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Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), Office of the Under-Secretary-General (OUSG) (1992-present) Series
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Mine Action

The title of S-1890 was drawn from the function series Mine Action (PKH.MIN) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1890 contains records documenting the administration and coordination of mine action activities by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO).

Included are memoranda of the DPKO’s Demining Expert and the Demining Unit, covering such topics as: job descriptions and recruitment for the Demining Unit, coordination between DPKO and the Department of Humanitarian Affairs in the area of mine clearance, and the procurement of technical expertise. There are also briefs issued by the Demining Unit on the landmine situation and clearance activities in specific countries and geographic areas, including Somalia, Sudan, Mozambique, the Libya/Chad border, and other areas. Additionally, there are summaries of meetings of the Working Group on Mine and Munitions Clearance (WGMC), which were attended by the Demining Expert. The WGMC was established in 1992 to coordinate demining activities across all United Nations departments and to develop a United Nations demining policies.

S-1890 also includes draft plans for mine clearance in Angola dating from 1994. The drafts outline the scope of the mine problem in Angola, and preparatory and implantation phases of clearance activities with the assistance of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II) and the Angola Mine Clearance Training Facility. Additionally, there are code cables and briefs documenting mine clearance operations conducted during the United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III). The briefs cover topics such as medical support for mine clearance, the mine threat in regional areas of Angola, and staffing and operations of the UNAVEM III Demining School.

Other records in S-1890 include: a reconnaissance report, dating from 1991, on minefield clearance in the United Nations Buffer Zone, prepared by Canadian forces in the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP); draft mine clearance plans for Rwanda dating from 1994; and a summary, dating from October 2000, of mine clearance statistics prepared by the Mine Action Coordination Centre (MACC), which operated in Pristina under the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK). A brief dating from c. 2005 on the United Nations Mine Action Office in Sudan covers the history of UN-assisted mine action clearance activities in Sudan, the objectives of the office, and the integration of the office with the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS).

Information Management and Public Information

The title of S-1889 was drawn from two function series of the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS): Information Management (PKH.INM) and Public Information and Communications (PKH.PUC).

S-1889 contains records relating to the creation, management and dissemination of DPKO and DFS materials that promote the department’s work (PUC). S-1889 also contains records relating to the management of records, information and knowledge in field missions; the use of communication systems and information technology in field missions; and geodata and cartography in field missions (INM).

Records consist of memoranda and briefs about: policy for records management at DPKO headquarters and in field missions; cooperation between DPKO and the Department of Public Information (DPI); and relations between DPKO and the media. Additionally, there are DPKO-issued standard operating procedures on such topics as the reporting of casualties, the submission of situation and incident reports, and public briefings relating to sexual exploitation and abuse in peacekeeping missions.

Also included are: press releases issued by peacekeeping missions; media digests and analyses of national and international news sources, compiled by the Public Information Offices of peacekeeping missions; and plans for the communications infrastructure in peacekeeping missions. Maps and graphical sketches of the peacekeeping host country depict: the deployment of Military Observers, Member State-supported contingents, and mission Team Sites; disarmament sites; zones and areas occupied by military factions; and sectors and geo-political boundaries.

Security

The title of S-1888 was drawn from the function series Safety Management (PKH.SAF), Security Management (PKH.SEC), and Security Sector Reform (PKH.SSR) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

Records primarily consist of memoranda, code cables, and reports on: security incidents, such as seizure of weapons from mission troops, attacks on mission troops and personnel, and violations of mission freedom of movement; health and safety issues, such as control of infectious diseases; and assessments of the security situation in mission areas of responsibility, based on military activity, criminality, civil disobedience, availability of arms, socio-economic factors, and effectiveness of law enforcement institutions. Also present are mission-specific security plans. There are also DPKO-produced standard operating procedures, “Headquarters Crisis Response in Support of DPKO-led Field Missions,” and “Crisis Management in DPKO-led Missions.” The SOPs outline procedures concerning basic and complex crisis response and the responsibilities of DPKO senior management to crisis situations.

There are also memoranda, code cables, and reports related to hostage crises. These are accompanied by lists of hostages giving information such as their locations and nationalities. There are also records concerning the May 2000 hostage-taking of approximately 500 United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) personnel by the Revolutionary United Front (RUF); these detail the participation of President of Liberia Charles Taylor in the hostage negotiations, and give updates on the security situation and military activity in locations where hostages were held.

One file focuses on the Special Battalion for Security in the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT), an integrated Tajik Government / United Tajik Opposition (UTO) military unit that was established to provide security for United Nations personnel. The file contains: a training program for the battalion, memoranda on recruiting battalion trainers from Member States, and rules and regulations for the battalion.

Humanitarian affairs

The title of S-1887 was drawn from the function series Humanitarian Affairs (PKH.HUM) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1887 contains records relating to the administration and coordination of humanitarian activities in peacekeeping operations, including the provision of assistance to victims of war and natural disasters.

Records consist of code cables, memoranda, briefs, and internal notes about the humanitarian and refugee situation in several African countries, namely the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Burundi, and Sierra Leone. These records cover a variety of topics, including: mission and government responses to refugee crises; DPKO coordination with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); and statistics on the number of refugees and food aid distribution.

Some records document the Mission on Detainees undertaken in September 1989 by Ambassador B. A. Clark, a representative of the United Nations Transitional Assistance Group (UNTAG), during the operation of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I). The Clark mission sought to determine the status of Namibians allegedly being detained in Angola and Zambia by the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO).

Additionally, there is a report, dated August 1991, by the United Nations Border Relief Operation (UNBRO). UNBRO established in 1982 to provide material and protection assistance to Cambodian displaced persons at the border between Cambodia and Thailand. S-1887 also includes “Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Action,” a speech by Kofi Annan, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, delivered in October 1993.

Human rights

The title of S-1886 was drawn from the function series Human Rights (PKH.HRT) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1886 contains records documenting the administration and coordination of human rights activities in peacekeeping missions.

The records include daily reports of the Human Rights Division of the United Nations Operations in Burundi (ONUB), which cover: the activities of Human Rights Officers (HROs); the administration of justice and developments of major trials observed by Division officials; major incidents of alleged abuse by the police and by the Forces de défense nationale (FDN), killings and arbitrary executions, sexual violence, local crime; prison visits; and human rights protection capacity-building activities. Also included are two reports prepared by the ONUB Human Rights Division about the human rights situation in Burundi, which cover the period from June 2004 to May 2005.

Other records include: memoranda and letters about the coordination of the High Commissioner for Human Rights with the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH); and a speech delivered by Mary Robinson, High Commissioner for Human Rights, at the International Symposium on Strengthening Human Rights Field Operations, held in Bonn on 26-27 May 1998. There are also records documenting the activities of the Committee on Mission Persons (CMP), of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) from 1992 to 1999. The CMP records primarily concern the effectiveness and administration of the Committee, and an audit of the Committee completed in April 1996.

Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration

The title of S-1885 was drawn from the function series Disarmament, Demobilization, Reintegration (PKH.DDR) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1885 contains records documenting the administration and coordination of the disarmament, demobilization, and societal reintegration (DDR) of former combatants in peacekeeping host countries.

Records consist of: plans describing the mission’s disarmament and demobilization strategy and process; schedules detailing the stages and implementation of demobilization; summaries of meetings between mission officials and local military leaders about the DDR process; reports describing developments in the DDR process during the mission’s mandate; and briefs on the locations of weapons collection sites.

Several files pertain to the disarmament and demobilization activities of the United Nations Observer Mission in Bougainville (UNOMB), in Papua New Guinea. There are summaries of meetings between UNOMB personnel and political, district, ex-combatant and church leaders about local weapons disposal issues; summaries of meetings of the Peace Process Consultative Committee (PPCC) about collaboration with UNOMB in the disarmament effort; periodic assessments of the weapons disposal process in Bougainville districts; and letters documenting relations between UNOMB and the Me’ekamui Defence Force in the reconciliation and weapons containment process. Also included are memoranda and briefs on a variety of topics related to the DDR process in Bougainville, such as: procedures for weapons storage; local ceremonies for the handover of weapons to UN personnel; technical assistance in weapons disposal provided by New Zealand; and the linking of weapons disposal to economic development on the island. There are also letters about the weapons disposal process, exchanged between the Director of UNOMB and the Commander of the Peace Monitoring Group (PMG).

Law enforcement

The title of S-1884 was drawn from the function series Law Enforcement (PKH.LAE) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1884 contains records documenting the provision and management of police activities in peacekeeping missions, as well as support for and reform of the host country’s institutional police capacity.

Records consist of code cables, memoranda, briefs, and internal notes covering a variety of topics, including: the activities, drawdown and phasing out of Civilian Police; outlines and concept of operations for mission police activities; training and activities for the reform of national police agencies; debriefing of the Police Commissioner at DPKO headquarters; and the role of the mission police component in mandate implementation. Also included are mission-produced concept papers for policing initiatives.

Included are guidelines for Civilian Police on assignment in the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH).
There are also reports, dating from 2006, about DPKO’s policy on the reform, restructuring and rebuilding of local police and law enforcement agencies; and on internal evaluations of mission police components.

Legal - Legal agreements development and review

The title of S-1840 was drawn from the function series Legal (PKH.LEG) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

Records in S-1840 relate to DPKO headquarters and peacekeeping mission legal matters and agreements. The records primarily consist of mission-specific legal documents, including: Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs), Status of Mission Agreements (SOMAs), Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs), and Rules of Engagement (ROE). Also included are records relating to the development of agreements, and model agreements.

Status of Forces and Status of Mission Agreements between the United Nations and the governments of countries hosting peacekeeping missions address such areas as: the international status of the peacekeeping mission; civil and criminal jurisdiction of mission personnel; mission use of premises; freedom of movement and use of roads, airfields, and waterways by mission personnel; wearing of uniforms and civilian dress by mission personnel; possession and carrying of arms by mission personnel; travel by mission personnel to and from the host country; local recruitment of mission personnel; facilities for mission contractors; and privileges and immunities granted to mission personnel.

Also included are Memoranda of Understanding between the United Nations and mission host countries, as well as MOU between the United Nations and United Nations Member States. Memoranda of Understanding cover various topics, including: security of United Nations premises in the host country; provision of standby arrangements by Member States; transport of personnel, logistical supplies, and equipment through Member State territories; mission support provided to judicial, police, and electoral institutions in the host country; relations between the mission and countries neighbouring the host country; cost-sharing; and relations between DPKO and United Nations agencies with regard to mission operations. There are also Letters of Assist (LOA) in which Member States and host countries agree to provide a peacekeeping mission with support, such as equipment and transportation. Other legal agreements included cover such topics as: expansion of the mission mandate; temporary ceasefire and cessation of hostilities between parties in conflict; establishment of mission liaison offices; and the contribution of equipment and personnel to a mission.

Rules of Engagement (ROE) provided specific guidance on the use of force within the mission area to military commanders at all levels of a peacekeeping mission. They also address the use and carriage of weapons, and civil actions permitted by military personnel in the mission area. Procedures on warning, firing, search, and apprehension are also detailed.

The files also contain drafts, revisions, and amendments to legal documents; briefs and correspondence from the Legal Counsel and the Office of Legal Affairs detailing opinions on mission-related matters; correspondence with Members States regarding the development and review of legal agreements for peacekeeping operations; and code cables exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and Special Representatives of the Secretary General (SRSG). In addition, the files contain records relating to mission use of host country property and premises, such as: lease agreements; and memoranda concerning rental fees, property condition and damage.

Under-Secretary-General (USG) - Subject files

S-1834 contains the subject files from the offices of the following DPKO officials:

Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG)
Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (ASG)
Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping

Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG)
Records of the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG) consist of: briefs on the distribution and allocation of responsibilities in DPKO, and on DPKO staff functions; reports on the USG’s annual programme objectives; annual and periodic work plans for DPKO offices, including the Office of Operations, Office of Mission Support, Mission Planning Service, the Mine Action Service, the Lessons Learned Unit, and the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit; organization charts and organigrammes of DPKO; outlines on the status of implementation of recommendations proposed by DPKO offices; reports and flow charts for strategic planning within DPKO and for UN-wide planning and inter-departmental coordination of peacekeeping operations; briefs on financing peacekeeping operations; draft agreements between the United Nations and host countries and non-governmental organizations on the operation of peacekeeping missions; memoranda and briefs produced by DPKO staff for preparation of the Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs and the Repertoire of Practice of the Security Council; and articles and discussion papers on aspects of peacekeeping prepared by government and private sector sources.

Records include summaries of meetings, conferences, and summits attended by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, the Secretary-General, and representatives of: regional organizations; non-governmental organizations; and intergovernmental organizations. There are also summaries of meetings between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and Permanent Representatives of diplomatic missions to the United Nations. Meeting summaries outline principles, modalities, and mechanisms for cooperation in conflict prevention, early warning and preventive action, peace support operations, human rights protection, humanitarian action, regional security, and relations with the United Nations. Also included are briefs, communiqués, and memoranda related to the meetings, and statements delivered at the meetings by the Secretary-General, the President of the Security Council, and meeting attendees.

Files relating to the safety and security of United Nations personnel deployed in peacekeeping operations include: memoranda on the preparation of a joint declaration on cooperation between the United Nations and the European Union for civilian and military crisis management; comments provided by DPKO for the Secretary-General’s report on the security of United Nations personnel; and briefs and outlines on authority and responsibilities for the United Nations Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD) in security management in peacekeeping operations. Additionally, there are: background notes and briefs on the safety and security of the DPKO premises; drafts of the DPKO Crisis Management Plan detailing critical functions, responsibilities, and procedures of the department during crisis; comments prepared by DPKO staff on United Nations security reform; and briefs and memoranda on the United Nations’ response to the attacks of September 11, 2001.

Records also document DPKO’s consideration for human rights and humanitarian issues in the creation of peacekeeping mission policy. There are reports and memoranda exchanged between the USG, the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit, the SRSG for Children and Armed Conflict, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), and the Commission on Human Rights. Topics include: a minimum age for soldiers participating in peacekeeping operations, developing policies and disciplinary procedures to combat sexual exploitation and abuse, and the adherence of peacekeeping missions to the guidelines set out in “Observance by United Nations forces of international humanitarian law,” the Secretary-General’s bulletin issued 6 August 1999. In addition, Memoranda of Understanding, studies, and summaries of meetings concern the division of responsibility between DPKO, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), and the Commission on Human Rights in cases where peacekeeping missions include humanitarian work or a human rights component.

Other Memoranda of Understanding, approved by DPKO and Member States, address standby arrangements for rapid deployment of peacekeeping troops, facilities for logistics bases, training in logistics co-sponsored by DPKO and Kenya, and contingent-owned equipment. There are also suggestions for improvements in peacekeeping operations, including the 16 December 1993 “United Nations Logistics Working Group Recommendations and Products.”

DPKO’s Civilian Police Unit was incorporated into the Military and Civilian Police Division in October 2000; the Military and Civilian Police Division was then split into the Military Division and Civilian Police Division in 2002. Records of the Civilian Police Unit and Civilian Police Division include memoranda and policy documents exchanged between the Police Adviser and USG on such topics as guidelines for police contributing countries, police training, deployment, and acceptance of Member States’ retired police officers for peacekeeping. In addition, there are reports and speeches from DPKO seminars on the role of police in peacekeeping operations, which were attended by Member State diplomats and police, regional organizations, NGOs, and other UN offices. Other Civilian Police Unit and Civilian Police Division records consist of fact sheets about the civilian police components of various missions and presentations by the Police Adviser about the work of civilian police components and the generation of resources for civilian police.

Included are chronological files of the Under-Secretaries-General for Peacekeeping Marrack Goulding (1992-1993) and Kofi Annan (1993-1996). Chronological files consist of: talking points for the USG’s meetings with government officials of Member States about developments in peacekeeping missions, mandate implementation, and Member States’ contribution to peacekeeping missions; the USG’s notes to the Secretary-General; notes to the USG written by the DPKO Principal Officer Elisabeth Lindenmeyer; press statements delivered by the USG on developments in peacekeeping missions; correspondence between the USG and the UN Legal Counsel; and statements delivered by the USG at troop contributors meetings. Chronological files also include: letters exchanged between the President of the Security Council and the Secretary-General; drafts of DPKO contributions to the Secretary-General’s reports to the Security Council about conflict areas and peacekeeping operations; statements delivered by the Secretary-General during informal consultations of the Security Council; and talking points for the Secretary-General’s meetings with high-level officials and government representatives of Member States. There are also memoranda sent by the USG to Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG) of peacekeeping missions in the field regarding: mandate implementation, the staffing of peacekeeping missions, the security of mission personnel, Force build up and reduction, mission withdrawal, and meetings of the Security Council. A significant volume of documents in the USG’s chronological files relates to UNOSOM I, UNOSOM II, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR), and the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM).

There are also records relating to gender balance and gender mainstreaming in peacekeeping. These records primarily consist of memoranda and reports exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit, the DPKO Focal Point for Women, the DPKO Gender Focal Point, the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women, the Inter-Agency Committee on Women and Gender and Equality, the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), and the Division for the Advancement of Women of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). The memoranda and reports detail DPKO’s progress in the implementation of: the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action adopted at the September 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women; the Windhoek Declaration and Namibia Plan of Action of 31 May 2000; the outcomes of the 23rd special session of the General Assembly June 2000; and Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000). Topics of memoranda include: creating gender balance and a gender sensitive work environment in DPKO, work-family issues related to gender, inclusion of gender perspectives in reporting, the role of women in peace-building and conflict resolution, and establishing gender units and gender advisers at DPKO headquarters and in missions. Memoranda also address the impact of both conflict and United Nations peacekeeping on women and include discussion of rape, hostage-taking, mine injuries; sexual trafficking, sexual exploitation, and the spread of HIV. In addition, there are statistics provided by peacekeeping missions and troop-contributing Member States, about the numbers of female members of peacekeeping missions.
Country files primarily consist of correspondence and notes exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs and the Secretary-General about: strategies for United Nations response in countries experiencing political and military conflict, civil strife, and humanitarian crises; the coordination of DPKO and United Nations system-wide meetings in support of peace and ceasefire negotiations and economic stability; and missions undertaken to conflict areas by special envoys of the Secretary-General to asses the political and military situation on the ground.

The country files also contain several reports about UN assessment missions dispatched to conflict areas to determine assistance, or to initiate a mission’s preparatory work for deployment. Documents include: a report of the United Nations Survey Mission on Existing Administrative Structures in Cambodia, undertaken from 2-18 December 1991; a report of the United Nations Assessment Mission to Bougainville, Papua New Guinea from 26 April - 5 May 1998 to monitor the implementation of the Agreement on Peace, Security and Development in Bougainville, signed in New Zealand on 23 January 1998; a report of the Security Assessment Mission to the Republic of Chechnya, undertaken from 15-25 April 2000; and a report of the Preparatory Mission to the Sudan, 27 November - 16 December 2003. The country files also contain assessment reports of missions undertaken by the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), a section of the DPKO.

Other records concern United Nations peacekeeping operations in Africa, African regional peacekeeping operations, and African efforts to enhance African capacity for peacekeeping. Included are overviews of peacekeeping operations prepared by DPKO’s Africa Division, and briefs authored by the Under-Secretary-General and sent to the Secretary-General, about the DPKO’s peacekeeping operations in Africa. There are also: summaries of ministerial meetings of the Security Council about United Nations intervention in conflicts and crises in Africa; updates and meeting summaries about the work of the thematic groups set up to review the recommendations included in the Secretary-General’s report of 28 May 1998, "The Causes of Conflict and the Promotion of Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa”; briefs and notes to the file about various UN-led and international initiatives to enhance peacekeeping capacity in Africa; and periodic reports prepared by the Head of the United Nations Liaison Office and the African Union (AU), located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, about AU activities and United Nations support to the AU.

Also included are several records documenting the establishment of the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC). These include: briefs about logistical preparations for the deployment of MONUC; directives for the Chief Military Liaison Officer dated December 1999; summaries of meetings of the international Joint Military Commission (JMC), which was established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1291 (1999) and which co-deployed with MONUC in the DRC; notes drafted by the Under-Secretary-General and sent to the Secretary-General about developments in the DRC, particularly about military and security matters, in the wake of the signing of the Lusaka Agreement on 10 July 1999; and draft Rules of Engagement dated April 2000.

The Under-Secretary-General’s files relating to the United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) and United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) include: briefs and memoranda on political and military developments in Somalia; timelines for the implementation of the mission mandate; papers presenting options for the United Nations in Somalia and outlining the mission’s political strategy; reports detailing interfactional fighting and the security situation in the city of Kismayo; briefs and correspondence documenting logistics support for the mission and analyzing infrastructure conditions; outlines and memoranda pertaining to the United Nations assistance in rebuilding the justice, police, and prison systems in Somalia; license agreements for the mission’s use of premises in Somalia; and summaries of informal meetings of the Security Council on Somalia.

There is also material related to the attack occurring on 5 June 1993 in Mogadishu which killed 24 peacekeepers serving in the Pakistani Battalion while they were inspecting an ammunition depot. These records include: a report of an independent inquiry conducted by Tom Farer on the events of 5 June 1993; briefs and correspondence related to UNOSOM II’s detention of Somalis held for their suspected involvement in the attack; reports describing the status and background of individual detainees; reports describing the findings and recommendations of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) about the detention of the Somalis, including a report of the ICRC’s visit to the UNOSOM II Central Detention Facility; and correspondence and terms of reference pertaining to the Independent Jurist tasked to review the cases of individuals being detained by UNOSOM II.

The records of the USG also include subject files of the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL). Annan served as USG during the mission; Bernard Miyet succeeded him in January 1997. The records contain incoming and outgoing code cables exchanged between the USG and the SRSG of the mission: Trevor Gordon-Somers (November 1992 – November 1994); Anthony Nyakyi (December 1994 - April 1997); and Tuliameni Kalomoh (April - September 1997). The cables comprise summaries of the Security Council proceedings about UNOMIL; final report of the UNOMIL Human Rights Section (September 1997); and summaries of meeting of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Committee of Nine on Liberia.

The records also contain drafts and final progress reports of the Secretary-General to the Security Council about the mission; End of Assignment reports from each SRSG to Liberia; and reports prepared by the Secretary-General’s Special Envoys to Liberia, James O.C Jonah and Ibrahima Fall. Also included are UNOMIL assessment reports regarding: the security assessment mission to Liberia; a visit to Monrovia central prison by the UN Political Officer in charge of human rights; and the Secretary-General dispatched, fact-finding mission to Liberia, undertaken in August 1994 to ascertain the situation in the country and the status of the peace process in order to advise him on the course of action to be recommended to the Security Council. Daily situation reports from the UN Peace-building Office in Liberia (UNOL) sent from the Representative of the Secretary-General, Felix Downes-Thomas to UN Under-Secretary- General for Political Affairs, Kieran Prendergast are also present in the records.

The records also contain memoranda pertaining to UNOMIL and ECOWAS strategy for faction disarmament and weapons disposal as well as reports on investigations carried out by UNOMIL, or jointly with the Ceasefire Violation and Disarmament Committees. Incidents investigated comprise: the 28 December 1995 Tubmanburg incident; the Sinje Massacre of 28 October 1996; and the 31 October 1996 assassination attempt on President Charles Taylor’s life.

Records pertaining to the United Nations’ involvement in Guinea-Bissau consist primarily of code cables forwarded to the Department of Political Affairs (DPA) from the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS), whose headquarters was located in Bissau. The code cables consist of: yearly briefs on the mission’s objectives; summaries of meetings between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the President of Guinea-Bissau Kumba Yalá, who served from 17 February 2000 until the military coup of 14 September 2003; summaries of meetings between the SRSG and General Ansumane Mané, the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Guinea Bissau and Head of the Military Junta, who led the uprising against the government of President João Bernardo Vieira; briefs about the volatile political situation in Guinea-Bissau; memoranda about the activities of the National Assembly; and summaries of informal consultations of the Security Council on United Nations activities in Guinea-Bissau.

The UNOGBIS records also include briefs about a variety of topics, including: the implementation of the Abuja Peace Agreement of 1 November 1998 signed between the Government of Guinea Bissau and the Self Proclaimed Military Junta; and the investiture of President Kumba Yalá on 17 February 2000; plots to overthrow the government and assassinate the President. There is also information about the revision of the country’s Constitution; civil discontent manifested in demonstrations and labor strikes; the status of political prisoners and military detainees; demobilization and reintegration of former combatants; the involvement of Bissau-Guinean forces in the factional fighting occurring in Casamance, a southern province of Senegal.

In addition, the UNOGBIS files contain: the report of United Nations Heads of Agencies to Guinea Bissau, 2-9 August 1998; the report of the United Nations Multidisciplinary Mission to Guinea-Bissau, 2-8 December 1998; and memoranda about the role of the United Nations in Guinea-Bissau, drafted prior to the establishment of UNOGBIS in 1999.

The records of the USG also contain situation reports, code cables and subject files relating to the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT).

Daily and weekly situation reports were sent from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in the Tajik capital of Dushanbe, Tajikistan, to United Nations headquarters in New York. Political developments noted in situation reports include: activities of the Government of Tajikistan and of the Majlisi Oli, the Tajik Parliament; meetings between the SRSG and Tajik government officials; and visits of foreign government officials to Tajikistan to meet with Tajik government officials. Military activities noted in situation reports include: patrol activities, activities at checkpoints and road tolls, interactions between UNMOT military officials and field commanders of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) forces, tensions along the Tajik-Afghan border, and attacks and ambushes carried out by alleged Opposition groups against Government forces. The situation reports also indicate humanitarian activities, such as: exchanges of prisoners of war and detainees; the monitoring of Tajik returnees from countries bordering Tajikistan, particularly Afghanistan and Kyrgyzstan; and the monitoring of local populations affected by outbreaks of malaria and typhoid. Security incidents are also noted, particularly hostage-taking and the activities of Rizvon Sodirov, a renegade commander in the Opposition forces, and his brother Bakhrom Sodirov.

Code cables were exchanged between UNMOT Special Envoys of the Secretary-General, Heads of Mission, and Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSGs), with United Nations headquarters in New York. Outgoing code cables consist of memoranda, briefs, and informal consultations of the Security Council about developments in the mission. Topics of outgoing code cables include: the killings of four UNMOT staff near the city of Garm on 20 July 1998, the trial held by Supreme Court of Tajikistan for those accused of the murders, and negotiation over the possibility of death sentences for the accused; hostage crises; harassment of UNMOT staff by the Presidential National Guard and other warring factions; extensions of the UNMOT mandate; and an attempt on the life of the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmonov on 30 April 1997.

Incoming code cables include: minutes of the SRSG’s meetings with the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmonov and the leader of the UTO Sayid Abdulloh Nuri; statements issued by the Government of Tajikistan and the UTO; investigations of ceasefire and other peace agreement violations; and lists of incident complaints submitted to UNMOT. Incoming code cables also include memoranda about: the appointments of Mirzo Zioev, Akbar Turajonzoda, and other UTO members to government posts; exchanges of prisoners of war; the involvement of Uzbekistan in the civil war; amnesty for UTO supporters; drug trafficking; the establishment of the Commission for National Reconciliation (CNR); humanitarian aid for refugees; and the death of UNMOT Lieutenant Wolfgang Sponner in an exchange of fire that occurred on 18 September 1995.

The subject files relating to UNMOT contain: directives for UNMOT’s Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and Head of Mission; end of tour of duty reports prepared by high-ranking UNMOT officials; letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmonov, as well as the leader of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) Sayid Abdulloh Nuri; summaries of meetings of the Task Force on Tajikistan, which convened DPKO and UNMOT officials, with representatives of United Nations agencies and the ICRC; summaries of meetings between the President Rakhmonov and Sayid Abdullo Nuri; and organization charts of the Government of Tajikistan.

Records relating to pre-UNMOT establishment include summaries of goodwill and fact-finding missions to Central Asia carried out by the United Nations in the early 1990s; and assessments of technical requirements for a peacekeeping mission in Tajikistan.

There are also summaries of meetings of the Contact Group, which oversaw the peace process and which was coordinated by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG). The Contact Group was attended by: representatives of Guarantor States neighboring Tajikistan, including the Islamic State of Afghanistan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan; and representatives of the Organization of Security and Coordination in Europe (OSCE) and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Additionally, there are briefs about the activities of the Commission on National Reconciliation (CNR), the organ responsible for implementing the General Agreement signed 27 June 1997. Also present are communiqués and progress reports forwarded from the mission to United Nations officials covering inter-Tajik negotiations. The inter-Tajik negotiations were held under the aegis of the United Nations and were officially inaugurated in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, on 30 November 1995; they were attended by delegations of Tajik government representatives and leaders of the UTO, as well as representatives of observer countries, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Briefs, memoranda, and analyses on a variety of topics are present in the subject files, covering: relations between the UTO and Afghan authorities; denationalization and privatization in Tajikistan and the Tajik government’s economic policy; amendments to the Tajik constitution and the drafting of new laws affecting political parties; exchanges of prisoners of war; the role of the United Nations in the parliamentary elections; coordination between UNMOT and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). There are also discussion papers about: the history of Tajikistan and Central Asia; poverty in Tajikistan; political and military developments occurring in Central Asian countries in the late 1980s and 1990s; and relations among Central Asian countries.

Other records include: analyses and periodic reports issued by the Mission to Tajikistan of the Organization for Security and Exchange in Europe (OSCE); notes for the file prepared by DPKO officials about political and military developments in Tajikistan and in neighbouring countries; and code cables exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the UNMOT SRSG.

Summaries of meetings of the Security Management Team, which was comprised of representatives of UNMOT, United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations, and the OSCE, describe the unstable security climate in Dushanbe and in various regions throughout Tajikistan. The summaries note: outbreaks of fighting between Government forces and forces of the UTO; the activities of gangs; updates about incidents of hostage-taking, kidnappings, abductions, and death threats; political motivations for violence in the region; meetings with officials of the Tajik Ministry of Interior (MOI); the safety of United Nations personnel in the region; and changes to the UNMOT-administered curfew. In addition, there are memoranda exchanged between the Designated Official of UNMOT, Chief Security Officer of UNMOT, and the United Nations Security Coordinator, which cover hostage negotiation policy, security arrangements for UTO leaders, recommendations for reduction of psychological stress in UNMOT personnel, and the development of the Special Detachment for Security (SDS) of United Nations Personnel. The detachment was made up of members of both the Tajik government and UTO and was tasked to protect UNMOT operations and property.

Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Included are files of Shashi Tharoor, who served as the Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping from 1992 to 1996. Prior to this assignment, Mr. Tharoor was a Senior Political Affairs Officer in the Office for Special Political Affairs, where he worked with Marrack Goulding, the Under Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs. Records include summaries of meetings dating from 1990-1991 and attended by Mr. Tharoor of: the Senior Planning and Monitoring Group on Peacekeeping Operations, which was set up to improve the need for interdepartmental coordination of peacekeeping operations; and the Logistics Planning Subgroup, which assessed the personnel, material, and technical resources offered by Member States for peacekeeping operations. Files of Shashi Tharoor largely pertain to the conflict in the former Yugoslavia and pre-date the establishment of the United Nations Protection Force (United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)) in 1992. They include: background notes on developments in Yugoslavia for the Secretary-General; Mr. Tharoor’s notes for the file; speaking notes, meeting summaries, and communications documenting the activities and negotiations by Cyrus Vance, the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General; and remarks delivered by attendees of the London Conference on Yugoslavia, held from 24-29 August 1992.

The records of the Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping also contain the USG’s instructions to all senior officials, divisions, and offices in DPKO, including: the Office of the Under Secretary-General; the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit (PBPU); the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping; the Military Adviser; the Africa Division; the Asia and Middle East Division; the Europe and Latin America Division; the Office of Mission Support (OMS); the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS); and the Civilian Police Division. The USG’s instructions date from 2003-2007 and consist of: notes and briefs prepared by senior DPKO officials for the Under-Secretary-General, as well as for the Secretary-General; interoffice briefs exchanged between senior DPKO officials featuring remarks, recommendations, and requests for approval; email exchanged between senior DPKO officials; talking points for and summaries of the Under-Secretary-General’s meetings; discussion and concept papers on peacekeeping; code cables received from missions in the field; analytical and executive summaries on mission developments; and end of mission reports. The records feature the USG’s handwritten comments and notes to receiving DPKO officials about the matters described in documents.

Included among the files of the Special Assistant are records pertaining to the conflict in the Middle East. Code cables submitted to headquarters by the Chief of the Observer Group in Beirut (COGB) date from 1986 to 1988 and report on: political developments in Beirut and in various regions in Lebanon; armed clashes and outbreaks of fighting occurring in Lebanon between Palestinian, Iranian, Syrian, Lebanese, and Israeli armed forces; and activities related to splinter groups and resistance operations in Lebanon.

There are also summaries of meetings of the Security Committee associated with the Observer Group in Beirut, which was comprised of representatives of: the Observer Group in Beirut (OGB), the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO), the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)), the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and other United Nations agencies. These summaries detail: the security of UN staff and incidents involving international staff; abductions of civilians and information about hostages; car and garbage bomb attacks in Beirut, including information about the locations of attacks and resulting casualty figures. Additionally, there are: letters to the Secretary-General received at United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquarters from the general public, mayors (muktars) of towns and villages in Lebanon, and from non-governmental organizations; and summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and government representatives on issues related to the Middle East.

Also included among the files of the Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General are records pertaining to the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)). These records include: plans for the implementation of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) mandate and concept of operations, including input from the European Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and United Nations agencies; drafts of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)-FRY Common Document and correspondence related to its signing; reports on the framework and operations of the four Pillars enacted through the collaboration between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the European Union; correspondence regarding the preservation of cultural heritage sites in Kosovo and Methohija which were damaged during the war; monthly reports to the Security Council on operations of the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR); letters addressed to the Secretary-General and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping concerning efforts to locate missing persons in Kosovo; analyses of the assassination of the Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic, which occurred in Belgrade on 12 March 2003; Rules of Engagement and Status of Mission Agreements for United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK); and discussion papers on lessons learned from the administration of post-war Kosovo. There are also briefs and reports on such topics as: human trafficking in Kosovo; the cooperation between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the Kosovo Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG); amendments to the Constitutional Framework for the Provisional Self-Government of Kosovo; security incidents in Kosovo, including murders motivated by political rivalry or linked to organized crime; economic policy for Kosovo; and the establishment of a new judicial system in Kosovo.

Records documenting visits by United Nations officials to United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) headquarters and to other areas in the Balkans include: programs and meeting agenda for the Secretary-General’s visits to the region; briefs on topics such as the Dubrava Prison, cooperation between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and NATO’s Kosovo Force (KFOR), anti-corruption measures, and privatization; political and security assessments of United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) regional administrations, including the Gnjilane Region, the Mitrovica Region, the Pec Region, the Prizren Region, and Pristina; biographical and career information about Kosovan political figures; and lists of laws promulgated by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in the Kosovo Assembly. There are also summaries of the Under Secretary-General’s meetings in Pristina and Belgrade with: United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) senior staff; religious leaders in Kosovo, including Mufti Naim Ternava and Bishop Marko Sopi; representatives of the Contact Group; the President of Kosovo Ibrahim Rugova; members of the Kosovo Assembly; and representatives of civil society.

Also included are records of meetings about United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and Kosovo, and these consist of talking points, notes for the file, summaries of telephone conversations, and summaries of meetings. Included are summaries of meetings held individually by the Secretary-General, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, and the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Special Representative of the Secretary-General’s (SRSG) with: Mr. Vojislav Kostunica, the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); Ambassador Dejan Sahovic, Permanent Representative of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); Mr. Nebojsa Covic, the Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia; Crown Prince Alexander II of Yugoslavia; and government representatives of Serbia and Montenegro. Additionally, there are summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and government representatives of Member States on developments in Kosovo. Also included are summaries of meetings held by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, as well as by the Secretary-General, with incoming and outgoing Special Representatives of the Secretary-General for United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), and Deputy Special Representatives of the Secretary-General for United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) (DSRSG). Meeting summaries of the High Level Steering Group (HLSG), which was coordinated by the European Commission and the World Bank, and of the Working Level Steering Group set up by the HLSG, concern the process of economic reconstruction, stabilization, reform, and development in Kosovo and the Balkans. Files on steering group meetings also include briefs and notes on: economic and fiscal policy in Kosovo; the promotion of private sector development in Kosovo; the impact of the Kosovo crisis on neighboring countries; and the role of United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) in the development of economic and social policy in Kosovo. There are also summaries of meetings of the Contact Group, consisting of representatives of France, Italy, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Germany.

There are also memoranda, correspondence, and program plans relating to United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)’s administration of the Mitrovica region in northern Kosovo, including: reports on the eruption of violence in the region against UN peacekeepers and among ethnic minorities; analyses of the tensions between Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo Albanians in the Mitrovica region; and briefs on the cooperation between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) for establishing law and order, and for establishing political co-existence of minorities in Mitrovica.

Documents pertaining to humanitarian assistance provided by United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) include: memoranda outlining steps for the return of refugees and internally displaced persons to Kosovo; memoranda about the airdrop of food over concentrations of IDPs in Kosovo; briefs on the atmosphere of humanitarian coordination in Kosovo among non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations, and United Nations agencies; briefs for the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping on issues concerning Kosovan refugees and displaced persons; petitions and letters submitted to the Secretary-General and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping from groups urging action on locating missing persons, including ethnic Albanians, Serbs, Roma, and Muslims; and memoranda and updates on Kosovo Albanian political prisoners detained in prisons in Serbia. Records concerning the transportation of deceased Kosovans from the United States for burial in Kosovo include correspondence, death certificates, and vital records.

Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (ASG)
Records from the office of the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG), Office of Operations, are included. Mr. Iqbal Riza served in this position from March 1993 to January 1996. The Office of Operations was responsible for: the executive direction of peacekeeping operations and field missions; relations with members of the Security Council and troop-contributing countries; discharge of the Secretary-General’s reporting obligations to the Member States; and assisting the Under-Secretary-General in the elaboration and execution of policy and procedures for the overall implementation of the DPKO. The ASG’s records largely encompass files that are mission-specific, or specific to conflict areas.

Many records in the ASG’s files pre-date the creation of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) in 1992 and reflect the history of peacekeeping in United Nations. These records include: correspondence exchanged between the Secretary-General and heads of state and ambassadors; and summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and government representatives. Also included are: working papers and summaries of meetings of the Consultations on Namibia, held between United Nations officials, representatives of African governments, and representatives of Namibian political parties in Geneva in November 1979; analyses and briefs on the deteriorating political and military situation in Chad in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and on the possible intervention of the United Nations in the conflict; letters from the general public dating from 1987 addressed to the Secretary-General about the actions taken by the governments of India and Sri Lanka, and also about activities of militant Tamil groups; cables issued in the early 1980s by the United Nations Information Centre (UNIC) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, detailing political relations and military aggression between Argentina and the United Kingdom; and reports about Argentinean press coverage of the Falklands Islands conflict.

Records pertaining to the United Nations Emergency Force II (UNEF II) include: summaries of discussions in the Security Council about the mandate of UNEF II which was deployed from 1973-1979; summaries of meetings with representatives of counties contributing contingents to UNEF II; and cables about mission developments authored by the UNEF II Chief Information Officer. Additionally, there are several files dating from the 1970s and 1980s on the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, and these include: analyses on the question of Korean unity issued by the Department of Political and Security Council Affairs; statements on the question of Korea made to the General Assembly by representatives of North Korea and South Korea; and press releases issued by the Office of the Permanent Observer to the United Nations of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the Office of the Permanent Observer to the United Nations of the Republic of Korea.

There are also historical reports about peacekeeping and field operations submitted to the Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs, a position held at various times by Ralphe Bunche, Brian Urquhart, and Roberto Guyer, among others. There is a draft of a manuscript dating from the mid-1960s for the book “History of the United Nations Operation in the Congo” by Ian E. Berendsen. Berendsen served in the United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC), which was active from 1960 to 1964. Included are memoranda on the progress of the book exchanged between Berendsen and Ralph Bunche. There is also a historical report on the United Nations Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM), which was active from 1963 to 1964. In addition, there is a draft dating from 1968 called “Historical Report in the United Nations Operation in Cyprus,” by George L. Sherry. Also included is a draft of a 1974 report called “The United Nations and Bangladesh: A Private History” by Tom Oliver, which details the activities undertaken in the early 1970s by the United Nations East Pakistan Relief Operation (UNEPRO), the United Nations Relief Operation in Dacca (UNROD), and the United Nations Special Relief Office in Bangladesh (UNROB).

Briefs authored by the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and exchanged with the Secretary-General and DPKO senior staff pertain to a wide variety of political, military, and operational matters related to peacekeeping. Briefs pertain to: the Assistant Secretary-General’s meetings with government officials of troop-contributing countries; the management and structure of the DPKO; information management and media strategies for the DPKO; relations between the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); the United States support for United Nations peacekeeping activities; and other topics. Additionally, there are: notes for the file authored by the Assistant Secretary-General about developments in peacekeeping missions; letters exchanged between the ASG and ambassadors; draft submissions prepared for the Secretary-General’s report to the Security Council on developments in peacekeeping missions; weekly reports for the Secretary-General on developments in peacekeeping missions; reports on amendments to guidelines for peacekeeping missions; and summaries of meetings of the Secretary-General's Task Force on United Nations Operations dating from 1993-1996, which were attended by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping.

Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Included are the records held in the office of Mr. Lamin Sise, who served as Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary-General beginning in 1994. From 1993 to 1994, Mr. Lamin Sise served as a Senior Political Affairs Officer in DPKO.

Mr. Sise’s chronological files on Somalia consist of: notes for the file and to senior DPKO officials written by Mr. Lamin Sise; summaries drafted by Mr. Sise of meetings between DPKO officials and various parties on political and security matters in Somalia; briefs on developments in Somalia exchanged between Mr. Sise and the DPKO Principal Officer Elisabeth Lindenmeyer; a report of the Special Mission to Somalia carried out from 28 July to 4 August 1994; analyses and discussion papers on prospects for national reconciliation in Somalia; correspondence between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs on matters relating to Somalia; chronologies of recent events in Somalia; and daily digests of the UNOSOM Military Information Office. Also included are summaries of meetings between the UNOSOM II Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and: General Mohamed Farah Hasan Aidid of the Somali National Alliance (SNA); and Mr. Ali Mahdi Mohamed, the President of Somalia. There are also briefs on: incidents in Somalia, including ambushes on UN convoys by armed militia, grenade explosions and small arms fire, and hostile breaches of protocol; the UNOSOM II detention mechanism; the security of United Nations staff in Mogadishu; and United States forces supporting UNOSOM II.

Other records held in Mr. Sise’s office include: briefs on the Civilian Police program in UNOSOM II and on the establishment of the police and criminal justice systems in Somalia; agreements and Memoranda of Understanding between the United Nations and various parties on legal matters pertaining to UNOSOM II operations; reports, analyses and briefs detailing the political and security situation in Burundi; and remarks delivered by Mr. Sise at public engagements on UN peacekeeping.

There are also agenda and summaries of decisions taken at DPKO Weekly Directors’ Meetings, which were attended by Mr. Lamin Sise. Topics of Weekly Directors’ Meeting include: UN interdepartmental coordination of complex field operations; proposals for efficiency in DPKO in such areas as organization and structure, administration, budget processing, and information technology; stress experienced by staff in peacekeeping missions; the development of the lessons learned mechanism in DPKO; and amendments to the code of conduct for peacekeepers.

Political Affairs - Coordination, partnership - Discussion and negotiation

The title of S-1833 was drawn from the function category Political Affairs (PKH.POL) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS). Records primarily fall under PKH.POL004, PKH.POL005, and PKH.POL006, and PKH.POL008.

Records contained in S-1833 document negotiations conducted by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping on conflict in peacekeeping mission host countries, fulfilment of mission mandates, and the support of peacekeeping missions from Member States. Records also document the DPKO’s role in advising and contributing to the Secretary-General’s negotiations on peacekeeping matters. Also contained in S-1833 are records documenting developments in peacekeeping operations as reported by the Secretary-General to the Security Council.

S-1833 also includes weekly reports on mission operations produced by the DPKO Situation Centre for the Secretary-General (these reports exclude press or outside agency coverage of the mission). Documented also are visits to peacekeeping mission areas undertaken by DPKO officials, the Secretary-General, and other United Nations officials. Files pertaining to visits include visit programmes and itineraries; briefs on key issues prepared for visiting officials; summaries of meetings; and reports of visits.

Included in S-1833 are talking points prepared by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping for the Secretary-General’s meetings and telephone conversations with heads of state, foreign ministers, ministers of defence, foreign dignitaries, ambassadors, Permanent Representatives of Member States; as well as representatives of international organizations and non-governmental organizations. There are also briefs for the Secretary-General’s meetings and trips. Additionally, there are notes for the file summarizing the Secretary-General’s meetings and telephone conversations. The files also contain briefings on peacekeeping operations delivered by the Secretary-General to the Security Council. The Secretary-General’s meetings cover mission operations; contributions to missions; political developments and elections in countries; troop developments in national civil, judicial, police institutions in countries; views of the international community on the peace process; and UN/Member State relations. These files are arranged alphabetically by country.

Mission-specific files in S-1833 contain timetables and calendars for the implementation of peace agreements, and reports detailing phases of the peace process; and briefs and reports on issues pertaining to peace agreements, such as constitutional reform, ceasefire and human rights monitoring, the reintegration of ex-combatants, demobilization and weapons destruction, the release of prisoners of war, and the return of refugees and displaced persons. There are also code cables, reports, and figures on the work of monitoring and verification bodies enacted by peace agreements, such as the Commission on the Truth for El Salvador, and the Identification Commission, which was active during the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO).

In addition, the mission-specific files contain notes for the file authored by DPKO staff about political developments in mission host countries; notes and briefs exchanged between DPKO staff and Executive Office of the Secretary-General; letters between the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council about major developments in the peace process in mission host countries and conflict areas; notes for the file describing consultations of the Security Council on mission developments; and draft reports by the Secretary-General to the Security Council about recent developments in peacekeeping missions and the status of compliance with peace agreements.

Mission and Region-Specific Files

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO
Records pertaining to MINURSO include: summaries of negotiations attended by James Baker, the Special Envoy for the Secretary-General for Western Sahara, on the peace settlement; briefs on legal, economic, and regional perspectives of the conflict; analyses on the way ahead options for action; analyses of the process of identifying members of tribal groups for participation in the Referendum; notes to the Secretary-General; letters to the Secretary-General from foreign dignitaries; and briefs on the implications of the Paris-Dakar Rally crossing through the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Also included is a country brief prepared by the DPKO Situation Centre which provides a general overview of the political and military conflict and of MINURSO operations.

United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)

Records related to the electoral monitoring conducted by UNAMSIL consist of: the report of the Electoral Assistance Needs Assessment Mission to Sierra Leone conducted in May 2001; the UNASMIL Operational Plan for the presidential and parliamentary elections scheduled to be held on 14 May 2002; memoranda describing the political and institutional context of the elections; and memoranda on the Sierra Leone electoral process as described by the National Electoral Commission.

Congo-Brazzaville and African Great Lakes
There are also notes for the file, analyses, and briefs about political developments, the security situation, and the humanitarian needs in Congo-Brazzaville. In addition, there are: consultations of the Security Council on Congo-Brazzaville, outlines for a potential UN peacekeeping presence in the region, and summaries of meetings with potential troop contributors. Records related to the African Great Lakes Region consist of briefings to the Security Council, and daily notes for the Secretary-General about political developments in the region, activities of the Great Lakes Task Force, and humanitarian and refugee activities.

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
Records related to UNAMIR include: Situation Centre Information Digests gathered from commercial and academic media sources covering the regional political outlook and economic and infrastructure development in Rwanda; claims by the Government of Rwanda against UNAMIR for failing to protect citizens’ lives during the chaos of the genocide and the withdrawal of UNAMIR forces; and reports of security assessment missions conducted in November 1995 by the United Nations Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD) of the International Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha, Tanzania, and of the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) in Kigali, Rwanda. There are also memoranda concerning the Kibeho Massacre, which occurred in a camp for internally displaced persons near Kibeho, in south-west Rwanda on April 22, 1995.

Rwanda Updates (memoranda provided by Member States to the Situation Centre) report on activities in UNAMIR, such as: insurgent and bandit activities against civilians, the Rwandan government, and military forces; activities of ex-members of the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR); activities of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA); activities of non-governmental organizations and foreign aid agencies; security and living conditions in refugee camps; figures on the population and ethnic makeup of displaced persons at refugees camps; refugee activity in Burundi; mass repatriation of Rwandan nationals; tensions and incidents along Rwandan borders with Zaire, Tanzania, and Burundi; and discord between UN and Rwandan forces.

Burundi
Included are records relating to the peace process in Burundi in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These records consist of: communications and memoranda related to the United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB); analyses produced by DPKO’s Africa Division about the political and security climate in Burundi; statements about the situation in Burundi delivered to the Security Council; country analyses of Burundi; outlines on negotiation for a ceasefire agreement for Burundi; and briefs about humanitarian developments in Burundi. There is also report titled “Political and Strategic Appraisal of the Situation in Burundi,” December 2003, prepared by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Burundi of the United Nations Office in Burundi (UNOB).

UNAVEM I and UNAVEM II
There are records documenting Secretary-General’s negotiations on the Angola peace process in the late 1980s through the 1990s, and of the operations of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I) and the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II). Notes of the Secretary-General’s meetings with the President of Angola José Eduardo dos Santos are present, as well as letters they exchanged. Memoranda concern the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola, Angola’s relations with Namibia and South Africa, presidential and parliamentary elections in Angola in September 1992, and other topics.

Angola Updates (memoranda provided by Member States to the Situation Centre) report on activities in the United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III), including: political steps and manoeuvres in the Angolan peace process; conditions in quartering areas and the troop quartering process; and developments in military discussions between the Government of Angola and leaders of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).

Sudan
Records pertaining to Sudan include briefing notes to the Secretary-General and high-level DPKO personnel regarding: recent military and operational developments in Darfur; International Criminal Court investigations in Darfur; rounds of the Inter-Sudanese Peace Talks on Darfur, held in various locations from 2003 to 2006; assessments of peacekeeping requirements in Sudan; the establishment and progress of the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), as well as its coordination with the United Nations; meetings between high-level DPKO personnel and Sudanese politicians; demining; and violence against women.

Chronological files on Sudan contain: summaries of Meetings of Experts on Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Sudan, held by the African Union from 5-6 December 2005; talking points for high-level meetings between the Secretary-General and politicians such as the President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir; statements by United Nations Member State representatives on the financing, establishment, and progress of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS); summaries of meetings of the United Nations Interdepartmental Task Force on the Sudan, which concern the Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (IGADD) Peace Process and obstacles to humanitarian work in Darfur; and a Sudan Task Matrix defining the responsibilities of the United Nations and other entities in the Sudanese peace process. Also present are memoranda, articles, and copies of protocols relating to the Abuja Agreement signed on 5 May 2006 and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), a set of agreements signed between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan.

United Nations Protections Force (UNPROFOR)

Files related to UNPROFOR contain memoranda and notes exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and high-level UNPROFOR staff on issues relating to the implementation of the Vance-Owen Plan in the early 1990s. These issues include: military aspects of implementation; meetings between Cyrus Vance, David Owen, and UNPROFOR staff; views of Member States; logistical planning; and UNPROFOR mandate negotiations. There are also memoranda concerning coordination between UNPROFOR and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The memoranda detail meetings between UNPROFOR and NATO officials such as the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe Exercise conference (SHAPEX) and informal meetings with the Chiefs of Defence Staff from NATO troop contributing countries. There are also position papers on strengthening UNPROFOR prepared by NATO troop contributing countries.

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
Records pertaining to UNOMIG consist of: informal consultations of the Security Council on developments in Georgia and on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia; memoranda summarizing demarches of the Friends of Georgia (FOG), a group of Member State representatives and UN officials; and notes for the file. Notes for the file cover such topics as: the future status of Abkhazia and negotiations between Georgia and Abkhazia; living conditions in Tbilisi, Georgia, and the location of the UNOMIG headquarters; humanitarian aid operations in Georgia, including aid to Tkvarcheli, Abkhazia; the approach of the Russian Federation in peacekeeping in Georgia; contributions to UNOMIG from Member States; and telephone conversations between DPKO officials and UNOMIG military leaders.

The UNOMIG files also contain: notes for the file describing visits of the Secretary-General and DPKO and DPA officials to Moscow, Georgia, and Tajikistan; notes for the file on political developments concerning the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, a landlocked region in Azerbaijan with a majority ethnic Armenian population; briefs on military and political developments among countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); and transcripts of news conferences on the Georgian conflict.

United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
UNGOMAP was mandated to monitor the implementation of the Agreements on the Settlement of the Situation Relating to Afghanistan, also known as the Geneva Accords, signed 14 April 1988 between the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The records consist of note verbale submitted to UNGOMAP officials by the parties to the agreement describing violations of the Accords. Also included are reports by UNGOMAP officials of their investigations of alleged violations. The alleged violations occurred in provinces along the Afghan-Pakistani border, and include: the operation of military training camps for extremists; explosions of bombs and rocket attacks; civilian discoveries of caches of arms and explosives, and unexploded bombs and rocket missiles; the transportation of arms and ammunition across the border; the distribution of weapons to local tribal groups; intrusion into parties’ airspace; Pakistanis’ prevention of the voluntary repatriation of Afghan refugees; and the broadcasting of political propaganda. The investigation reports include photographs, hand-drawn sketches of the scene of the incident, witness statements, information about fatalities and casualties, and maps depicting incident locations.

United Nations Observer Mission in Bougainville (UNOMB)
Files pertaining to UNOMB, which was headquartered in Arawa, Papua New Guinea, consist of: working papers, analyses, communiques, and records of understanding related to the peace and ceasefire process between the Government of Papua New Guinea and leaders of the island of Bougainville; minutes of ceasefire anniversary celebration ceremonies; funding requests for reconciliation ceremonies between clans; briefs on weapons hand-in and disposal activities; and memoranda and correspondence of Noel Sinclair, the Director of UNOMB.

United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
Notes for the file cover: meetings between United Nations officials and Ambassadors on MINUGUA operations; functions and activities of the Guatemalan Assembly of Civil Society; anti-narcotics operations in Guatemala; and MINUGUA’s electoral assistance and results of elections. There are also summaries of meetings of the Group of Friends of the Guatemalan Peace Process attended by United Nations officials and government representatives. Also included are presentations, briefings, and outlines of MINUGUA operations related to a visit undertaken from 15-18 May 1997 of the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping to MINUGUA headquarters.

United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)
Notes for the file cover: contributions to ONUSAL by troop-contributing countries; reductions to ONUSAL’ s Military Observer strength; consultations of the Security Council on ONUSAL operations; assassinations of high profile Salvadorans; relations between El Salvador and Honduras with regard to land pockets (bolsones). Also included are: talking points about ONUSAL and the Central American peace process for the Secretary-General’s meetings of the Four Friends; report, forms, and lists documenting technical assistance provided by ONUSAL for the Salvadoran general election in 1994; progress reports of the ONUSAL Electoral Division; and DPKO Situation Centre reports on ONUSAL operations.

Haiti
S-1833 also includes records pertaining to the International Civilian Mission in Haiti (MICIVIH), the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), and the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH). Document types consist of notes for the file, correspondence, memoranda, analyses, discussion papers, and talking points.

Topics covered in the Haiti-related records include: the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping missions in Haiti; strength of the military force and Civilian Police; UN observation of the Haitian elections; environmental conditions in mission areas; public information activities of Haiti missions; appointments to mission posts; contributions by Member States to Haiti missions; the Haitian refugee crisis and Haitians’ right to asylum; the state of democracy and human rights protection in Haiti; assistance to Haiti provided by the international community; cooperation between the United Nations and the Organization of American States (OAS); the Governors Island Agreement signed in July 1993; and relations between the United Nations and the United States on the operation of Haiti missions. Informal consultations of the Security Council on Haiti missions are also included.

Additional Haiti-related records include: summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; summaries of meetings of the Friends of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the Question of Haiti; summaries of meetings by members of the Security Council and governments contributing military and police personnel to Haiti missions; talking points and briefings of the Secretary-General’s meeting with heads of governments of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM); summaries of meetings between representatives of Haiti, the United Nations, and the United States; and summaries of United Nations interagency meetings on Haiti. The Haiti Updates relate to United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) and were issued by the DPKO Situation Centre. They describe: the general security situation in Port-au-Prince (PAP) and other locations in Haiti; incidents of vigilante justice and actions of street gangs; activities of the Haitian National Police (HNP); mass demonstrations; activities of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; political developments in local governments; developments related to elections; and economic development and improvements in the standard of living in Haiti.

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