Regional Peace Committees (RPCs) and the Local Peace Committees (LPCs). The RPCs and LPCs acted as mediators and were tasked with recording and monitoring violence and breaches of the NPA. UNMOs attended LPC and RPC meetings as neutral observers providing mediation when necessary. S-1938 records contain correspondence, meeting summaries and meeting minutes. Separated primarily by location, these records also document the interaction of UNOMSA with the NPS including attendance at the NPS chairpersons meeting; UNOMSA proposals supporting the NPA; and reports about the activities of the regional peace secretariats.

Security Council Resolution 894 (1994) expanded the mandate and size of UNOMSA, creating the Peace Promotion Division (PPD) and the Electoral Division. One significant change with Security Council Resolution 894 was the geographical organization, abandoning the recognition of the eleven regions and adhering to a stipulation from the Interim Constitution that there will be nine provinces. In addition, the PPD and its UNMO teams expanded its network of contacts to include the monitoring branch of the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) and continued to respond to the provisions of Security Council Resolution 772.

Prior to the expanded mandate, Ismat A. Steiner was the Deputy Chief of Mission and head of the regional office in Durban. He was named Director of the PPD as a result of the new mandate and directed all facets and areas, relating to peace promotion and violence monitoring, falling within the competence and mandate of UNOMSA, including the preparation of weekly, quarterly, and other reports which are submitted to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General. Steiner was assisted by four Area Coordinators who were based respectively in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban and Pietersburg. The four Area Coordinators were supported by nine Provincial Coordinators. The Provincial Coordinators were based respectively in one of the nine Provincial Headquarters located in Western Cape, Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal (later known as Gauteng), KwaZulu/Natal, Northern Transvaal (later known as Limpopo), Eastern Transvaal (later known as Mpumalanga), North West, and Orange Free State (later known as Free State). The nine Provincial Headquarters were staffed by teams of UNMOs. As a result of the new mandate, observers’ activities expanded to include observing and reporting on voter education, issuance of temporary voter’s cards and following IEC attempts to select sites for and establish voting and counting stations.

Steiner’s records in S-1938 include chronological files, correspondence with the Commission of Inquiry Regarding the Prevention of Public Violence and Intimidation (The Goldstone Commission), coordination with the anniversaries of the assassination of Chris Hani. There are correspondence between the PPD and the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, addressing United Nations Volunteers issues, statements to the UN Security Council, IEC, letters from the South African Department of Foreign Affairs, invitations to gatherings and events, letters from the Electoral division, Electronic Data Processing (EDP) equipment requests, and a Human Rights International report. Executive summaries of UNOMSA contain weekly summaries of significant issues facing UNOMSA such as: major political developments, activities of senior officials, rallies and meetings attended, operational activities of the Electoral Division and the Public Information/Media Analysis Section. Daily and weekly reports on election updates concerning ballot papers, lights, ink, illegal voting stations, temporary voters’ cards, the activities of political parties, encounters with police, deployment of international observers, specific reports of events such as a Nelson Mandela speech, an Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) rally and security coordination meeting. Minutes and notes document meetings between the PPD and the following organizations: Coordinating Committee, Local Peace Committees, Security Coordination Committee, National Peace Secretariat (NPS) and International Observers.

Records also include briefing materials covering a variety of UNOMSA activities including: election information; voter education; voting stations; temporary voter cards; voting observation forms; deployment of IEOs; incidents of violence; observer issues; historical backgrounds of South Africa covering social, economic, and political issues; and weekly press analyses. The materials were delivered as memoranda, newspaper clippings, and reports through faxes and cables.

S-1938 contains records showing the issue of security within UNOMSA. These records include evacuation plans; safety instructions; police issues; reports on security issues and incidents with observers being attacked or carjacked; and discussions about guidelines for observers. There is also correspondence with South African Police (SAP), notes and minutes of meetings, reports, directives and guidance for UNOMSA staff operating within South Africa. Examples of reports found in the security files of UNOMSA are, “Coming to Grips with Covert Operations: Who Does What and Where?” by the Coalition Against Sate Murder and Corruption (CASMAC), and “Regional Unrest and Crime Related Statistics,” produced by the Wits/Vaal Regional Dispute Resolution Committee Monitoring Workshop Programme.

S-1938 contains runs of incoming faxes from the different regions/provinces in South Africa which cover all aspects of the operation of UNOMSA and the PPD and are directed to or received from: Angela King, COM and Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General; Leona Forman, Chief Public Information and Analysis Section; Kevin Kennedy from Public Information and Media Analysis; Timour Dmitrichev, Area Coordinator of Western Cape, Northern Cape and North West; Reginald H.F. Austin Director Electoral Division; Hamish Cameron Deputy Mission Security Coordinator; John Mullen Chief, Procurement Officer; Charles Wyse, Special Advisor; G Zuliani Mission Security Coordinator; UNOMSA observers. These records include an example of a “very good” observer report dispersed to all observers, and a “Statement by Ms. Angela King, (COM) at the UNOMSA Press Reception in Johannesburg, 11 July 1993.”

Though the PPD was separate from the Electoral Division, the mandate highlights that “violence-monitoring activities of the PPD are indistinguishable from the campaign observation activities,” and this holds true with sections of S-1938 concerning election information. S-1938 contains records on election information such as memoranda and reports about the role of observers, restrictions on political campaigning, strategies for monitoring voter education, explanation of acronyms, election statistics of South Africa, newspaper clippings, election observer training, and the European Community Observer Mission in South Africa (ECOMSA) handbook for observers of elections.

In addition, S-1938 also contains records concerning voter education which identify who can vote, what does a voter need to vote, where is the voting, when is the voting, possible extension of voting days, moving of ballot boxes, updates on electoral readiness, notes on polling stations, voting station summary with provisional map, Temporary Voter Cards (TVC) reports, and voter education report forms. The voter education report forms detail the observations from voter education events which were a standard form that lists nineteen questions ranging from date, demographics, subject of the presentations, and descriptions of the teaching methods. There are additional records of vote counting and the setup of voting stations which cover coding of polling stations; reports of counting directives which are guidelines and instructions on counting votes; lists of voting stations; and a summary of polling stations. There were a number of organizations that were conducting voter education in South Africa including The Malta Trust, the Institute for a Democratic Alternative in South Africa (IDASA), and the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU).

Processing Archivsits: Matthew Aull, Corinne O'Connor
Boxes: 60

Chief of Mission (COM) and Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General (DSRSG)

The records in S-1930 contain memoranda, correspondence, and reports created or received by the United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA)’s Chief of Mission (COM) Angela King who served from 23 September 1992 to 27 June 1994. UNOMSA was established through United Nations Security Council Resolutions 772 and 894, adopted on 17 August 1992 and 14 January 1994, respectively, and operated from September 1992 until June 1994 to observe and report on the transition from apartheid South Africa to a non-racial, democratic society. Ms. King was appointed Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General (DSRSG) for South Africa in December 1993. The function of S-1930 is derived from PKO.HOM001 and PKO.POL004 of the Peacekeeping and Political Operations Retention Schedule (PORS) through the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support, dated 1 August 2011.

The records in S-1930 document the activities and responsibilities of Angela King in both roles and highlight her involvement with UNOMSA’s peace promotion activities during the first mandate through Security Council Resolution 772, which was to monitor activities and promote an end to violence in South Africa; strengthen and reinforce the structures of the National Peace Accord (NPA); and focus on the resumption of negotiation processes in South Africa. The records demonstrate the collaboration between UNOMSA and the National Peace Accord (NPA) structures, including the National Peace Committee (NPC) and the National Peace Secretariat (NPS). Meeting summaries and minutes, memoranda, cables, and faxes document trends in South Africa, detail the progress of United Nations Mission Observers (UNMOs) and other international observer missions in South Africa, and propose modifications as ways to strengthen the NPA by, for example, the establishment of a peace corps and the expansion of responsibilities for the Regional Peace Committees (RPCs), Local Peace Committees (LPCs), and Regional Peace Secretariats (RPS).

S-1930 also contains records exchanged between UNOMSA and one of the NPA structures at the regional level, the Social and Economic Reconstruction and Development (SERD) Committees, which consist of cables, proposals for development projects, and updates from SERD through the RPCs and the NPA. SERD also submitted funding proposals for other United Nations projects, including teacher and education training, assistance to homeless populations, and small business opportunities such as brick building and sewing projects. There was a strong effort by SERD to create economic development in order to stabilize and reconstruct the areas affected by violence.

The Joint Operations Communications Centre (JOCC) was created by the RPC, LPC, and the police to monitor violence by deploying mediators and security to report violence. The JOCC records consist of cables, memoranda, briefings, press releases and reports, and the subjects include administrative details; security arrangements; conditions at the JOCC; reports of violence; end of mission debriefings; meeting summaries; notes from meetings with foreign ambassadors; set up logistics and location of voting stations; staffing requirements; and guidelines.

The Commission of Inquiry Regarding the Prevention of Public Violence and Intimidation, commonly referred to as the Goldstone Commission, is also documented in S-1930. Created by South African President F.W. de Klerk and chaired by Justice Richard Goldstone, the Goldstone Commission investigated political violence which occurred between July 1991 and the general election on 27 April 1994. The Commission produced reports on various topics, including the activities of the NPS, violence and intimidation in the meadowlands, taxi industry, hostels, and on trains, preliminary investigations into the activities of the Azanian People’s Liberation Army (APLA), and the violence at Mooi River.

Angela King was in regular contact with the South African government and its officials. S-1930 contains meeting notes and cables between Ms. King and government officials including President de Klerk, the Minister of Home Affairs and Environment, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Law and Order, Minister of Local Government and Housing, Minister of Defence and Justice, Minister of Regional and Land Affairs, and Minister of Constitutional Development. Issues addressed in the meetings include logistical issues around the transition from apartheid to a non-racial democratic society and arranging voter observation to ensure the safety of South African citizens. Ms. King was also in contact with South African political parties such as the African National Congress (ANC), Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), South African Communist Party, Afrikaner Volksfront, Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB), the Conservative Party/Konserwatiewe Party (KP), and the Democratic Party. Correspondence documents security planning for the election; meeting summaries; constitutional proposals put forth by political parties; complaints between political parties; efforts at resuming the negotiation process; condolences of deaths; party manifestos; speeches; and press releases by political parties.

S-1930 contains daily reports, bill drafts, resolutions, press releases, statements and notes from meetings of the Transitional Executive Council (TEC). On 7 December 1993, TEC was established to assist with facilitating, transitioning, and preparing for the implementation of a democratic government in South Africa. TEC covered issues such as finance; state employees; incidents of violence and managing states of emergency; determining the rights of citizens to vote; ensuring issues would be addressed after the election; and monitoring independent media coverage.

S-1930 records document communication between Angela King and her Special Advisor Charles Wyse through cables and faxes containing memoranda and reports on a variety of subjects including voter registration, observation of violence, coordination of observers, election results, meeting notes, training, UN role in the elections, deployment of observers, press articles, training, visits, briefings, code of conduct, and meetings.

Other records document Angela King’s work with international observer teams operating in South Africa including: European Community (European Community Observer Mission in South Africa, ECOMSA); Commonwealth of Nations (Commonwealth Observer Mission to South Africa, COMSA); and the Organisation of African Unity (Organisation of African Unity Observer Mission in South Africa, OAU-OMSA). S-1930 contains cables, press releases and reports exchanged between these organization and UNOMSA related to coordinating observation and sharing information on developments inside South Africa. S-1930 also contains a number of official reports including: “Survey Report on the Proposed Expansion of UNOMSA: Administrative and Logistic Support Matters,” issued by the Field Office Division (FOD)/Department of Peacekeeping Operations; “Violence in South Africa: The Report of the Commonwealth Observer Mission to South Africa Phase II: February 1993 - May 1993," by COMSA; “Report to the Commission of Inquiry Regarding the Prevention of Public Violence and Intimidation,” produced by the Multinational Panel to Inquire into the Curbing of Violence and Intimidation During the Forthcoming South African Election; and "International Monitoring as a Mechanism for Conflict Resolution in Southern Africa," by Douglas Anglin.

With the expanded mandate in 1994 through Security Council Resolution 894, Angela King oversaw all activities of UNOMSA’s two newly created divisions: 1) the Peace Promotion Division (PPD), which continued to respond to the provisions of Security Council Resolution 772 and expanded its network of contacts to include the monitoring branch of the IEC; and 2) the Electoral Division which observed the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC); monitored the ability of South African political parties to campaign freely; verified that eligible voters were not denied identification documents or temporary voter cards (TVCs); and ensured that voting stations were free of intimidation.

The records in S-1930 that relate to the PPD consist of daily, weekly, observer, and situation reports, meeting summaries and press articles from the UNMO teams operating in the newly established provinces. S-1930 also contains reports and summaries about conferences produced by the Electoral Division including the Conference on Election Monitoring and Observing, the Election Planning Conference, the Panel of Religious Leaders for Electoral Justice, and the Conference on Violence: Free and Fair Elections in South Africa. The records also contain correspondence between the Electoral Division and various agencies in South Africa such as the Centre Against Apartheid, National Election Commission, and the Interim Electoral Division.

The records document UNOMSA’s collaboration with the IEC through correspondence, memoranda on elections, meeting summaries, election readiness plans, agendas, locations of voting stations, instructions on how to administer elections, and the role of a monitor in an election. In addition, there are also notes detailing various conferences and meetings such as the IEC conference on Technical Assistance, the Interim Committee of the National Conference on Election Monitoring and Observing, Coordination of International Assistance and Support to IEC, and the Sub-Committee on Monitoring of the IEC.

S-1930 also contains records from the Liaison and Protocol Office, which was located within the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for South Africa. Headed by the Senior Liaison and Protocol Officer Ala Almoman, the Liaison and Protocol Office generated documents to assist with arranging workshops, coordinating visits, and contacting agencies and governments outside of South Africa. Records related to the United Nations Special Committee Against Apartheid (UNSCAA) and the IEC have great significance because they include cooperation service agreements between the UN and foreign governments as well as reports from the Department of Foreign Affairs. The active records from the Liaison and Protocol Office run from 1 January to 6 June 1994, with reference material dating from 1 January 1993.

Processing Archivist: Matthew Aull, Corinne O’Connor
Volume: 75 boxes

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