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Military: Operations: significant

The records in S-1918 document the military operations of the United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) which was established through the United Nations Security Council Resolution 619 on 9 August 1988. The function of S-1918 is derived from PKO.MIL005 of the Peacekeeping and Political Operations Retention Schedule (PORS) through the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support, dated 1 August 2011. S-1918 records date primarily from August 1988 to February 1991, however there are materials referenced that fall outside this date range. Most notable is the 1975 Algiers Agreement signed by Iran and Iraq on 6 March 1975 that settled previous border disputes.

UNIIMOG was established along with an agreed upon ceasefire between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq in August 1988, ending almost eight years of war. UNIIMOG was mandated in accordance with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 598 dated 20 July 1987, “to verify, confirm and supervise the ceasefire and withdrawal of the forces to the Internationally Recognized Boundary (IRB) and the cooperation of Iran and Iraq in mediation efforts to achieve a peace settlement.”

UNIIMOG’s area of operations were along the ceasefire lines (CFLs) in Iran and Iraq, in No Man’s Land (NML) between the CFLs, and as far into each country as was necessary to monitor the ceasefire. UNIIMOG was headquartered in Tehran, Iran and Baghdad, Iraq. For the purpose of UNIIMOG’s military operations, each country was divided into sectors along the IRB. Each sector was responsible for a number of team sites located closer to the IRB where observations were made. Iran was divided into four sectors from north to south: Saqqez, Bakhtaran, Dezful and Ahwaz. Each of these sectors controlled four team sites except Dezful which controlled three. Iraq was divided into three sectors from north to south: the Northern/Sulaymaniyah, the Central/Ba‘qubah (which moved to Mansuriyah on 27 September 1990), and the Southern/Basra Sector. It appears these sectors controlled their own team sites as well.

S-198 contains Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) which outline the structure, operations, and administrative functions of UNIIMOG. The SOPs give job descriptions for staff, locations of UNIIMOG facilities, define acronyms, and give insight towards the overall functioning of UNIIMOG.

Major-General Slavko Jovic (Yugoslavia) was appointed Chief Military Observer (CMO) and served in this position until November 1990. Upon his departure, Brigadier-General S. Anam Khan (Bangladesh) took command of UNIIMOG as the Acting Chief Military Observer (A/CMO). The CMO and the senior staff spent alternate weeks at each UNIIMOG headquarters. An Assistant Chief Military Observer (ACMO) was permanently stationed in each capital and directed UNIIMOG's operations in each country, under the overall command of the CMO.
S-1918 records contain concise monthly reports by the CMO sent to Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs Marrack Goulding in UNHQ. The CMO records also include monthly mandate reports, general monthly reports and briefings of UNIIMOG operations.

The Chief Military Logistics Officer (CMLO) was responsible for consolidating, coordinating, projecting, and developing logistical support requirements of sectors and military branches with the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) and civilian staff. In addition the CMLO acted as liaison between the sectors, military branches and civilian staff on important issues. The records of the CMLO, documented through cables, memoranda, faxes and reports; include the reorganization of UNIIMOG headquarters, sectors and team sites, logistical planning, deployment of staff, sector commander’s conferences, inspection reports and meeting summaries between UNIIMOG and the Iranian and Iraqi governments.

In addition, S-1918 contains UNIIMOG Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) which outlined the CMO’s directives, military operations, and administrative arrangements. The SOPs include guidelines for general concepts and conduct, as well as instructions for reporting, meetings, training, awarding of UN medals, and other administrative issues.

The records also comprise of patrol reports, situation reports (SITREPS), violation records, major incidents, and monthly reports. Patrol reports were daily observations recorded by United Nations Military Observers (UNMOs) and were the first step in a series of reporting on ceasefire compliance. Patrol reports contained: sector name; team site name; patrol route; new violations observed; old violations investigated or closed; and special observations which included flooding, mines, and refugee interviews. Patrol reports also covered any restrictions of movement and/or denial of access of UNMOs by Iran and Iraq.

SITREPs were daily reports created to inform the next higher level Headquarters (HQ) about the operational situation, new violations, progress on old violations, administrative and civil matters, communications state, and any other matter requiring the attention of the next higher HQ. For example, a sector HQ would forward a SITREP to their UNIIMOG HQ (Tehran or Baghdad, for example), while the UNIIMOG HQ would forward a SITREP to United Nations HQ.

Violation records documented allegations of ceasefire violations which were classified into nine categories: firing; new defences; activities in the NML; kidnapping, abductions, defectors or hostages; engineering works; additional weapons; improvement of defences; reinforcements; and miscellaneous. Examples of violation records include the construction of bunkers, roads, walls, and defensive positions, as well as Iranian or Iraqi armed forces participating in firing practice too close to the CFL, planting mines, filming the opposing side, conducting night patrols, insurgent attacks, and digging trenches.

Major incidents are defined as violations that are of a serious nature and include: live firing, reinforcement or construction at forward defensive locality; activity in NML; deliberate flooding on the CFL; flights across the CFL; taking captives; deliberate destruction of economic assets of the other party; and road building in the other’s occupied territory. Records relating to major incidents are documented in cables, faxes and reports.

Monthly reports containing collected patrol reports, situation reports, violation records and major incidents, were used to highlight issues and track progress over the course of UNIIMOG. Monthly reports were created by both UNIIMOG headquarters and included summaries of: general situations in each sector; operational matters such as withdrawal or advancement to the IRB; patrols deployed; flag or border meetings; incidents and allegations; restrictions of movement; repatriation of refugees; prisoners of war and the war dead; disputed positions communications; administration summary reports; and personnel summary or strength reports. The purpose of a monthly report was to summarize the operational and administrative activities of each sector in order to report back to the United Nations Headquarters in New York (UNHQ), and to initiate necessary follow up action at UNIIMOG HQs.

S-1918 records also document flag meetings which took place in NML. Members of UNIIMOG, Military Organization for the Implementation of Resolution 598 (MOIR), and the Cease Fire Committee (CC) participated in flag meetings and covered subjects such as: the resolution of issues from the previous flag meeting, communication problems, visa issues, planning future meetings (including the location, date and time of the next meeting), allegations of violations, confirmed violations, accidents, road work, repatriation of war dead, deaths, redeployment, refugees, patrols, restriction of movements, logistics, radios, transportation, and the coordination of liaison officers.

MOIR consisted of members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards who were liaisons between UNIIMOG and the Iranian government. S-1918 contains records that document MOIR’s involvement in UNIIMOG meetings to discuss UN directives, violations, allegations, and progress.

The CC was the Iraqi organization that acted as the liaison between UNIIMOG and the Iraqi government. The CC attended meetings, addressed issues and negotiated terms between the Iraqi government and UNIIMOG. The records describe meetings that the CC attended and contains reports on violations, allegations, troop movements, forward defensive lines and the CFL.

The records of S-1918 document a number of lines regarding the border between Iran and Iraq including defensive lines, CFLs and the IRB. Defensive lines detail where troops are located and changed over the course of UNIIMOG with troop movements, generally away from the IRB. They included New Defensive Lines (NDL), Forward Defensive Lines (FDL), Areas of Separation (AOS), and the Separation of Forces (SOF). The CFLs were mutually agreed upon by Iran and Iraq and constituted the temporary border until complete resolution could be achieved. There are two CFLs, one for each country, which runs along the forward edge of manned defences on each side at the ceasefire agreement of 20 August 1988. Lastly, the IRB was established by the Algiers Agreement of 6 March 1975 and was used to settle border disputes and conflicts between the two sides. These lines and boundaries were discussed in flag meetings via cables, faxes and reports by UNIIMOG, CC, and the MOIR.

S-1918 also contains records coordinating the repatriation of war dead and captures discussions pertaining to logistics and ceremonies for performing the repatriation which allowed war dead to be repatriated to their homeland so they could be buried in accordance with local and national customs. Communications occurred through cables and faxes and at flag meetings, where the repatriations took place.

The general operations correspondence in S-1918 contains cables, memoranda and faxes and was between UNIIMOG headquarters and sectors, as well as direct correspondence between the sectors. Records in the general operations correspondence discuss sector commanders’ conferences, monthly reports, visits, logistical issues, coordinating the delivery of maps, identifying the IRB, and other issues related to situation reports.

The Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs Marrack Goulding visited UNIIMOG twice, first from 13-21 May 1989 and second from 14-22 September 1989. During these visits, Goulding travelled through the UNIIMOG territory and held meetings with high level officials to discuss the mission of UNIIMOG. There are briefings, reports and visit coordination documents in S-1918 for the trips. Visit documentation also includes information about arrangements, itineraries, agendas and schedules.

Management and Integration: Policy, procedure, best practice

The records in S-1927 document the policies, procedures and best practices of the United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) that was established through the United Nations Security Council Resolution 619 on 9 August 1988. The function of S-1927 is derived from PKO.MAT001 of the Peacekeeping and Political Operations Retention Schedule (PORS) through the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support, dated 1 August 2011.

S-1927 records include Administrative Instructions and Information Circulars from the Chief Administrative Officers (CAOs), T.F. McAndrew and Johann Steinbacher; located in Tehran headquarters. These records document the policies and procedures to be carried out or followed by the United Nations Military Observers (UNMOs) and UNIIMOG staff.

Records also contain policies, procedures and regulations for: medical services, medical outbreaks, UNMOs dress, visits, travel, security plans, and photography. In addition, there are manning lists and policies, strength location reports, and efficiency reports of UNMOs.

Chief of Mission (COM) and Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General (DSRSG)

The records in S-1930 contain memoranda, correspondence, and reports created or received by the United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA)’s Chief of Mission (COM) Angela King who served from 23 September 1992 to 27 June 1994. UNOMSA was established through United Nations Security Council Resolutions 772 and 894, adopted on 17 August 1992 and 14 January 1994, respectively, and operated from September 1992 until June 1994 to observe and report on the transition from apartheid South Africa to a non-racial, democratic society. Ms. King was appointed Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General (DSRSG) for South Africa in December 1993. The function of S-1930 is derived from PKO.HOM001 and PKO.POL004 of the Peacekeeping and Political Operations Retention Schedule (PORS) through the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support, dated 1 August 2011.

The records in S-1930 document the activities and responsibilities of Angela King in both roles and highlight her involvement with UNOMSA’s peace promotion activities during the first mandate through Security Council Resolution 772, which was to monitor activities and promote an end to violence in South Africa; strengthen and reinforce the structures of the National Peace Accord (NPA); and focus on the resumption of negotiation processes in South Africa. The records demonstrate the collaboration between UNOMSA and the National Peace Accord (NPA) structures, including the National Peace Committee (NPC) and the National Peace Secretariat (NPS). Meeting summaries and minutes, memoranda, cables, and faxes document trends in South Africa, detail the progress of United Nations Mission Observers (UNMOs) and other international observer missions in South Africa, and propose modifications as ways to strengthen the NPA by, for example, the establishment of a peace corps and the expansion of responsibilities for the Regional Peace Committees (RPCs), Local Peace Committees (LPCs), and Regional Peace Secretariats (RPS).

S-1930 also contains records exchanged between UNOMSA and one of the NPA structures at the regional level, the Social and Economic Reconstruction and Development (SERD) Committees, which consist of cables, proposals for development projects, and updates from SERD through the RPCs and the NPA. SERD also submitted funding proposals for other United Nations projects, including teacher and education training, assistance to homeless populations, and small business opportunities such as brick building and sewing projects. There was a strong effort by SERD to create economic development in order to stabilize and reconstruct the areas affected by violence.

The Joint Operations Communications Centre (JOCC) was created by the RPC, LPC, and the police to monitor violence by deploying mediators and security to report violence. The JOCC records consist of cables, memoranda, briefings, press releases and reports, and the subjects include administrative details; security arrangements; conditions at the JOCC; reports of violence; end of mission debriefings; meeting summaries; notes from meetings with foreign ambassadors; set up logistics and location of voting stations; staffing requirements; and guidelines.

The Commission of Inquiry Regarding the Prevention of Public Violence and Intimidation, commonly referred to as the Goldstone Commission, is also documented in S-1930. Created by South African President F.W. de Klerk and chaired by Justice Richard Goldstone, the Goldstone Commission investigated political violence which occurred between July 1991 and the general election on 27 April 1994. The Commission produced reports on various topics, including the activities of the NPS, violence and intimidation in the meadowlands, taxi industry, hostels, and on trains, preliminary investigations into the activities of the Azanian People’s Liberation Army (APLA), and the violence at Mooi River.

Angela King was in regular contact with the South African government and its officials. S-1930 contains meeting notes and cables between Ms. King and government officials including President de Klerk, the Minister of Home Affairs and Environment, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Law and Order, Minister of Local Government and Housing, Minister of Defence and Justice, Minister of Regional and Land Affairs, and Minister of Constitutional Development. Issues addressed in the meetings include logistical issues around the transition from apartheid to a non-racial democratic society and arranging voter observation to ensure the safety of South African citizens. Ms. King was also in contact with South African political parties such as the African National Congress (ANC), Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), South African Communist Party, Afrikaner Volksfront, Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (AWB), the Conservative Party/Konserwatiewe Party (KP), and the Democratic Party. Correspondence documents security planning for the election; meeting summaries; constitutional proposals put forth by political parties; complaints between political parties; efforts at resuming the negotiation process; condolences of deaths; party manifestos; speeches; and press releases by political parties.

S-1930 contains daily reports, bill drafts, resolutions, press releases, statements and notes from meetings of the Transitional Executive Council (TEC). On 7 December 1993, TEC was established to assist with facilitating, transitioning, and preparing for the implementation of a democratic government in South Africa. TEC covered issues such as finance; state employees; incidents of violence and managing states of emergency; determining the rights of citizens to vote; ensuring issues would be addressed after the election; and monitoring independent media coverage.

S-1930 records document communication between Angela King and her Special Advisor Charles Wyse through cables and faxes containing memoranda and reports on a variety of subjects including voter registration, observation of violence, coordination of observers, election results, meeting notes, training, UN role in the elections, deployment of observers, press articles, training, visits, briefings, code of conduct, and meetings.

Other records document Angela King’s work with international observer teams operating in South Africa including: European Community (European Community Observer Mission in South Africa, ECOMSA); Commonwealth of Nations (Commonwealth Observer Mission to South Africa, COMSA); and the Organisation of African Unity (Organisation of African Unity Observer Mission in South Africa, OAU-OMSA). S-1930 contains cables, press releases and reports exchanged between these organization and UNOMSA related to coordinating observation and sharing information on developments inside South Africa. S-1930 also contains a number of official reports including: “Survey Report on the Proposed Expansion of UNOMSA: Administrative and Logistic Support Matters,” issued by the Field Office Division (FOD)/Department of Peacekeeping Operations; “Violence in South Africa: The Report of the Commonwealth Observer Mission to South Africa Phase II: February 1993 - May 1993," by COMSA; “Report to the Commission of Inquiry Regarding the Prevention of Public Violence and Intimidation,” produced by the Multinational Panel to Inquire into the Curbing of Violence and Intimidation During the Forthcoming South African Election; and "International Monitoring as a Mechanism for Conflict Resolution in Southern Africa," by Douglas Anglin.

With the expanded mandate in 1994 through Security Council Resolution 894, Angela King oversaw all activities of UNOMSA’s two newly created divisions: 1) the Peace Promotion Division (PPD), which continued to respond to the provisions of Security Council Resolution 772 and expanded its network of contacts to include the monitoring branch of the IEC; and 2) the Electoral Division which observed the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC); monitored the ability of South African political parties to campaign freely; verified that eligible voters were not denied identification documents or temporary voter cards (TVCs); and ensured that voting stations were free of intimidation.

The records in S-1930 that relate to the PPD consist of daily, weekly, observer, and situation reports, meeting summaries and press articles from the UNMO teams operating in the newly established provinces. S-1930 also contains reports and summaries about conferences produced by the Electoral Division including the Conference on Election Monitoring and Observing, the Election Planning Conference, the Panel of Religious Leaders for Electoral Justice, and the Conference on Violence: Free and Fair Elections in South Africa. The records also contain correspondence between the Electoral Division and various agencies in South Africa such as the Centre Against Apartheid, National Election Commission, and the Interim Electoral Division.

The records document UNOMSA’s collaboration with the IEC through correspondence, memoranda on elections, meeting summaries, election readiness plans, agendas, locations of voting stations, instructions on how to administer elections, and the role of a monitor in an election. In addition, there are also notes detailing various conferences and meetings such as the IEC conference on Technical Assistance, the Interim Committee of the National Conference on Election Monitoring and Observing, Coordination of International Assistance and Support to IEC, and the Sub-Committee on Monitoring of the IEC.

S-1930 also contains records from the Liaison and Protocol Office, which was located within the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for South Africa. Headed by the Senior Liaison and Protocol Officer Ala Almoman, the Liaison and Protocol Office generated documents to assist with arranging workshops, coordinating visits, and contacting agencies and governments outside of South Africa. Records related to the United Nations Special Committee Against Apartheid (UNSCAA) and the IEC have great significance because they include cooperation service agreements between the UN and foreign governments as well as reports from the Department of Foreign Affairs. The active records from the Liaison and Protocol Office run from 1 January to 6 June 1994, with reference material dating from 1 January 1993.

Processing Archivist: Matthew Aull, Corinne O’Connor
Volume: 75 boxes

Peace Promotion Activities

S-1938 encompasses an integration of records that document UNOMSA’s peace promotion activities under Security Council Resolution 772 (1992) and UNOMSA’s expanded mandate under Security Council Resolution 894 (1994). The function of S-1938 is derived from PKO.POL of the Peacekeeping and Political Operations Retention Schedule (PORS) through the Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support, dated 1 August 2011. The records in S-1938 run primarily from 1992 to 1994, with reference to documents from as early as 1970. Records are arranged by location and subject.

Under the establishment of UNOMSA through Security Council Resolution 772 (1992), Chief of Mission (COM) Angela King oversaw the United Nations Mission Observers (UNMOs) that were deployed in all eleven regions of South Africa, with headquarters in Johannesburg and a regional office in Durban. S-1938 documents the responsibilities of UNMOs under this mandate such as observing demonstrations, marches, and other forms of mass action; investigating instances of intimidation, violence and related complaints; noting the conduct of all parties and obtaining information indicating the degree to which the parties’ actions were consistent with the principles of the National Peace Accord (NPA) and the Goldstone Commission guidelines. Observers supplemented their field observations by establishing and maintaining informal contacts at all levels with existing government structures, political parties, and organizations, as well as with civic associations.

S-1938 records regarding UNMOs’ observations include: situation reports covering special or significant events and meetings, real or potential flashpoints, and important breakthroughs in the NPA structures or objectives; weekly operational statistics focusing on regional activities for monitoring trends; weekly chronologies providing essential facts such as event, venue, date, parties involved, and significant outcome (if any). In addition, there are monthly trend analysis reports focusing on the functions of NPA structures; progress in dispute resolution and peace-building; progress of Social and Economic Reconstruction and Development (SERD) projects; and UNOMSA’s working relationship with other international observers.

The NPA built consensus by creating peace structures that were divided at the national, regional, and local levels. These structures included the National Peace Committee (NPC) and the National Peace Secretariat (NPS). The NPC established and administered regional and local structures including the Regional Peace Committees (RPCs) and the Local Peace Committees (LPCs). The RPCs and LPCs acted as mediators and were tasked with recording and monitoring violence and breaches of the NPA. UNMOs attended LPC and RPC meetings as neutral observers providing mediation when necessary. S-1938 records contain correspondence, meeting summaries and meeting minutes. Separated primarily by location, these records also document the interaction of UNOMSA with the NPS including attendance at the NPS chairpersons meeting; UNOMSA proposals supporting the NPA; and reports about the activities of the regional peace secretariats.

Security Council Resolution 894 (1994) expanded the mandate and size of UNOMSA, creating the Peace Promotion Division (PPD) and the Electoral Division. One significant change with Security Council Resolution 894 was the geographical organization, abandoning the recognition of the eleven regions and adhering to a stipulation from the Interim Constitution that there will be nine provinces. In addition, the PPD and its UNMO teams expanded its network of contacts to include the monitoring branch of the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) and continued to respond to the provisions of Security Council Resolution 772.

Prior to the expanded mandate, Ismat A. Steiner was the Deputy Chief of Mission and head of the regional office in Durban. He was named Director of the PPD as a result of the new mandate and directed all facets and areas, relating to peace promotion and violence monitoring, falling within the competence and mandate of UNOMSA, including the preparation of weekly, quarterly, and other reports which are submitted to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General. Steiner was assisted by four Area Coordinators who were based respectively in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban and Pietersburg. The four Area Coordinators were supported by nine Provincial Coordinators. The Provincial Coordinators were based respectively in one of the nine Provincial Headquarters located in Western Cape, Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vaal (later known as Gauteng), KwaZulu/Natal, Northern Transvaal (later known as Limpopo), Eastern Transvaal (later known as Mpumalanga), North West, and Orange Free State (later known as Free State). The nine Provincial Headquarters were staffed by teams of UNMOs. As a result of the new mandate, observers’ activities expanded to include observing and reporting on voter education, issuance of temporary voter’s cards and following IEC attempts to select sites for and establish voting and counting stations.

Steiner’s records in S-1938 include chronological files, correspondence with the Commission of Inquiry Regarding the Prevention of Public Violence and Intimidation (The Goldstone Commission), coordination with the anniversaries of the assassination of Chris Hani. There are correspondence between the PPD and the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali, addressing United Nations Volunteers issues, statements to the UN Security Council, IEC, letters from the South African Department of Foreign Affairs, invitations to gatherings and events, letters from the Electoral division, Electronic Data Processing (EDP) equipment requests, and a Human Rights International report. Executive summaries of UNOMSA contain weekly summaries of significant issues facing UNOMSA such as: major political developments, activities of senior officials, rallies and meetings attended, operational activities of the Electoral Division and the Public Information/Media Analysis Section. Daily and weekly reports on election updates concerning ballot papers, lights, ink, illegal voting stations, temporary voters’ cards, the activities of political parties, encounters with police, deployment of international observers, specific reports of events such as a Nelson Mandela speech, an Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) rally and security coordination meeting. Minutes and notes document meetings between the PPD and the following organizations: Coordinating Committee, Local Peace Committees, Security Coordination Committee, National Peace Secretariat (NPS) and International Observers.

Records also include briefing materials covering a variety of UNOMSA activities including: election information; voter education; voting stations; temporary voter cards; voting observation forms; deployment of IEOs; incidents of violence; observer issues; historical backgrounds of South Africa covering social, economic, and political issues; and weekly press analyses. The materials were delivered as memoranda, newspaper clippings, and reports through faxes and cables.

S-1938 contains records showing the issue of security within UNOMSA. These records include evacuation plans; safety instructions; police issues; reports on security issues and incidents with observers being attacked or carjacked; and discussions about guidelines for observers. There is also correspondence with South African Police (SAP), notes and minutes of meetings, reports, directives and guidance for UNOMSA staff operating within South Africa. Examples of reports found in the security files of UNOMSA are, “Coming to Grips with Covert Operations: Who Does What and Where?” by the Coalition Against Sate Murder and Corruption (CASMAC), and “Regional Unrest and Crime Related Statistics,” produced by the Wits/Vaal Regional Dispute Resolution Committee Monitoring Workshop Programme.

S-1938 contains runs of incoming faxes from the different regions/provinces in South Africa which cover all aspects of the operation of UNOMSA and the PPD and are directed to or received from: Angela King, COM and Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General; Leona Forman, Chief Public Information and Analysis Section; Kevin Kennedy from Public Information and Media Analysis; Timour Dmitrichev, Area Coordinator of Western Cape, Northern Cape and North West; Reginald H.F. Austin Director Electoral Division; Hamish Cameron Deputy Mission Security Coordinator; John Mullen Chief, Procurement Officer; Charles Wyse, Special Advisor; G Zuliani Mission Security Coordinator; UNOMSA observers. These records include an example of a “very good” observer report dispersed to all observers, and a “Statement by Ms. Angela King, (COM) at the UNOMSA Press Reception in Johannesburg, 11 July 1993.”

Though the PPD was separate from the Electoral Division, the mandate highlights that “violence-monitoring activities of the PPD are indistinguishable from the campaign observation activities,” and this holds true with sections of S-1938 concerning election information. S-1938 contains records on election information such as memoranda and reports about the role of observers, restrictions on political campaigning, strategies for monitoring voter education, explanation of acronyms, election statistics of South Africa, newspaper clippings, election observer training, and the European Community Observer Mission in South Africa (ECOMSA) handbook for observers of elections.

In addition, S-1938 also contains records concerning voter education which identify who can vote, what does a voter need to vote, where is the voting, when is the voting, possible extension of voting days, moving of ballot boxes, updates on electoral readiness, notes on polling stations, voting station summary with provisional map, Temporary Voter Cards (TVC) reports, and voter education report forms. The voter education report forms detail the observations from voter education events which were a standard form that lists nineteen questions ranging from date, demographics, subject of the presentations, and descriptions of the teaching methods. There are additional records of vote counting and the setup of voting stations which cover coding of polling stations; reports of counting directives which are guidelines and instructions on counting votes; lists of voting stations; and a summary of polling stations. There were a number of organizations that were conducting voter education in South Africa including The Malta Trust, the Institute for a Democratic Alternative in South Africa (IDASA), and the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU).

Processing Archivsits: Matthew Aull, Corinne O'Connor
Boxes: 60

Electoral Division

S-1939 contains the records of the Electoral Division of the United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa (UNOMSA). The Electoral Division was established following the expansion of UNOMSA’s mandate through UN Security Council Resolution 894, adopted on 14 January 1994, to include international observation of South Africa’s election, held on 27 April 1994. The records in S-1939 contain correspondence, memoranda, faxes and reports documenting the work of UNOMSA staff and electoral observers.

Under the expanded mandate, the Electoral Division was responsible for observing the actions of the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC); noting the ability of South African political parties to campaign freely; verifying that qualified voters were not denied identification documents or temporary voter cards (TVCs); and ensuring that voting stations were free of intimidation. Any violations observed were reported to the IEC. The Electoral Division consisted of four sections dedicated to carrying out specific parts of the mandate: Voter Education Section, Operations Analysis Section, Adjudication Section, and the Public Information/Media Analysis Section.

S-1939 contains the records of Reginald H. F. Austin, Director of the Electoral Division. These files were maintained at UNOMSA headquarters in Johannesburg by Austin and Michael Maley, Deputy Director and document the work of the different sections of the Electoral Division, as well as other divisions within UNOMSA, including the Peace Promotion Division (PPD) and the Joint Operations Unit (JOU). These records consist of correspondence and memoranda from Electoral Division section chiefs; policy documents; and reports on electoral observations and security situations. Observation reports were initially produced by electoral observers deployed to each of the nine provinces and distributed through the hierarchy of UNOMSA: first to team leaders, then to Provincial Coordinators and Area Coordinators before being sent to headquarters, where they were delivered to the Director and Deputy Director and distributed among the sections of the Electoral Division.

Records in S-1939 also document the work of the Adjudication Section and Public Information/Media Analysis Section. The Adjudication Section was tasked with observing how the IEC handled violations of the Independent Electoral Commission Act, which mandated free and fair elections, while the Public Information/Media Analysis Section was responsible for monitoring major national, regional and local press and weekly and monthly magazines. The records consist of case reports on violations that were sent to the IEC; daily press analysis reports; and weekly reports of the sections’ activities and sent to Austin at UNOMSA headquarters.

Austin’s records also include subject files containing correspondence and memoranda, meeting minutes and agendas, press releases, faxes, and reports concerning International Electoral Observers (IEOs), diplomatic observer missions, and South African political parties, including the African National Congress (ANC), the Democratic Party (DP) and the Inthanka Freedom Party (IFP). These records also contain the IEO manual and information kit. Other files contain reference materials maintained by the Electoral Division, including press articles from South African newspapers, reports and studies on South Africa, and drafts of bills and legislation.

S-1939 also contains records created and maintained by the Voter Education Section and Operations Analysis Section of the Electoral Division, based at UNOMSA headquarters in Johannesburg. The records of the Voter Education Section, headed by Tatiana Androsov, contain meeting summaries, correspondence, and weekly and special reports by IEOs observing voter education initiatives of the IEC and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the various provinces. The records also contain the “African National Congress (ANC) Election Monitoring Manual.”

The Operations Analysis Section was responsible for the creation of electoral policy documentation, development of operational forms and reports, and analysis of IEC activities. The records consist of operational circulars, correspondence and memoranda, and handbooks and manuals issued by the IEC. These files also include daily and weekly reports, lists of voting stations, reports on voting stations preparedness, and fortnightly reports on the issuance of TVCs which were sent to Robert Drew, Chief of the Operations Analysis Section, from Provincial and Area Coordinators. Many records contain annotations, highlighting, and comments from UNOMSA staff of these sections.

The Electoral Division worked closely with the PPD to coordinate electoral observers stationed in the field. S-1939 contains records originating from the nine provincial offices of UNOMSA in Eastern Cape; Eastern Transvaal; KwaZulu-Natal; Northern Cape; Northern Transvaal; North West Province; Orange Free State; Pretoria, Witwatersrand and Vaal (PWV); and Western Cape. Each province was overseen by a Provincial Coordinator of the PPD who reported on peace promotion and electoral observations to an Area Coordinator responsible for multiple provinces. The records include administrative memoranda, daily observer reports, weekly reports, and voter observation forms. A majority of records are from the Northern Cape and contain operational circulars, press articles, and reports from observer teams in the province, as well as records of Sliman Bouchuiguir, Provincial Coordinator and Khalid Zaied, Deputy Provincial Coordinator.

The records in S-1939 also document the work of NGO Liaison Officer Raymonde Martineau who was responsible for coordinating and maintaining relations with domestic and foreign NGOs. Also included are correspondence and reports related to the deployment of NGOs; coordination with the National Electoral Observer Network (NEON); and reference material on South African political parties and the National Peace Accord.

S-1939 also contains records of the Joint Operations Unit (JOU) which was established in February 1994 as a joint centre for day to day coordination of efforts of the four Inter-Governmental Organizations (IGOs) in observing the elections in South Africa. The four IGOs consisted of representatives from the United Nations Mission Observers (UNMOs); European Union (European Union Election Unit to South Africa, EUNELSA); Organisation of African Unity (Organisation of African Unity Observer Mission in South Africa, OAU-OMSA); and the Commonwealth of Nations (Commonwealth Observer Mission to South Africa, COMSA), that worked together in March and April 1994. The records contain outgoing faxes which document daily responsibilities including the preparation and planning for the final deployment of additional observers and logistics related to transportation, communications, conference facilities and accommodations. The records also contain forms completed by observer teams, following visits to voting stations; organization of the arrival and deployment of IEOs prior to the elections; induction, training and briefing sessions in the Johannesburg area to acquaint observers with the electoral system of South Africa and with their roles in the elections; transportation to provinces where they were given further briefings on local conditions; and schedules of their departure.

S-1939 also contains the records of Jorge Espinal, Provincial Logistics Officer in Klerksdorp, North West Province. In each of the nine provinces, an UNOMSA Electoral Observer was appointed as a Provincial Logistics Officer (PLO) to serve as a JOU focal point and liaise directly with the JOU Headquarters in Johannesburg. The PLO worked closely with the Provincial Coordinator in each province to obtain and compile information relevant to the deployment of IEOs; liaise at the provincial level with the other IGOs represented in the JOU; and help coordinate the work of the United Nations Volunteers’ (UNV) Observation Support Officers. The records document the daily activities of Espinal through memoranda and reports contained in outgoing and incoming faxes. The records also include maps that were used by the JOU to assist in the logistics of and planning for the election.

Processing Archivists: Virginia Pastor, Corinne O’Connor
Volume: 56 boxes

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