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United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP) (1995-1999) Series
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Political - Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG)

S-1822 contains records concerning political support provided to the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).

Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG)
The SRSG’s daily reports to United Nations headquarters summarize political and military events. They detail: activities of government ministers and political parties; press conferences and news reported in the Macedonian press; informal meetings attended by the SRSG; visits of delegations to the mission; and demonstrations by ethnic Macedonian and ethnic Albanian students. The SRSG’s daily reports also note illegal crossing activity, smuggling, and intermittent shooting along FYROM’s borders with Albania and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY).

Attachments to code cables consist of a wide variety of documents. Included are: summaries of the SRSG’s meetings with President Kiro Gligorov; monthly reports of the SRSG to United Nations headquarters; briefing notes for the Secretary-General’s visit to FYROM in May 1999; memoranda about political developments in Albania; reports about the imprisonment of dissidents; chronologies of events and reports on the political situation in the municipalities of Gostivar and Tetovo; background and commentary on the 1998 national elections; updates on incidents along the United Nations Patrol Line (UNPL) and along the Macedonian-Albanian border; analyses of press articles for the SRSG; transcripts of television interviews of government ministers; and memoranda about the construction of and conditions in refugee camps.

Also included are records documenting relations between UNPREDEP and the Government of the Republic of Macedonia. These consist of: communiqués; transcripts of ministers’ speeches and interviews; correspondence between the SRSG and the Minister of Defense regarding the mission’s land use; correspondence and memoranda regarding the President’s visit to UN Observation Posts; memoranda detailing the October 1995 attempt to assassinate President Gligorov with a car bomb and the subsequent investigation; summaries of security incidents reported by the Ministry of the Interior; and memoranda about good offices initiatives.

Records pertaining to elections consist of: correspondence between UNPREDEP officials and members of political parties; statements and papers on positions of political parties; career information about government ministers; analyses of the municipal elections; and reports of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) on the elections.

There are also summaries of luncheons hosted by the SRSG for representatives of political parties, including: the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization – Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO-DPMNE); the Democratic Party of Macedonia (DPM); and the Socialist Party of Macedonia (SPM). Topics discussed at these luncheons include: the general elections; draft electoral law; the political situation; changes in government leadership; mergers between political parties; judicial autonomy; ownership of private property; the right to freedom of expression and freedom of the press; the display of Albanian flags on public buildings; the demarcation of the border between FYROM and FRY; the situation in Kosovo; inter-ethnic relations and human rights; the need for an international military presence in FYROM; international security arrangements; and UNPREDEP’s mandate. Also included are summaries of luncheons hosted by the SRSG for representatives of politically-oriented youth organizations.

Files maintained on Kosovo consist of: reports about refugee movements and correspondence regarding the entry of Kosovo refugees into FYROM; updates, memoranda, meeting summaries, and analytical papers about the situation in Kosovo, particularly regarding its impact on UNPREDEP’s operations.

Security-related records include: meeting minutes of the Security Management Team; Quarterly Security Reports; security alerts reports; and the Mission Security Plan. Security situation reports particularly detail: the movements of refugees from Kosovo into FYROM; incidents at refugee camps; and military and humanitarian use of airports.

Included are records of a workshop conducted by the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs in cooperation with UNPREDEP titled “An Agenda for Preventive Diplomacy: Theory and Practice,” held in Skopje in October 1996. These consist of: agreements between UNPREDEP and the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs; correspondence; participant lists; agenda; and addresses and papers presented at the workshop. In addition, there are papers, proceedings, and correspondence related to the Consultative Meeting of the Entities of the United Nations System on the Activities in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), held in Skopje in March 1998.

Also included are: memoranda and correspondence pertaining to the organization of UNPREDEP and the extension of its mandate; drafts of the Secretary-General’s reports on UNPREDEP to the Security Council, and comments relating to the reports; end of mission reports by the SRSG; and itineraries for the SRSG’s travel, as well as talking points, statements delivered, summaries of meetings, and summaries of visits. In addition, there are: papers about illegal drug trafficking and organized crime, and on reform of the criminal justice system and of the criminal code; and project proposals and outlines for social programs initiated by UNPREDEP in cooperation with United Nations agencies and the FYROM government.

Special Assistant to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG)
Records relating to the Government of the Republic of Macedonia include biographical and career information about government ministers; correspondence regarding visits by government ministers to UNPREDEP; correspondence discussing seminars and training resources for the Macedonian police; and invitations sent to ministers to attend seminars.

Records related to the workshop titled “An Agenda for Preventive Diplomacy: Theory and Practice,” held in Skopje in October 1996, consist of: discussion papers about ethnicity as a source of social conflict and on the evolution, meaning, and components of preventive diplomacy; and correspondence and information about governmental and non-governmental organizations working in Macedonia.

The Intersectoral Mission on Developmental Social Issues was a team of experts tasked to implement goals established at the World Summit on Social Development, held in Copenhagen in 1995. Records pertaining to its visit to FYROM consist of outlines and proposals for projects addressing unemployment, early childhood education, services for disabled persons, services for orphaned and abandoned children, and poverty elimination.

Records pertaining to drug control and crime prevention consist of: summaries of crime prevention activities undertaken by UNPREDEP in cooperation with United Nations agencies; maps of drug trafficking routes; agenda for seminars, conferences and symposia on the prevention of organized crime and corruption; and summaries of meetings on the review of draft laws on the control and prevention of corruption held among government ministers, the SRSG, representatives of United Nations agencies, and legal experts. Related papers cover such topics as: proposed drug control programs for FYROM outlined by UN agencies; the incidence of crime in the Republic of Macedonia; and programs intended to strengthen the government.

Records pertaining to youth include: correspondence, project proposals, and seminar programmes related to training in leadership, computer literacy, and foreign languages for youth; and outlines describing income-generating projects for youth and changes proposed for the Macedonian educational system.

Records also include: papers, program plans, curriculum outlines, and correspondence related to the Institute for Social Work and Social Policy affiliated with the University of Sts. Cyril and Methodius in Skopje; and discussion papers on the Legal Consultancy Mission to Macedonia presented to the United Nations Focal Point for Electoral Assistance Activities.

S-1822 includes a group of publications in Macedonian which were produced in whole or in part by UNPREDEP; these publications have been removed to ARMS’s reference library.

Military Support - by position

S-1823 contains records concerning military support provided to the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).

Force Commander
Files related to military officers include: analyses on the reduction of military strength; papers about the concept of operations for United Nations Military Observers (UNMOs); daily situation reports from the Chief of Staff (COS); papers and memoranda regarding the implementation of special security phases; and analyses on developments in Kosovo and Serbia.

Correspondence of the Force Commander covers such topics as: the Security Council’s extension of UNPREDEP’s mandate; fortification along the United Nations Patrol Line (UNPL); concept of operations; and the closing-down of UNPF and the establishment of UNPREDEP. Correspondence also includes updates on activities of teams of UNMOs and summaries of meetings between representatives of UNPREDEP and representatives of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY).

Military reports were sent from the Force Commander to United Nations headquarters in New York and provide information about: the political and military situation; force structure and command; training of the Nordic Battalion (NORDBAT) and the United States Battalion (USBAT); border and community patrols and air operations; engineering and logistics aspects; and drawdown actions.

Records pertaining to the Nordic Battalion (NORDBAT) consist of: papers describing the composition of NORDBAT among the troop-contributing nations of Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland; battalion orders; reports on deployment at Observation Posts; organization charts and deployment maps of NORDBAT; monthly reports by NORDBAT to the Force Commander; and summaries of meetings between NORDBAT officers and border troops and Frontier Guard Officers of the FRY.

Records pertaining to the United States Battalion (USBAT) consist of: briefings prepared for the Force Commander; reports of the Force Commander’s inspections; monthly “roll up” reports on USBAT activities; and the Memorandum of Agreement and the Contribution Agreement between the United States and the United Nations.

Included are weekly reports of the United Nations Liaison Offices (UNLOs) in Belgrade, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), and Zagreb, Croatia, which were established in March 1996 with the task of monitoring and analyzing the policies and actions of the offices’ host governments which could have an impact on three peacekeeping missions active in the former Yugoslavia: UNPREDEP; the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH); and the United Nations Transitional Authority in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium (UNTAES). The weekly reports provide updates and commentary on: domestic political and military activities; foreign relations of the host country; electoral, humanitarian and human rights affairs; and the activities of the UNLOs.

Also included are records documenting visits made by the Force Commander to a variety of locations, including: Belgrade and Sarajevo in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); Tirana and Pogradec in Albania; headquarters of the United States Army Europe (USAREUR) in Heidelberg, Germany; United Nations headquarters in New York; Washington, D.C.; and the Task Force Able Sentry near Skopje, and other locations in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). These records consist of: itineraries, notes for the file; discussion points and briefs; and summaries of meetings with military and government officials. Records also document visits made to UNPREDEP headquarters in Skopje by: Kofi Annan, the Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations, and other United Nations officials; and government officials and ambassadors of the United States and European countries.

Force Commander’s records also include: briefs for and agenda and minutes of Force Commander’s Conferences; speeches made at Force Commanders’ change-of-command ceremonies as well as Force Commanders’ end of tour reports; summaries and minutes of meetings between the Force Commander and the FYROM Minister of Defense; analytical and discussion papers about the conditions along the border between Albania and the FYROM; letters protesting the FRY’s treatment of UN troops who accidentally crossed the border; special reports by the UNMOs; memoranda outlining public information strategies and guidelines for dealing with the media; contribution agreements between troop-contributing nations and UNPREDEP; and memoranda and charts describing the drawdown of UNPREDEP.

Chief of Staff
Records include: discussion papers about the role of UNPREDEP; end of mission reports of the military component of the United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF); and analyses on the border trespassing events that took place at Cupino Brdo, a hill mass located near the FYROM’s border with the FRY. Records pertaining to military changes-of-command ceremonies include: programs; invitation lists; ceremony scripts and speeches; and diagrams depicting troop formation.

Operations Branch, Senior Plans Officer (SPO)
Records of the Senior Plans Officer (SPO) consist of: minutes of Operations Conferences; mission Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); and military liquidation plans and outlines. Also included are operation orders and directives. Operation orders concern: alert stages and measures; deployment of troops along the border with the FRY and along the border with Albania; the drawdown and evacuation of military forces, civilian personnel and equipment; the handling of border incidents; and the provision of emergency assistance to ethnic Albanian refugees entering the FYROM from Kosovo. Incident reports cover: shootings and explosions near borders; cross-border smuggling activity; demonstrations; and violations of FYROM airspace.

Logistics Branch, Chief Logistics Officer (CLOGO)
Records of the Chief Logistics Officer (CLOGO) consist of: minutes of Logistics Conferences; logistics directives; reports of the CLOGO’s visits to Observation Posts; and correspondence concerning helicopter logistical support, refueling policies, and NORDBAT liquidation.

Military Information Liaison Office (MILO)
Included are records pertaining to the United Nations Patrol Line (UNPL), a military administrative boundary negotiated in 1994 by the mission and by the authorities of the FYROM and the FRY, and accepted as a gentlemen’s agreement as the Northern Limit of the Area of Operation (NLAOO). The NLAOO was revised and renamed the UNPL in 1995. The purpose of the boundary was to establish the northernmost area of United Nations operations and to prevent mission troops from accidentally wandering into FRY territory. Records include: analyses on the definition of the UNPL; memoranda describing the terrain constituting the UNPL; summaries of meetings between the Force Commander and the military officials of the FRY about adjustments and revisions made to the UNPL; hand-drawn sketches of the UNPL; and maps depicting military dispositions of UNPREDEP along the UNPL.

Also included are records pertaining to liaison meetings conducted by the staff of the Military Information Liaison Office (MILO). Meetings were held with: representatives of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and of the Ministry of Defense of the FYROM; military officials of the Army of Yugoslavia (AY) of the FRY; and Albanian border police and Albanian government officials. Records include: summaries, minutes, and verbatim transcripts of meetings; and notes and memoranda for the file.

Military information summaries detail: activities along the FYROM’s border with Albania and with the FRY; and weekly activities of the Army of Yugoslavia (AY), the Army of the Republic of Macedonia (APM), and Albanian forces. Records pertaining to the drawdown of military forces mandated by Security Council Resolution 1082 (1996), which extended UNPREDEP’s mandate but reduced its size, include: presentations and memoranda on the concept of drawdown operations; plans and outlines for the drawdown; and minutes of drawdown planning meetings.

Records of the MILO also include maps. There is a map approved on 7 July 1994 that depicts the Northern Limit of the Area of Operations (NLAOO). This maps features paper notes affixed to the map surface, and hand-drawn markings of border changes. Also included is a series of maps produced by the Military Survey of the Ministry of Defence of the United Kingdom in 1993 which depict areas that surround a number of cities and towns in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Albania, Kosovo, Bulgaria and Greece. Laminated maps of areas in the FYROM, as well as in Kosovo, are also included.

Civilian Police Support

S-1824 contains records concerning police support provided to the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).

Civilian Police Support
Civilian Police Support were deployed in the border areas of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) to monitor the work of the Macedonian border police. Civilian Police Support also conducted community patrols and liaised with local police.

Included are daily, weekend, and weekly situation reports consolidating information from the following Civilian Police Support stations: Station Skopje, Station Ohrid and Station Tetovo. Situation reports contain information gathered from border patrols regarding: shootings and sporadic firing; discoveries of smuggling; black marketing; and illegal border crossings. Situation reports also cover: demonstrations and hunger strikes held by civilians; visits to refugee camps and movements of refugees; and proceedings of the trial of Gostivar mayor Rufi Osmani held in September 1997, which was prompted by violence resulting from a flag-raising incident in July.

Also detailed in the situation reports are meetings conducted by Civilian Police Support. Meetings with chiefs and deputy commanders of local police concern such topics as: border incidents; local criminal activity; and the organization and administration of local police. Meetings with members of political parties primarily concern the controversial issue of the public raising of the Macedonian, Albanian and Turkish flags. Meetings with mayors concern such issues as: local business and economic conditions; local strikes; drug use; infrastructure challenges; attitudes toward CIVPOL and UNPREDEP’s presence; alleged government hostilities against the ethnic Albanian population; the difficulty of obtaining citizenship papers; and the activities of Roma.

Monthly situation reports, which were prepared by Civilian Police Support teams in Ohrid, Skopje, and Tetovo, detail: cooperation between CIVPOL and the Macedonian police; the professionalism of the Macedonian police; meetings with police chiefs; and incidents, crime trends, and prison visits.

There are also reports about villages visited by Civilian Police Support from Station Gostivar, Station Skopje, Station Ohrid and Station Tetovo. Most profiles are of villages located near FYROM’s borders with Albania and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). Village profiles document repeated visits to villages from 1993 to 1999. Information was gathered through observation and from conversations with village mayors, shopkeepers, farmers, and other residents.

Village profiles provide population figures and percentages of the ethnic makeup of villages, including figures on the following groups: Macedonian Orthodox Christians, Macedonia Muslims, Albanian Muslims, Turks, Roma, and Vlachs. Also noted are: comments about the crime rate; observations about population loss and the abandonment of villages during the winter months; and figures on unemployment and overseas emigration from villages. Details about infrastructure pertain to: plumbing; electricity; telephone lines; conditions of village roads; waste collection; and the functioning of wells and villagers’ access to potable water. Notes about village elementary and secondary schools mention class size, condition of facilities, and language used in instruction (Macedonian, Albanian or Turkish). Also noted are figures about refugees from Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, and Kosovo residing in villages, and details about medical services available to and humanitarian assistance needed by villagers.

Chief Administrative Officer

S-1825 contains records concerning administrative support provided to the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).

Chief Administrative Officer (CAO)
Records include: minutes of meetings held by the Chief Administrative Officer with service and section chiefs, which detail communications, procurement, engineering, and transport activities; several editions of the mission’s Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); memoranda and reports about the administrative and military implications of the reconfiguration of UNPREDEP; correspondence between mission officials and government officials of the Republic of Macedonia; notes and agenda for Force Commander’s Conferences; and weekly logistics reports.

Correspondence and circulars cover such topics as: procedures for the use of helicopters; entry and exit procedures of the UNPREDEP headquarters; bomb threat procedures; procedures for new arrivals in the mission; emergency radio procedures; inspection and operational readiness reports; and procedures for contracts.

Also included are records pertaining to internal and external audits performed on UNPREDEP. Audit records include: correspondence exchanged between the Chief Administrative Officer and various offices at the United Nations headquarters in New York; memoranda pertaining to the visit of auditors to the mission and their activities; and reports of audits, which cover audit objectives, scope, findings, and recommendations.

Legal documents include: Memoranda of Understanding between UNPREDEP and troop-contributing countries regarding the supply of personnel, equipment and services; and letters of assist. Records of the Legal Officer consist of: notes for the file on the Legal Officer’s high-level meetings; and memoranda concerning a variety of topics, including immunity of United Nations personnel and court case proceedings.

Public Information Office (PIO)

S-1820 contains records concerning public information and communications support provided to the United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP).

Public Information Office (PIO)
Records consist of daily and weekly summaries describing national and international news, as reported in Macedonian newspapers, television, and radio outlets and with particular attention to countries bordering Macedonia. Media outlets include: the newspapers Vecer, Dnevnik, Nova Makedonija, and Makedonija Denes, Delo, Puls, Fokus, and Forum; Macedonian Radio and Radio NOMA; and the television stations Telma, MTV 1 and A1 TV. Daily summaries cover the activities of UNPREDEP, and provide commentary on news events. The topics include: activities of the Government of the Republic of Macedonia and of President Kiro Gligorov; local political developments, including election results and appointments of government ministers; the presence of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces in Macedonia; interethnic relations, including updates on the flag-displaying legislation and language disputes; civilian demonstrations; Macedonian foreign relations, including Macedonian-Taiwanese relations and Macedonian-Serbian relations; the entry of refugees into Macedonia; and the extension of the UNPREDEP mandate. Daily summaries also include transcripts of interviews with: the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); Macedonian government ministers; and leaders of political parties.