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Elections

United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
In accordance with its mandate, UNMIH worked to establish an environment conducive to the organization of free and fair elections in Haiti. The municipal and parliamentary elections took place on 25 June 1995 and the presidential election took place on 17 December 1995. UNMIH worked closely with the Electoral Observation Mission (EOM) of the Organization of American States (OAS), which was deployed in mid-May 1995. The United Nations Electoral Assistance Team (EAT) was established in late 1994 to provide technical assistance to the elections at both the national and departmental levels. By late 1995, the EAT came under the operational responsibility of UNMIH. The records of UNMIH in S-1870 document the work of the EAT.

The records include memoranda prepared by the Coordinator of the Electoral Assistance Team (EAT) and other EAT staff for the Director and staff of the Electoral Assistance Division (EAD) at DPKO. The memoranda cover topics such as: electoral law, the timing of electoral operations, registration, and the design and counting of ballots. In addition, some memoranda concern coordination with Haiti’s Provincial Electoral Council (CEP), the autonomous national authority constitutionally charged with organizing and supervising the elections; these memoranda detail plans for electoral data processing and staffing.

Other records that relate to the CEP include: the Letter of Agreement between UNMIH and the CEP, electoral bulletins from the CEP’s press service, EAT notes for the file about the establishment of a communications system for the CEP, calendars detailing electoral set-up activities, and minutes of EAT meetings with representatives of the CEP. The minutes, as well as minutes of EAT meetings with NGOs, OAS, and governmental and United Nations agencies, concern collaboration on the electoral process. Specific topics include: elections results, electoral observation, incidents of violation of electoral law, the production of civic education materials, the vote counting process, and ink for marking votes.

In addition, there are records relating to Haiti’s Bureau Electoral Départemental (BED), Bureau Electoral Communal (BEC), Bureau d’Inscription et de Vote (BIV), and Assemblies of Communal Sections (ASECs). These records consist of lists of registration sites and checklists of election tasks to be executed by BEDs and BECs, such as personnel deployment, evaluation of communications, and transport of elections materials.

The files also contain periodic reports authored by the USAID Advisor, weekly executive summaries, field trip reports, and after-action reviews of the elections. The periodic reports authored by the USAID Advisor detail political developments such as changes in CEP personnel, as well as meetings between representatives of the Haitian government, NGOs, OAS, and governmental and United Nations agencies.

The weekly executive summaries were prepared by Lakhdar Brahimi, the UNMIH Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) for the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Kofi Annan. The summaries cover a variety of topics, including: elections results, political parties boycotting the elections, speeches made by President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the expulsion of Haitians from the Dominican Republic, Haitian government legislation on the minimum wage, arrests and trials of notorious criminals, justice and prison system reforms, police training and misconduct, economic and humanitarian aid developments, and threats against UNMIH.

Field trip reports were prepared by the EAT’s Senior Logistics Officer. They detail the Senior Logistics Officer’s meetings with EAT staff, BED presidents, and MICIVIH representatives, and contain the Officer’s evaluation of communications, equipment, and roads in the departments with respect to the conduct of elections.

Records relating to the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES), a non-governmental organization, concern the procurement of polling materials and training of elections officials, registrars, and poll-workers. They include project proposals, working papers, calendars of electoral tasks, training and civic education material, and memoranda exchanged between members of the IFES, EAT, CEP, and USAID.

Other records consist of copies of electoral law from the newspaper “Le Moniteur”, departmental results for the 1995 elections, security briefs, and civic education material distributed by UNMIH’s Military Information Support Task Force (MIST).

International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
In November 1994, after MICIVIH returned to Haiti following the restoration of the Haitian government, the Organization of American States (OAS) and the United Nations tasked MICIVIH observers with monitoring: the human rights aspects of the electoral process, particularly the right to vote, and the rights of expression, association and assembly; and acts of intimidation and violence during the electoral campaigns. MICIVIH Observers worked closely with OAS-EOM observers.

Records prepared by MICIVIH Observers include: overviews of the political and electoral climate in the department; reports of field visits to oversee electoral operations, noting visits to political party offices and the conduct of political party gatherings; lists of candidates and their respective political parties; and statistics for various aspects of the electoral process, such as the number of registered voters. Additionally, there are periodic reports prepared by the OAS-EOM.

The summaries of Observers’ visits to local offices of Haiti’s Bureau Electoral Départemental (BED) and the Bureau Electoral Communal (BEC) detail: technical operations of setting up voting sites; voter education programs in communes; the voter registration process; the status of candidates; the distribution and collection of electoral material; security presence at voting sites; the validity of voting results; and election results.

Also included are Observers’ memoranda about a variety of subjects, including: the electoral and security climate; irregularities and obstructions to the electoral process; poor administrative practices related to the elections, such as incorrectly sealing voting boxes and violations of privacy during the act of voting; fraudulent voter registration, voting, and vote counting; anti-UN and anti-government sentiment; control of crowds at voting sites; controversies surrounding local election outcomes; political manoeuvring and suspected impartiality within Haitian electoral institutions; and public demonstrations related to elections.

The memoranda also cover politically-motivated election violence, such as: arson; attacks against candidates; threats received by BEC and BIV officials; ransacking of Bureaux d'Inscriptions et de Votes (BIV); destruction of ballot boxes; and assassinations and deaths resulting from suspicious circumstances. They also note the arrests of individuals accused of political intimidation and disruptions to the electoral process.

The records are arranged geographically by base.

Law Enforcement

International Civilian Mission in Haiti, OAS/UN (MICIVIH)
MICIVIH Observers stationed in bases throughout Haiti monitored the activities and human rights abuses of the Interim Public Security Force (IPSF), active from December 1994 to December 1995, and the new professional, non-military Haitian National Police (HNP), deployed in June 1995. Observers also conducted seminars on a variety of topics for the HNP. In addition to monitoring the deployment of the Haitian National Police (HNP), Observers monitored elements affecting the state of security in their areas of responsibility, including other police forces, criminal activity, public unrest, and threats to MICIVIH personnel at bases.

Records relating to the HNP include: decrees and laws pertaining to the establishment of the HNP; internal regulations; organizational charts; minutes of meetings with HNP leadership such as Departmental Directors; reports authored by Observers on the state of the HNP; statistics on deployment; and memoranda on perceptions of the HNP by the local population.

There are also reports, agenda, and invitations relating to MICIVIH-led training seminars for the HNP. Seminar topics include: police ethics, community policing techniques, conflict resolution, international treaties that protect human rights, relations with local government officials, maintaining public order, and human rights non-governmental organizations (NGO). In addition, memoranda between HNP officers and MICIVIH civic education staff discuss police involvement in seminars about their work directed to the civilian population.

Investigation reports by Observers detail alleged abuses of authority and violations of human rights perpetrated by police officers, including: bribery; shootings; brutality against detainees in custody or during interrogation; and undue use of force in arrests and public demonstrations. Memoranda authored by Observers discuss the HNP’s internal disciplinary mechanisms for police officers accused of abuses and the Inspection Générale de la Police Nationale d’Haiti (IGPNH)’s role in assuring compliance with police regulations and evaluating the force’s effectiveness. There are also copies of MICIVIH’s July 1996 investigation report "Haitian National Police (HNP) and Human Rights” in English and in French.

Reports prepared by Observers about visits to police commissariats in communes and towns describe: conditions in custody cells (garde-à-vue) at commissariats; detainees’ reasons for arrest and related judicial proceedings; summaries of interviews conducted by Observers with detainees about their treatment by police and judicial authorities; the maintenance of the registre de retention; meetings with police commissioners (commissaires); and irregularities in the functioning of the police station.

Other available records include memoranda prepared by Observers about such topics as: local criminal activity, including murder, assassination, and assault; public unrest such as political demonstrations and riots; acts of popular justice; and threats to the safety of Observers and base personnel by the military, the police, and civilians. Some of the memoranda detail the activities of armed groups that conducted policing activities but had no legal status as police forces, such as voluntary and communal police forces, as well as vigilance brigades established locally by civilians. There are minutes of meetings with vigilance brigade leaders, working papers on the history of vigilance brigades, and profiles of a few of the vigilance brigades based on interviews with their members. These profiles detail brigade history, frequency of arrests, arms caches, political affiliations, and alleged human rights abuses. In addition, there are base security plans and analyses of the department’s security situation.

United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)
Included in S-1867 are records of the MIPONUH Civilian Police (CIVPOL), headquartered in Port-au-Prince. Among individuals serving as Police Commissioner during the mission were: Colonel Jean Claude Laparra (December 1997 - March 1998); Colonel Claude Grude (April 1998 - May 1999); and Colonel George Gabbardo (June 1999 - March 2000). The records consist of: outgoing correspondence from the CIVPOL Commissioner to the RSG or to Chiefs of CIVPOL detachments; summaries of weekly CIVPOL meetings, chaired by the Commissioner; and detachment evacuation plans. Weekly syntheses, sent from the Commissioner to the CIVPOL unit at the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) in New York, describe: public demonstrations and major security incidents throughout the country, activities of the Haitian National Police (HNP), and activities of CIVPOL. The weekly syntheses are accompanied by tables noting the weekly training activities carried out by MIPONUH on subjects including: the conduct of searches and seizures, arrest and handcuffing procedures, the handling of firearms, investigation techniques, and traffic accidents. The records also contain directives describing the execution of the MIPONUH mandate and the Commissioner’s End of Mission report dating from March 2000. The MIPONUH programmes for police training are also present in the records, and they outline the duties of the Police Chief; diverse topics in law enforcement and the investigation of crime; traffic policing; and first aid.

International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH)
Also included in S-1867 are records of the MICAH Police Section. Staff of the Police Section, led by Chief of the Police Section Yves Bouchard, served as Technical Advisors to the Haitian National Police (HNP). In cooperation with Haitian government institutions, they advised the HNP on issues of justice, human rights, and the reform of procedures for criminal investigations and the prosecution system. Police Section Technical Advisors served in the HNP’s Direction Générale, Direction Départementales (Department-level HNP offices), and other administrative divisions of the HNP. In support of the Haitian National Police (HNP), the Police Section collaborated with the United States Department of Justice’s International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) and with programs run by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP).

Police Section records include: an information manual for technical advisors consisting of reference material about the history, structure, and regulations of the HNP, MICAH, and Police Section; HNP security plans; and memoranda exchanged between the Chief of Police, Technical Advisors, the Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG), the Directeur Général of the HNP, and other mission staff and HNP officials.

Records authored by Technical Advisors assigned to the HNP’s Direction Générale, Direction Départementales, and other administrative divisions of the HNP consist of: visit reports, action plans, periodic reports, technical reports, and end of mission reports. Other notable records of the Technical Advisors include: “Redéfiniton des Missions des Agents aux Postes Fixes et aux Postes Mobiles du Service Aeroportuaire” authored by the Technical Advisor to the Commissaire de Police de l’Aeroport International de Port-au-Prince; a report on traffic in Cap Haitien authored by the Technical Advisor to the Direction de la Circulation des Vehicules et de la Police Routier; “État des Lieux Affecte a la Direction du Personnel de la DGPNH,” which was authored by the Technical Advisor to the Direction du Personnel; and a table detailing human rights violations forwarded to the Technical Advisor to the Inspection Générale de la Police Nationale d’Haiti (IGPNH).

Security Management

Chief Security Officer
The records of the UNMOT Chief Security Officer (CSO) consist of one file. It contains a mission-wide security plan detailing the security phases and practical arrangements for the relocation and evacuation of UNMOT staff and employees of United Nations agencies. The plan is dated 15 February 2000.

United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT)
The files for UNMOT contain security plans, a security checklist prepared in the event of Y2K technology disruption (17 June 1999), and a security report. The Special Representative to the Secretary-General (SRSG) prepared the security plans (1 July 1998 and 1 December 1998) and the security report.

Also included are guidelines for UN security personnel and security-related information which were prepared by the Chief Security Officer (CSO). In addition, the files contain a security directive about the inclusion of inter-governmental and non-governmental staff into United Nations security arrangements.

United Nations Tajikistan Office of Peace Building (UNTOP)
UNTOP’s security-related records consist of: security plans; a 30 September 2002 directive about security clearance procedures; memoranda about contingency planning for avian influenza; and directives for security wardens in Dushanbe.

Human Rights

Human Rights Office
The records of the Human Rights Office contain information about human rights educational efforts of the United Nations Tajikistan Office of Peace Building (UNTOP). Activities in this area are described in monthly reports prepared by the UNTOP Human Rights Officer. The reports provide information about: the status of freedom of the press and freedom of association; the rights of Tajik migrant workers; the trials of former combatants; the use of capital punishment; and human rights monitoring carried out by non-governmental organizations in the region. There are also records of the Human Rights Thematic Group, a forum that convened representatives of United Nations agencies and international organizations under the chairmanship of UNTOP. Its aim was to promote and support human rights protection and national capacity building in human rights in Tajikistan. The Thematic Group’s records consist of agenda, summaries of meetings, and project briefs. In addition, there is information about workshops in human rights protection carried out by UNTOP, and a report, dated June 2002, on local compliance with the Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW).

Humanitarian Affairs - Coordination, partnership

Humanitarian Affairs Office
The records of the Humanitarian Affairs Office document coordination between UNMOT and humanitarian agencies active in Tajikistan. Included are a variety of documents forwarded to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) from the following agencies and organizations: the Field Coordination Unit stationed in Dushanbe, which was set up and overseen by the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA); the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); the International Organization for Migration (IOM); the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); the World Health Organization (WHO); the International Monetary Fund (IMF); and the World Bank.

There are reports of the United Nations Inter-Agency Humanitarian Needs Assessment mission led by the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA) in October 1996, as well as issues of an information bulletin titled “Humanitarian Assistance in Tajikistan” and circulated by the DHA. The briefs authored by UNHCR officers in Tajikistan cover: the UNHCR’s reintegration programme, the repatriation of Tajik refugees from Afghanistan and Kyrgyzstan, conditions at transit centers, and the harassment of Tajik refugees by Opposition forces. There is also a UNDP-authored working paper dating from 1997 titled, “Support to Strategic Framework Process: Managing the Transition from War to Peace.” Also present are summaries of Food Coordination Meetings, which were run by the World Food Programme and attended by UNMOT officials and representatives of non-governmental organizations. Additionally, there is correspondence between the SRSG and representatives of humanitarian agencies as well as summaries of inter-agency meetings convened by the SRSG.

Elections

Electoral Section
Records of the Electoral Section document the assessment, planning and observation of the 27 February 2000 elections of the Majlisi Oli, the parliament of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan. The files contain: reports relating to support of elections by United Nations peacekeeping missions prior to UNMOT; an undated position paper, titled “Criteria for the Arrival of the Joint UNMOT-Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Electoral Needs-Assessment Mission”; a deployment plan for Joint Electoral Observation Mission (JEOM) offices and for the deployment of electoral observers. There is also a 25 March 1999 working paper about the conditions for a timeline of joint-commission involvement in free and fair elections; and the terms of reference for the Joint UNMOT-OSCE Observation Mission in Tajikistan (JEOMT).

Also included in the records are: a report providing recommendations for international monitoring of parliamentary elections, of the 5 August 1999 Second Joint Assessment Mission for Election Preparations in Tajikistan; a (1999) draft titled “Amendments and Changes to the Constitution of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan”; a proposed plan for parliamentary elections, with a September 1999 timeline; and an unsigned assessment report to the head of mission of OSCE about the political climate of Tajikistan in preparation for an electoral referendum. There are also summaries of “Focal Point Strategy Meetings on Elections,” attended by the Assistant to the Special Representative to the Secretary-General (ASRSG), the Organization for Co-operation and Security in Europe (OSCE), and representatives of UNMOT.

Chief Administrative Officer (CAO)
Also included in S-1866 are records of the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) which document the electoral process. There is information about the 6 November 1999 Tajikistan presidential elections and the elections of the Majlisi Oli, held on 27 February 2000. The files include reports from UNMOT’s field office in the town of Kurgan Tube to UNMOT HQ about meetings of the regional government and the registration of parliamentary electoral candidates. A 5 August 1999 report from the Civil Affairs Officer, copied to the CAO, includes an assessment of the political climate for the holding of free and fair elections in Khorog Town. In addition, there is a 25 February 2000 assessment prepared by the CAO, titled “Prognostics of the Majlisi Oli elections in Khatlon Province Field Office”; it has an analysis of candidate biographies.

The files also contain statements and letters sent to the Secretary-General Kofi Annan. There is a joint statement, about free and fair presidential elections, prepared by the Political Union of United Tajikistan, a union comprised of banned Tajik political parties. There are also statements about the implementation of the General Agreement, especially with regard to parliamentary elections. These were received by the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) and the Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan. There are also joint statements of candidates for the office of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan.

United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT)
There are records about the Joint Election Observation Mission to Tajikistan (JEOMT), jointly managed by UNMOT and the Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe (OSCE). Highlights include: a revised 11 February 2000 “Terms of Reference for the UN Electoral Reference Team,” sent from United Nations New York to the UNMOT CAO and a Manual for Short-Term Observers of the 27 February 2000 parliamentary elections.

Management and Integration - Reporting to United Nations Headquarters

Chief Administrative Officer (CAO)
Records of the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) include administrative circulars distributed throughout the Mission and daily situation reports created by field teams. Also included are administrative communications exchanged in the wake of the killings of four UNMOT personnel near Garm, Tajikistan on 20 July 1998.

United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT)
Records of the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) consist of code cables, situation reports, and memoranda. Also included are minutes of management meetings that describe Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General (DSRSG), Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) and Senior Political Affairs Officer (SPAO) activities. The status of particular regions within the Mission, officer travel plans, diplomatic discussions held, the status of ongoing investigations, humanitarian assistance, and meetings with UN and NGO agencies are discussed within the minutes.

United Nations Tajikistan Office of Peace Building (UNTOP)
Records of the United Nations Tajikistan Office of Peace Building (UNTOP) consist primarily of code cables transmitted between the Mission and UN Headquarters in NY and cover: issues related to Russian troops stationed on the Tajik-Afghan border; reports on meetings with high level Tajik government figures; significant legal, political moves taken by the Tajik government, changes in Tajik administration; analysis of law enforcement structures in Tajikistan; meetings with ex-combatants; the situation of refugees on the Tajik-Afghan border; and activities related to counter-terrorism.

Notable events described in the code cables include: the assassination of Karim Yuldashev, Presidential State Adviser on Foreign and Political Affairs, in Dushanbe on 17 July 2001; a hostage crisis in Dushanbe, 13 June 2001; and the assassination of Habib Sanginov, an Opposition political figure and former Chairman of the Military Sub-commission of the Commission of National Reconciliation, on 11 April 2001. Clear cables report on UNTOP interactions with the Tajik government and Tajik government requests for assistance from the UN.

The UNTOP records also include incoming and outgoing communications with the following political, non-governmental and diplomatic organizations:

Political Parties:

  • Islamic Revival Party (Hizbi Nahzati Islomii Tojikiston)
  • Democratic Party (Hizbi Demokratii Tojikiston)
  • People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan (Hizbi Khalqi-Demokrati Tojikiston)
  • Social Democratic Party (Hizbi Sotsial-Demokratii Tojikiston)
  • Free Tajikistan Party

International NGO’s

  • FINCA International - Tajikistan (micro and small business lending)
  • CARE Tajikistan
  • International Center for Peace Preservation in Asia
  • Pharmaciens Sans Frontieres Comite International

Local NGO’s

  • Public Committee for Democratic Processes
  • Tajik Society for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries
  • Center Legal Support for Youth
  • Centre of Mercy of Servicemen’s Mothers of Republic Tajikistan
  • Legal Education Center
  • Center for Peace, Nonviolence and Human Rights
  • Humanity and Charity
  • Tajik Juridical Consortium
  • Bureau of Human Rights and Rule of Law

Embassies

  • Afghan Ambassador Said Mouhammad Khairkhoh
  • German Ambassador Rainer Muller, arranging meetings in Berlin between the Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) Vladimir Sotirov and German Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials on Central Asia and Human Rights, sharing of UN reports and other documents such as the Project Document concluded by UNDP, UNTOP and the Government of Tajikistan on National Capacity Building in Electoral Administration (September 2004); agreement between RSG Ivo Petrov and German Ambassador to Tajikistan Wolfgang Neuen for Germany’s financial contribution to the “Preservation of Peace through Capacity Development in Human Rights” project (26 February 2002)

RSG Vladimir Sotirov Speech transcripts (Russian language) on topics such as:

  • Peace-building in the region

Other UN Agencies:

  • UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) Resident Representative in Tajikistan concerning support for Tajikistan’s Institute of Retraining of Lawyers and a Centre for Legal Information and Human Rights in the Tajik Ministry of Justice; implementation of joint OHCHR/UNDP/UNTOP initiatives, such as the Project: Preservation of Peace and Conflict Prevention through Capacity Development in Human Rights Education
  • UNHCR; UNICEF; UNIFEM concerning their activities in Tajikistan

Seminars and other events organized by the office of the RSG:

  • Public Council Meetings in Dushanbe
  • Election Coordination Meetings
  • Human Rights thematic group meetings

Political Affairs - Coordination, partnership - Discussion, negotiation

Chief Administrative Officer
Records of the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) consist of meeting minutes, summaries, agenda, correspondence, working papers, and other documents. There is correspondence with the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan about allegations of crimes committed by the United Tajik Opposition (UTO); and letters of complaint from the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan about the imprisonment of soldiers by the UTO. Also included is correspondence between the SRSG and the leader of the UTO, Sayid Abdulloh Nuri, about restrictions to freedom of movement of UNMOT personnel by the UTO military. Other correspondence concerns violations of the General Agreement and statements prepared by the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and the UTO about presidential elections.

Other records detail the work of the Contact Group of Guarantor States. These include meeting agenda in the English and Russian languages, minutes, and attendance lists. The meetings were attended by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), ambassadors from neighbouring countries, and members of the Joint Electoral Observation Mission in Tajikistan (JEMOT). The files also contain information about UNMOT observer policy and procedure, about electoral issues, and recommendations for implementing the military protocol stipulated in the General Agreement.

S-1863 also includes: an analysis of amendments to the Tajik constitution by the President of the Committee for National Reconciliation (CNR) and UTO leader Sayid Abdulloh Nuri; proposed timetables for the implementation of the General Agreement; summaries and plenary meetings about the electoral process; and meeting minutes of the CNR’s sub-commissions. There are also files for of the Civil Affairs political and legal sub-commissions. These contain political analyses by the Civil Affairs Officer (CAO).

Electoral Section
Records consist of one folder containing the “Status of Implementation of the General Agreement,” dated 9 April 1999. It documents progress made in relation to the 1997 General Agreement, describes political, military, legal, and humanitarian issues, and includes footnotes explaining the stipulated time-frame for implementation.

Public Information Office (PIO)
The records document the work of the Committee for National Reconciliation (CNR) and originated from the UNMOT Public Information Office. They include: summaries of meetings of CNR political, legal, refugee, and military sub-commissions, proposed amendments to the Constitution of Tajikistan, and an 18 December 1997 letter to the Commander of Russian Border Forces from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Gerd D. Merrem, requesting CNR logistical support to aid the repatriation of UTO military personnel. There is also a Plan of Work that lists directives and deadlines; a press statement about disbanding UTO armed formations, dated 4 September 2012; and resolutions by CNR President Sayid Abdulloh Nuri about constitutional, humanitarian, and military issues.

United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT)
The UNMOT records detail efforts to develop a new constitution. They contain a timetable for the implementation of the General Agreement; and an internal 8 March 1998 discussion paper, prepared by UNMOT’s Legal Section, titled “Approach Towards Constitutional Referendum,” dated 29 April 1998.

United Nations Tajikistan Office of Peace Building (UNTOP)
UNTOP records relating to political affairs feature a 2007 memorandum titled “International Conference on the 10th Anniversary of the Peace Agreement in Tajikistan,” with a description of objectives and activities; and memoranda about conflict prevention. Also included are publications titled: “Conflict Prevention in Central Asia: Peace-Building in Tajikistan” (2006); and a Government of the Republic of Tajikistan “Directory for the Majlisi Oli” (the Parliament of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan).

Public Information and Communications

Public Information Office (PIO)
The United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) Public Information Office was formed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) for Tajikistan Gerd Merrem on 16 June 1997 with the appointment of Hasmik Egian as Public Information Officer (PIO), who also served as the Spokesman for UNMOT. The stated functions of the Public Information Office included publicizing the Mission’s activities through visual and printed media, such as the publication and distribution of the UNMOT newsletter, and liaising with local, regional and international media outlets to drive coverage of UNMOT activities related to the peace process to as wide an audience as possible. The Public Information Office communicated with Central Asian NGOs engaged in public information initiatives.

The series primarily consists of media analyses (in Russian) of local and regional coverage of UNMOT and the political and security situation in Tajikistan, with particular focus on inter-Tajik negotiations. Media outlets mentioned in these analyses include:

Radio and Television Broadcast Outlets:
BBC World Service
Radio Svoboda
Turkmen TV
Taliban Radio “Voice of Shariah”
Tajik TV News program “Akhbor”
Russian TV “Vremya”
News agency Itar-Tass
Radio Iran Hurson
Russian TV “Novosti”
Radio “Liberty”
Radio “Voice of Free Tajikistan”
Radio Iran
Radio “Free Tajikistan”
Radio Voice of Russia
Radio Khuroson
Radio “Uzodi”

Newspapers:
“Leninabadskaya Pravda” – an outlet of the provincial government of Leninabad
“Tirozy Djakhon” - City of Hukumat
“Eti-Khod” - Communist Party
“Unity” - Socialist Party

Also included in the records of the UNMOT Public Information Office are daily press briefings issued by the office of the Spokesman for the Secretary-General in UN-NY. The briefings summarize daily activities of the United Nations Secretariat and its organs, and mention status updates, funding information, and developments related to UNMOT. Additionally, there are memoranda exchanged between the Spokesman at headquarters and the PIO/Spokesman for UNMOT in Dushanbe. The memoranda provide information about the PIO/Spokeman’s activities and media projects. Periodic reports describe the efforts of the Public Information Office to establish and maintain efficient contact with international media, to increase the office’s presence at Tajik cultural activities, and to increase awareness of the activities of UNMOT in Tajikistan.

S-1862 also contains a collection of photographs that document the activities of UNMOT. Photographs are in color and black and white, and most are accompanied by 35 millimeter negatives. Photographs depict: activities of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); activities at UNMOT headquarters in Dushanbe; meetings and press conferences attended by UNMOT officials and the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmonov, and the leader of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) Sayid Abdulloh Nuri; activities of the Chief Military Observer; briefings and patrols of UNMOT military personnel; transportation of the casket of UNMOT Lieutenant Wolfgang Sponner, who was killed in Kurgan Tube on 18 September 1995 in an exchange of fire; visits of UNMOT staff to Tashkent, Uzbekistan, and Tehran, Iran; cultural events attended by local civilians and UNMOT staff; United Nations-led training events with local civilians; and humanitarian aid activities carried out by UNMOT personnel.

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