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United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) (1992-1993) Series
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Human Rights

Human Rights Component
S-1881 contains subject files of the UNTAC Human Rights Component. The Human Rights Component endeavored to: encourage the Supreme National Council (SNC) of Cambodia to ratify relevant international human rights instruments; conduct an extensive campaign of human rights education; investigate allegations of human rights abuses; and exercise general oversight of human rights aspects of every component of UNTAC. The UNTAC Human Rights Component was headquartered in Phnom Penh and employed Provincial Human Rights Officers (PHRO) at the headquarters of the mission’s provincial offices.

The records of the Human Rights Component were produced by the Director of Human Rights and Provincial Human Rights Officers (PHRO), and primarily concern UNTAC-led human rights education initiatives and investigations of human rights abuses.

Memoranda, exchanged between Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Yasushi Akashi, Director of Human Rights Dennis McNamara, UNTAC staff, and Cambodian officials, concern: freedom of operation for Cambodian human rights groups; the independence of the judiciary; and the “UNTAC Fair Access Plan for Cambodia Campaign of 1993,” regarding fair journalistic coverage of political parties. There are yearly and final reports prepared by the Human Rights Component and the Provincial Human Rights Officers (PHRO). The reports summarize case investigations and relevant prosecution, human rights training, prison visits, activities of non-governmental organizations and political parties, and planning for the dissolution of UNTAC. There are also statistics and reports on the treatment, health, locations, and number of returnees, refugees, internally displaced persons, and Vietnamese living in Cambodia.

The administration of human rights case investigations is also documented. The minutes for meetings of the Action Committee, which convened representatives of the UNTAC components, detail proposals to the SRSG regarding specific cases of human rights violations. For example, the Committee could propose that the SRSG request: that the Cambodian existing administrative structures (EAS) conduct a particular investigation, that an administrative sanction be taken against an official, or that legal action be taken by the EAS. Prepared by the Special Prosecutor for the SRSG, a report dated 1 February 1993 focuses on the prosecution of cases. It is titled “Decision on the future of UN prosecutions of crimes involving human rights breaches during the transitional period.” In addition, memoranda and information circulars contain guidelines for reporting human rights violations.

Other records document training and initiatives in human rights. Agenda, reports, and invitations are included for the International Symposia on Human Rights in Cambodia. Hosted by UNTAC in 1992 and 1993, the symposia promoted understanding and support between international and regional human rights organizations, and Cambodian human rights groups. In addition, there are curricula, case studies, agenda, statistics, and evaluations of human rights training seminars. The seminars were held for Cambodian non-governmental organizations, Cambodian women’s groups, teachers, police, prison wardens, judges, prosecutors, and lawyers. There are also: minutes of meetings between the Human Rights Component and Cambodian non-governmental organizations about training priorities; radio and video scripts about human rights; radio and video interviews with Cambodian officials and UNTAC staff; and memoranda about the planning of educational and outreach initiatives. Human rights outreach initiatives included a human rights drawing contest and Human Rights Day celebrations.

The series also includes records of the United Nations Centre for Human Rights in Cambodia (UNCHR). These primarily relate to its establishment in 1993 by resolution 1993/6 of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Additionally, there are records of Justice Michael Kirby, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Human Rights in Cambodia. These records consist of the SRSG’s reports to the General Assembly and the Commission on Human Rights, as well as State of Cambodia (SOC) officials’ comments on the reports. There is also correspondence sent from Justice Kirby to the King of Cambodia Norodom Sihanouk, bringing to his attention violations of human rights reported by the UNCHR and recommending responses.

Human rights - Investigation and verification

Human Rights Component
S-1882 contains case files of human rights violations investigated by the UNTAC Human Rights Component in provincial villages and communes in Cambodia from 1992 to 1993. Files are arranged geographically by province. Case numbers are indicated on some documents.

The case files contain: intake sheets with basic facts about the incident and victim; correspondence between the Human Rights Component and Cambodian authorities about the case; handwritten notes drafted by Provincial Human Rights Officers (PHRO) about their observations; and reports about the incident generated by the UNTAC Civilian Police and then forwarded to the Human Rights Component. In addition, there are documents issued by Cambodian authorities, including government bodies, courts, and the police (often accompanied by English translations from Khmer); statements submitted by victims and witnesses, some with fingerprints serving as the legal signatures; photographs of the victims’ injuries and of the crime scene; hand-drawn sketches of the crime scene; case closure sheets; and final investigation reports.

The violations and incidents include: cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment; torture; shootings and murders; massacres; grenade throwing; rape; theft; illegal arrest, detention and imprisonment; destruction of property; false criminal accusations; disappearances; intimidation, harassment and death threats; police brutality; threats to freedom of speech and association; and land seizures by police and government agencies and land conflicts. Numerous investigations involve: violations against the ethnic Vietnamese population; politically-motivated crimes, including attacks against political party members and party office locations; and incidents occurring during the electoral campaign.

The files also contain information about prison investigations carried out by Provincial Human Rights Officers. These consist of: summaries of visits; lists of prisoners; briefs about cases; memoranda about incidents, such as escapes; and prisoner release forms.

The work of the United Nations Centre for Human Rights in Cambodia is also documented in several files. The Centre was established in February 1993 by resolution 1993/6 of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. These records, dating 1993-1994, primarily consist of summaries of cases and correspondence with Cambodia authorities about them.

Information/Education Division - Analysis Unit

The Analysis/Assessment Unit of UNTAC's Information/Education Division was one of the Division's four principal units, the other three being Production, Dissemination, and Control (originally a part of Analysis/Assessment). The Analysis/Assessment Unit, composed mainly of Khmer-speaking staff members, travelled throughout Cambodia to gauge Cambodians' responses to UNTAC-produced materials and to assess general perceptions of UNTAC. Staff members also monitored the television programming, radio programming, and print materials of the Cambodian factions by completing media monitoring reports, which served as the chief sources of information for the Unit's English-language digests and analyses of Cambodian media.

Series chiefly contains media monitors' reports and digests/analyses of Cambodian media outlets, the former group of records primarily in Khmer, the latter exclusively in English. Series also includes daily press briefings from the UNTAC spokesman, miscellaneous records related to various Cambodian political factions, and records pertaining to other UNTAC components/units. Files at the beginning of the series are arranged by subject classification number. Digests/analyses, which are found toward the end of the series, are grouped by political faction or specific media outlet and arranged chronologically therein.

Title based on series contents.

Information/Education Division - Director

The director of the Information/Education Division 1.) served as the Special Representative's senior advisor on information matters and 2.) oversaw the work of the Divisions' four principal units: Analysis/Assessment, Production, Dissemination, and Control (originally a part of Analysis/Assessment). The Analysis/Assessment Unit gauged Cambodians' perceptions of UNTAC and analysed the media of the Cambodian factions. The Production Unit operated Radio UNTAC, produced television programmes and dramas, and printed informational materials and graphics. The Dissemination Unit distributed print, video, and audio materials to their target audiences throughout Cambodia. Lastly, the Control Unit, in collaboration with UNTAC's Civil Administration Component, worked to ensure that Cambodian media encouraged a neutral political atmosphere.

Series consists of correspondence, reports, press briefings, and publications related to the functions of the Information/Education Division's director. Topics covered include the Supreme National Council, the Division's Analysis and Radio (Production) units, and Cambodia's political and social climate. Series is arranged by subject classification number.

Title based on series contents.

Information/Education Division - Production Unit

The Production Unit of UNTAC's Information/Education Division was one of the Division's four principal units, the other three being Analysis/Assessment, Dissemination, and Control (originally a part of Analysis/Assessment). The Production Unit was composed of three principal sections: Radio, TV/Video, and Print/Graphics. The Radio Section operated Radio UNTAC, which, at its peak, broadcast fifteen hours a day. Both the Radio and TV/Video Sections produced programmes dealing with issues such as political parties, political violence, voter registration, the Special Representative's activities, and the like. Prints/Graphics published and/or printed materials ranging from comic books to government documents to posters.

The series consists principally of the records of the TV/Video Section. Records include television and video programme scripts, completed viewer feedback forms, and miscellaneous working papers grouped by subject matter (UNTAC documentary, SNC meetings, video production, women in Cambodia, and UNHCR). Series is arranged in no apparent order.

Title based on series contents.

Local Committee on Contracts - Meetings

The UNTAC Local Committee on Contracts (LCC), in coordination with the United Nations Headquarters Committee on Contracts, orchestrated the mission's contractual affairs.

Series contains UNTAC Local Committee on Contracts presentations, meeting minutes, meeting log book, registry book, and records related to LCC organisation. Series is arranged in the order stated, with the second group being further arranged by LCC meeting number, i.e. chiefly chronologically.

Title based on series contents.

Series contains confidential business information.

Military Support

S-1854: Military Support

The Cambodian military factions, and their respective political parties, consisted of:

Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF) - State of Cambodia (SOC)

National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK) - Party of Democratic Kampuchea/Cambodia National Unity Party (PDK/Khmer Rouge/CNUP)

Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF) - Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF)

National Army of Independent Cambodia (ANKI) - United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC)

The UNTAC headquarters was located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and led by a Force Commander who reported directly to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) at United Nations Headquarters in New York. There was a Chief of Staff who reported to the Force Commander and the Deputy Force Commander. Reporting to the Chief of Staff were the Operation Branch, Plans Branch, Personnel Branch, Logistics Branch, Engineer Branch, and the Medical Branch.

The UNTAC Military Component was mandated to: monitor the ceasefire and disengagement of forces; monitor withdrawal of Vietnamese forces from Cambodia; facilitate and monitor the demobilization and disarming of 70 percent of each faction’s force, as well as the cantonment of the remaining 30 percent; and to conduct mine clearance. The military also provided security for the electoral process.

The Paris Peace Agreement (October 1991) made a provision for a Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG), to be chaired by the most senior United Nations military officer in Cambodia (or his representative), with participation by the ANKI, CPAF, KPNLAF, and NADK factions. Each faction nominated a principal representative and three special advisors with technical expertise (in legitimate military functions, such as operations, administration, engineering, or transport) to attend MMWG meetings.

The MMWG met regularly to resolve problems that arose in the observance of the ceasefire. Similar liaison arrangements were made at lower military command levels to resolve practical problems on the ground. The level of the MMWG meeting determined who attended. The meeting levels were:

Secretariat Level - Chaired by Chief of MMWG Secretariat and Chief Civil Liaison Officer, Lt. Col. J. Damien Healy, and attended by Faction Liaison Officers and the MMWG Secretariat staff.

Level I – Weekly meetings of high-level, permanent representatives of all parties, chaired by the Force Commander. The focus of these meetings was to summarize the achievements of the week and project tasks for the following week.
Level II – Meetings were conducted on a daily basis or as required. Chaired by the Deputy Force Commander,
Level II meetings were attended by special advisors or technical experts from the parties as required.

MMWG subgroups (alternatively referred to as working groups) included: Security Working Group; Force Structure Working Group; Engineer Planning Subgroup; and a Finance and Infrastructure Working Group.

UNTAC Provisional Standing Operating Procedures called for local MMWGs to be formed at each sector headquarters. Chaired by the Sector Commander, the local MMWG working groups focused on border checkpoints, cantonment, and the resolution of local interfaction problems, especially ceasefire violations. There were also emergency meetings. The convening of emergency meetings was the exclusive right of the Chairman following the advice of his staff or a request from a Level I or Level II permanent member. Each party was to be given at least six hours notice of an emergency meeting and attendance by the principal representative or by the senior member of the special advisors was desired.

Force Commander
The UNTAC Military Component was led by Force Commander (FC) Lieutenant Colonel John Sanderson of Australia, who was based at UNTAC HQ in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Sanderson reported directly to Yasushi Akashi, Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG). Their communications exchanged operational information concerning UNTAC troop contributing nations, as well as the military and diplomatic coordination between UN-NY and UNTAC. Routine correspondence from the Force Commander’s Military Assistant (MA) to Sector Commanders and Senior Maritime Operations Officers is also present in the records. Documents of note are periodic liaison letters prepared by the MA, for dissemination throughout the Military Component. The liaison letters describe the general situation, including information about faction activities, the Civilian Police (CIVPOL), finances, and human rights violations.

The records include summaries of MMWG meetings chaired by the FC. The summaries describe the discussion of issues such as: post-election security; the structural arrangement of the Cambodian Armed Forces and Navy; the role of a quadripartite maritime liaison office in the formulation of a maritime strategy for Cambodia; and proposals of the Cambodian People’s Armed Forces (CPAF) for the return of weapons and ammunition for the CPAF Navy.

The FC’s records contain Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs), Operation Orders (OPORDERS), and memoranda establishing UNTAC’s military action. These comprise: directives of the SRSG reflecting on legal issues, such as the reluctance of Cambodian judges to hear cases prosecuted by the Special Prosecutor and drafts toward establishing procedures for the prosecution of persons responsible for human rights violations; Proposed Development and Operation of the Cambodian Border Control Mechanism (September 1993); Logistics Instructions for Military Units and Electoral Teams (October 1992); Use of Military Aircraft in UNTAC Mission Area (December 1992); UNTAC Communications Facilities (March 1992); and reports concerning the use of United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) and other UN staff as election officers. Other records describe the activities of the Cambodia Mine Action Centre (CMAC) and include documentation of the agreements between UNTAC and CMAC, and a paper on the future of CMAC, post-UNTAC (July 1993).

The records include information on the rehabilitation and cantonment of warring factions’ troops by the UNTAC military component, such as: a brief titled “Employment of Cantoned Troops” authored by Chief of Plans (July 1992); a paper on the Employment Generation Programme, formulated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Labour Organization (ILO,) which includes extensive training schemes for demobilised soldiers (September 1992); and a Statement on Rehabilitation by the SRSG to the Supreme National Council (January 1993).

The records also contain the SRSG’s statements to UNTAC staff and to the Cambodian Supreme National Council (SNC) about electoral issues, made in July 1992 and May 1993.

The FC files also comprise records of the Chief of Military Public Information, who was based at HQ UNTAC and who liaised directly with the FC. These include a military public information plan, weekly military information summaries, and military information notes.

The UNTAC Military Police (MILPOL) were headquartered in Phnom Penh, and their records consist of investigation reports and planning documents, such as MILPOL SOPs (June 1993) and a memorandum titled “Functioning of UNTAC Military Police,” from Force Provost Marshal to Chief Military Police Officer (August 1992). These documents were circulated widely, including to the FC and COS. Records of the Civilian Police (CIVPOL), also headquartered in Phnom Penh, include: a report on the phasing out of CIVPOL, from the FC to the CIVPOL Commissioner; a Concept of Operation of CIVPOL Withdrawal Operation; and an investigation of the theft of ancient religious artefacts and a cave-in at the Bante Chmar Wat, in Banteay Meanchey Province (August 1992).

The records of UNTAC battalions document the presence of contingent nation’s contribution to the military component. Documents of note include: Ghanaian Battalion (GHANBAT) OPORDERS 2, 3, 4, and 6; and a report titled “Background of Japanese Engineering Battalion,” describing the historical background, domestic political situation, organization of peacekeeping operations in Japan, and the legal background for their involvement in UNTAC. The Battalion records also include investigation reports on the Tuk Meas Slaughter (August 1992) and the Strategic Investigation Team’s report on the alleged threat against UNMOs by the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK) at Kraya (August 1992).

Plans Branch
The UNTAC Plans Branch was headquartered in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and reported to the Force Commander (FC) through the Chief of Staff (COS). The Plans Branch included: the Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG); the MMWG subgroups (alternatively referred to as working groups); the Civil Liaison Cell; and the Training Cell.

The files of the Plans Branch contain summaries of meetings of various levels of the MMWG. The levels represented are: Level I; Level II; Secretariat Level; Chiefs of General Staff Level; the Engineer Planning Subgroup; the Maritime Subgroup; the Finance and Infrastructure Subgroup; and the Sector Liaison Section. Topics of the meetings range from faction requests for the return of cantoned weapons due to a deteriorating security situation (Level I) and ceasefire violations (Level II); to training and formation of the Combined Maritime Development Group (Maritime Subgroup). In addition to meeting summaries, the records also contain MMWG policy papers and discussion papers, often with annotated drafts, prepared by the MMWG Secretariat and circulated between the FC and the Plans Branch (General Chiefs of Staff Level).

The Civil Liaison Cell (CLC) was headed by the Chief Civil Liaison Officer and Chief of the MMWG Secretariat, Lieutenant Colonel J. Damien Healy. The records of the CLC are comprised of correspondence between UNTAC and high-level faction representatives and/or their respective political party. The correspondence was exchanged primarily between Lt. Col. Healy and: the FC; the Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF); the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK); Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF); and the National Army of Independent Cambodia (ANKI). Topics of the correspondence include: proposed UNTAC responses to NADK actions, prepared by Lt. Col. Healy and sent to the FC (August 1992); UNTAC-authored Policy Advice Papers (October 1992 and April 1993); internal responses to drafts of discussion papers prepared by the Plans Branch for MMWG meetings (January 1993); and UNTAC official responses to statements issued by factions. The records also contain correspondence and summaries of meetings between the FC and faction leaders, which were copied to the CLC. There are: summaries of monthly meetings between the FC and CPAF (February - July 1993) and correspondence between the FC and the KPNLAF regarding a rupture within the faction, and the FC’s call for a single command structure (June 1993).

The records of the Chief of Plans contain incoming and outgoing faxes which include: weekly military information summaries, describing the general activities of the military component; a paper prepared by the FC for Sector Commanders entitled, UNTAC’S Isolation from the Cambodian Population (August 1992); and a Civic Action Pamphlet, prepared by the Deputy Force Commander which describs the purpose and philosophy of civic action and the duties and responsibilities of the Civic Action Cell, Sector Commanders, and United Nations Military Observers (July 1992).

The Training Cell, headed by a Senior Training Officer, coordinated and monitored the retraining of cantoned soldiers. The records of the Training Cell consist of incoming and outgoing faxes pertaining to the progress and development of rehabilitation programs. Details of the reintegration training programmes during cantonment are found in the cantonment records. The programmes detailed include: entrepreneurship training (January 1993); learning vocations such as soap making, metal work, fish drying and natural fibre rope making (March 1993); a functional literacy programme (November 1992); and a drivers training project (November 1992). The cantonment records also contain extensive interviews with self-demobilized soldiers.

The records of the Plans Branch also hold drafts of Operation Orders (OPORDERS) 1 - 4, and 6, which were for the joint military component of UNTAC. The Orders direct: engineering support to the military component; the control and coordination of maritime operations; and UNTAC’s withdrawal operation.

Operation Branch
The UNTAC Operation Branch (Ops Branch) of the military component was headquartered in Phnom Pehn, Cambodia, and was comprised of the: Air Support Cell; Maritime Cell; Monitoring Cell; Civilian Police (CIVPOL) Liaison Cell; and the Signals Cell. The Operation Branch was headed by the Chief of Operations (COO), Colonel Mohd Aris, who reported to the Force Commander (FC) through the Chief of Staff (COS). The primary task of the Ops Branch was the execution of the FC’s orders.

The records largely consist of periodic reports on the general activities of the military component. These include daily situation reports (SITREP) drafted by the COO and sent from UNTAC Ops headquarters to the Assistant Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, at the United Nations headquarters in New York. The SITREP detail the operations and activities of the military component providing information about: Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG) liaison; faction activity; cantonment progress; and personnel strength. Also present in the records are periodic summaries (PERSUM) prepared monthly by the Senior Sector United Nations Military Observer (SSUNMO) and sent to UNTAC headquarters. These describe: the political and military situation in a sector, ceasefire violations (CFV), firing incidents (FI), and reports on UNMO activities. The records also contain daily ceasefire violation (CFV) reports prepared by the SSUNMO and sent to the Monitoring Cell at the Ops Branch headquarters. These reports briefly describe the investigation of CFV carried out by UNMO, and indicate the location and the faction(s) involved.

The records also contain UNTAC Operation Orders and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). The directives pertain to: the carriage and use of weapons by UNTAC personnel; security plans for military support during the election, such as an electoral registration safety and security plan (October 1992); and the guarding of political party offices (December 1992).

In addition, there are summaries of meetings of the sector level and Level I MMWG and subject files concerning the self-demobilisation of members of the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK). The records also contain reports of the Strategic Investigation Team (SIT) which was tasked with investigating violations of the Paris Agreement of 23 October 1991. The allegations investigated include: the presence of foreign forces in Cambodia, ceasefire violations, and violations of general security measures.

Operation Branch, Monitoring Cell
The Monitoring Cell was a component of to the UNTAC Operation Branch (Ops Branch), headquartered in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

The records of the Monitoring Cell contain periodic reports on the general activities of the military component. These include daily situation reports (SITREP) drafted by the Chief of Operations (COO) at the Ops Branch for the Assistant Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, at the United Nations headquarters in New York. The SITREP detail the operations and activities of the military component and include information about: Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG) liaison, faction activity, cantonment progress, and personnel strength. Also present in the records are periodic summaries (PERSUM) drafted monthly by the Senior Sector United Nations Military Observer (SSUNMO) and sent to UNTAC headquarters in Phnom Penh. These describe: the political and military situation in a sector, ceasefire violations (CFV), firing incidents (FI), and reports on UNMO activities.

Incoming and outgoing correspondence from the UNTAC sectors are also present in the records. Documents of note in this general correspondence include: “Lessons Learned” reports prepared by the SSUNMO and sent to the Monitoring Cell and the Plans Branch at UNTAC HQ (July 1993); a handwritten Area of Operation (AO) report prepared by the UNMO team at Prey Veng Province, describing faction activities, the political situation, and general information about the area; and cantonment site reports prepared by sector monitoring teams detailing the Chhanang and Toek Poh cantonment sites, evaluating site objectives and providing recommendations, photos, and a hand-drawn layout of the facilities.

Also present in the records is documentation of investigations carried out by UNMOs and sent to the Monitoring Cell. Acts of aggression perpetrated by the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK) against other factions, villages, and UNTAC are prominent in the investigations. There is also a NADK subject file which contains faction information and memoranda regarding procedures for self-demobilisation of NADK forces, as well as interviews with self-demobilised soldiers.

The records also include reports of the Border Liaison Cell. This cell consisted of border check points established by UNTAC at selected locations along the Cambodian side of the border and at airfields inside Cambodia. Stationed at these checkpoints were five UNMO, ten soldiers as well as faction Liaison Officers. The UNMO monitored and verified parties’ compliance with the Paris Agreement, including the cessation of outside military assistance to Cambodian factions. The records contain general incoming and outgoing correspondence as well as monthly border and foreign liaison briefs, which were sent from the Border Liaison Cell and widely circulated. These briefs cover activities of the Cell, and contain information about the intrusion of foreign forces; smuggling of Arms/Ammo; density of cross-border traffic and trade; and cross-border liaison.

Phnom Penh Special Zone
The records of Phnom Penh Special Zone (PNP SZ) document the general activities of the UNTAC Military Component.

Included in the records are daily situation reports (SITREP) drafted by the Chief of Operations (COO) and sent from UNTAC headquarters in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to the Assistant Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, at the United Nations headquarters in New York. The SITREP detail the operations and activities of the military component including information about: Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG) liaison; faction activity; cantonment progress; and personnel strength. Weekly military information summaries (MILINFOSUM) prepared by the Military Information Branch at UNTAC HQ and widely distributed, are also present in the records. MILINFOSUM describe the general situation and activities of the military component.

The records also contain meeting summaries of the MMWG Secretariat level. These often include supporting documents such as: discussion papers and annotated drafts prepared by the Secretariat; text of presentations; and a brief titled, “MMWG Guidance on Faction Responsibilities for the Provision of Security during the Elections” (May 1993).

Investigations carried out by the United Nations Military Police (MILPOL) are also included in the records. These investigations are primarily concerned with assaults on party officials and party offices in PNP SZ. The records also contain some investigations carried out by United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) of ceasefire violations.

General incoming and outgoing correspondence from the PNP SZ is also present in the records. Documents of note include: drawings of officer rank insignia for the Cambodian People's Armed Forces (February 1993); and a publication from the Military Information Branch, “New Hope for Cambodia” (June 1993).

The records also contain Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and Operation Orders issued by the Force Commander to the Military Component. Security instructions for the May 1993 general elections (Operation Safeguard) aimed to secure the city of Phnom Penh during the election are prominently represented in the records.

Operation Branch, Monitoring Cell, Strategic Investigation Team
The Strategic Investigation Programme was initiated in June 1992 with the primary purpose of investigating allegations of the presence of foreign forces (FF) in Cambodia. The operations of the Strategic Investigation Teams (SIT) drew their legitimacy from provisions of the Paris Agreement of 23 October 1991.

The SIT tasks included the investigation and verification of: the location of arms, ammunition and other military supplies for disposal by the respective sector troops; ceasefire violations (CFV) by one or more factions; deliberate violation or interference with the cantonment process; and other matters as directed by the Force Commander.

The records contain general and detailed information about SIT investigations including transcribed interviews with witnesses and supporting documentation such as photos and/or sketches.

SIT investigations present in the records include:
• The killing of Bulgarian Battalion (BULBAT) soldiers in Kampong Speu Province, April 1993
• The killing of 6 Vietnamese at Peam Chhkaok in Kampong Chhnang Province, August 1993
• The killing of 8 Vietnamese in Kampong Chnang, July 1993
• CFV in Angkor Chum, Siem Reap Province, March 1993
• Ambush near Phum Ku, Cambodia, which resulted in the death of a Japanese CIVPOL officer, May 1993
• Firing Incident and detention of UNTAC vehicles and personnel, January 1993
• Alleged presence of FF in the State of Cambodia (SOC) Communications Ministry, May 1993
• Alleged presence of FF in Kampong Cham Province, February 1993

Documents of note, also included in the records are: a paper titled, “Cambodian People's Armed Forces Position on the Accusation of the Presence of Foreign Forces in Cambodia,” prepared by the Coordinator of Communication of the SOC Ministry of Defence, for the UNTAC Force Commander (March 1993); and a “Table of Allegations of Political Intimidation in Cambodia” (January 1993). Another paper, “Reference material and Investigation Reports on the Presence of Foreign Forces,” was prepared by the Chief of the SIT, for UNTAC’s Legal Advisor (February 1993). This paper provides a synopsis on recent investigations of FF, and includes the response from the Legal Advisor assessing which cases investigated, were legally within the scope of the term “foreign forces.”

Border Liaison Cell
The Border Liaison Cell functioned under the office of the Deputy Force Commander (DFC), Brigadier General Robert Rideau. Through the DFC, the Cell reported to the Force Commander and advised the Operations Branch.

The Border Liaison Cell consisted of border checkpoints established by UNTAC at select locations along Cambodia’s border with Thailand, Laos, and Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), and at airfields within Cambodia. Stationed at these checkpoints were five UNMO, ten soldiers as well as faction Liaison Officers. The UNMO were to monitor and verify parties’ compliance with the Paris Agreement of 23 October 1991, including cessation of outside military assistance to Cambodian factions.

The records include border liaison summaries, sent from checkpoints to the Border Liaison Cell in the office of the DFC. These reports describe the activities at the checkpoint, contain the names of faction LOs posted at the location, and provide details about incidents such as: smuggling of arms and ammunition; entry of foreign civilians; airspace violations; and illegal trafficking of natural resources. The records also document UNMO investigations of logging and gem operations in Cambodia (March - May 1993).

Daily press briefings are also present in the records. These were sent from the Liaison Coordinator at UNTAC headquarters and widely circulated. They summarize the daily briefing, delivered by UNTAC Spokesman Erick Falt or his Assistant, Eric Berman.

The records contain notable documents such as: a working paper titled, “UNTAC Border Control Mechanism” (September 1992), which includes an annotated and handwritten drafts; a “Draft Declaration on the Mining and Export of Minerals and Gems” prepared by the director of the Rehabilitation Component (December 1993); and a mission report prepared by the Natural Resources Controller of Civil Affairs and titled, “Declaration on the export of logs from Cambodia” (November 1992). The Border Liaison Cell files also include the 26 October 1992 “Guidelines for UNTAC Operations in Thailand,” which details crossing point locations along the Thai border, in addition to the Force Commander’s crossing point procedures for UNTAC personnel.

The records also provide information about violations by UNTAC of SRV airspace (1993). Documentation relating to these incidents includes: protest letters from SRV representatives; summaries of meetings between LOs of respective parties; a memoranda from the Force Commander to the Ambassador of the SRV expressing regret over the reported incidents.

Memoranda from April 1993 concern Operation Safe Passage, which facilitated the safe escort of over 18,000 SRV refugees from Cambodia. A “SRV Exodus Log,” present in the records provides information about SRV refugee movement, including the: total number of SRV; number of vessels; the number of families. The Naval Operations Order 1/93, Operation Safe Passage, dated 30 March 1993, is also included.

The files also contain summaries of meetings between the Border Liaison Cell and SRV which detail the movements of ethnic Vietnamese in and out of Cambodia. The military climate of the border area after the 23-28 May 1993 Cambodia elections is also documented. The records which relate to the Cambodian-Vietnamese border also notably include: memoranda regarding the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) of UNMOs; and an 11 May 1993 report titled “Report on the Training of Cambodian Immigration and Border Control Officers.”

Logistics Branch
The Logistics Branch was tasked with ensuring efficient flow of material and equipment to the Military Component. Posted at UNTAC headquarters in Phnom Penh, Cambodia was a Chief Logistics Officer (CLO) who was responsible for the planning, execution and supervision of all logistics activities within the Military Component. The CLO reported to the Force Commander (FC) through the Deputy Force Commander (DFC).

The records of the Logistics Branch contain operational planning documents such as Logistics Directives, issued between June 1992 and April 1993, which establish how the Branch’s responsibilities would be carried out. There is also a 1 October 1992 document titled “Logistic Instructions for Electoral Teams,” which details logistics for the Electoral Component’s deployment of voter registration kits.

The records also include minutes of the Commanding Officer’s conferences from February and April of 1993. There is also a document titled, “Long Programme for the Secretary-General 7-8 April 1993,” with the agenda for the visit of the Secretary-General, a list of attendees, and plans for the arrival and departure ceremonies with hand-drawn diagrams. Also present in the records are a “Lessons Learned” report, prepared by the CLO and sent to the Chief of Plans (July 1993), and a lengthy document titled, “Surface Transport Report – Cambodia,” which reports, reconnaissance of rail, waterway, and road transportation in Cambodia.

Military Police, Force Provost Marshal
UNTAC Military Police (MP) operated under the authority of the Force Commander (FC) and was tasked with the discipline of military personnel. The Force Provost Marshal (alternatively referred to as Military Provost Marshal) was posted at UNTAC headquarters in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and reported to the FC through the Chief of Staff (COS).

The records of the Force Provost Marshal include: minutes of weekly Chief of Staff meetings; agenda for the Deputy Force Commander Conference (December 1992); and statements issued by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Yasushi Akashi, to UNTAC staff (March, May 1993). The records also contain memoranda on topics such as: the Military Police’s role in the UNTAC-sponsored, public meeting among the political parties (May 1993); and Military Police powers of arrest and search, prepared by the UNTAC Special Prosecutor (August 93).

Engineer Branch
Headed by the Force Engineer, the Engineer Branch was managed by the Engineer Planning and Liaison Cell. Included in the records are the Engineer Branch Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), operation orders, and operation order annexes. The annexes detail the maintenance of Cambodian infrastructure in relation to activities of the warring factions. Also included in the files are the meeting minutes of the Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG) and the Engineer Planning Sub Group.

Mr. Rafeeuddin Ahmed

The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) was formed in February 1992 to ensure the implementation of these agreements.

Mr. Rafeeuddin Ahmed, born in Sukkar, Pakistan on 2 October 1932, studied at the University of the Punjab in Lahore, Pakistan, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics and political science in 1951 and a Master of Arts degree in political science in 1953.

In October 1955, Mr. Ahmed entered Pakistan's Foreign Service, where he held a number of posts including Director for United Nations Affairs and Economic Coordination in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 1968 to 1970.

In May 1970, Mr. Ahmed began his career at the UN Secretariat, serving in the following capacities: Secretary of the Economic and Social Council, 1970 - 1973; Director of the Resources and Programme Planning Office, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1973 - 1975; Executive Assistant to the Secretary-General, 1975 - 1978; Chef de Cabinet, 1978 - 1982; Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, Trusteeship and Decolonization, 1983 - 1986; and Under-Secretary-General for International Economic and Social Affairs, 1987 - 1992. Mr. Ahmed also served as the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs in South-East Asia, during which time he helped to negotiate the Agreements on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict (a.k.a. The Paris Agreements), signed on 23 October 1991.

In April 1992, Mr. Ahmed left New York to become the Executive Secretary of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).

The series contains the Kampuchea/Cambodia-related records of Mr. Ahmed created and collected from 1975 to 1992. In 1992, custodianship of the records was transferred from Mr. Ahmed to Mr. A.H.S. Ataul Karim, chief liaison officer of the United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia (UNAMIC). Mr. Karim retained custodianship of the records while serving as UNTAC's political adviser to the special representative of the Secretary-General, Mr. Yasushi Akashi.

The majority of the series is arranged by alphanumeric subject classification as follows:
6A - General files on the state of Kampuchea
6B - International conferences, meetings, etc.
6C - International Conference on Cambodia, 30 July - 30 Aug. 1989
6D - Meetings of the five permanent members of the Security Council
6E - Meetings of the Secretary-General with the five permanent members of the Security Council
6F - Meetings of the Supreme National Council (SNC)
6G - International Conference on Cambodia, Paris, 21 - 23 Oct. 1991
6H - Documents and records related to General Assembly consideration of the situation in Cambodia, 34th through 46th sessions

The end of the series, which details the establishment of UNAMIC and UNTAC, is arranged by subject.

Office of the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General

Series consists of correspondence, memoranda, and meeting minutes relating to the functions of the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General. Series is arranged by subject classification number in this order: chronological files; country correspondence; and records pertaining to the following subjects: civil administration, provincial offices, action cells, Secretary-General's reports, electoral component, Economic Adviser's office, Supreme National Council, human rights component, information/education component, repatriation, legal, military, civilian police, and political parties.

Title based on series contents.

Office of the Director of Administration and Officer-in-Charge

Operational subject files of the Office of the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO), who later served concurrently as Officer-in-Charge (OIC), UNTAC. The series is arranged into two sub-series, one chiefly reflecting work conducted as CAO (S-0997-0001-01 through S-0997-0005-05), and one primarily documenting work conducted as OIC (S-0997-0006-01 through S-0997-0007-11). Both sub-series are arranged alphabetically by subject.

Title based on series contents.

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