Series contains letters, memoranda, cables, faxes, meeting minutes, agreements and reports relating to: subjects such as laws, rights, public security, and elections; geographic regions; and national and international organizations. Records are arranged by subject classification number.
The Electoral Component was established, with respect to the 28 February 1992 UNTAC mandate, to organize and conduct an election of a Constituent Assembly. The Electoral Component was led by Professor Reginald Austin, the Chief Electoral Officer (CEO) who reported to Yasushi Akashi, the Special Representative to the Secretary-General (SRSG). Voter registration opened on 5 October 1992 and polling took place on 23-28 May 1993. There was a turnout of 4,267,192 voters, representing 89.56% of those registered to vote.
The Electoral Component Headquarters was located in Phnom Penh. There were four Electoral Component divisions located at the Component HQ: Administration and Coordination; Training, Education, and Communications; Operations and Computers; and the Complaints, Compliance, and Enforcement Unit (CCEU). The Divisions were headed by Deputy Chief Electoral Officers (DCEOs).
Provincial offices reported to the Electoral Component Headquarters and were headed by Provincial Electoral Officers (PEOs). The offices were located in provincial capital cities and feature records from district offices, headed by District Electoral Supervisors (DESs).
Electoral Component Headquarters
The Component HQ implemented the Electoral Law for Cambodia with regard to the Comprehensive Political Agreement for Cambodia of 23 October 1991 and in consultation with the Supreme National Council (SNC) of Cambodia. Through provincial and district offices, the Component developed and coordinated the registration and polling process. The files contain working papers about the development of the Electoral Law, including revisions and amendments annotated by the CEO and DCEOs. Some of the files also hold agenda, summaries, speeches, and attendance lists for UNTAC meetings with and seminars held for political party representatives and the SNC. Memoranda in the files concern: the SRSG’s Electoral Advisory Committee (EAC) and the development of electoral law; expatriate Cambodians voting at polling stations in New York, Paris, and Sydney; and the monitoring of the elections by non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Several files relate to the Constituent Assembly. These hold memoranda between the SRSG, the CEO, the Chief of the Civilian Personnel Office, the Legal Adviser, and Cambodian politicians about UNTAC’s support of the Assembly. The files include reports and resolutions, biographies of Assembly staff, draft internal regulations of the Assembly, and speeches made by Cambodian politicians and UNTAC personnel. There are also records documenting the development of the Constitution of Cambodia which include: annotated drafts of the Constitution, summaries of meetings about the Constitution, reports from constitutional seminars, and a working paper written by the CEO and titled “Constitutional Principles.”
The Electoral Component Headquarters collection also contains records received from the provincial and district electoral offices. These consist of daily and weekly situation reports, meeting minutes, and surveys. The situation reports were generated by the Provincial Electoral Officers (PEO) and describe: the registration of individuals and political parties; polling; and the security of civilians, UNTAC staff and political party personnel. Additionally, there are minutes for coordination meetings held between the CEO, DCEOs and other UNTAC components which focus on the conduct of political officials and the registration of displaced persons. There are also records of the 21-23 June 1993 PEO internal debriefing conference about the conduct of elections, which include working papers summarizing PEO challenges and surveys concerning the performance of the Electoral Component divisions.
Other records in the collection describe the work and activities of the Electoral Component’s Complaints, Compliance and Enforcement Unit (CCEU), the Administration and Coordination Division, and the Operations and Computers Division.
The Complaints, Compliance and Enforcement Unit investigated alleged violations of electoral law. Memoranda in the files contain information about: the formation of the CCEU; CCEU procedures for handling complaints; collaboration with other UNTAC components; PEO meetings with local authorities; and data about CCEU case types.
A key group of records are the case files, which include a variety of investigative reports concerning violations of electoral law, some alleged, as well as memoranda and notes to file about final handling of cases. The case files document:
• Confiscation of registration cards
• Defamation of party propaganda
• Intimidation of political party members
• Politically motivated killings of civilians and political officials
• Politically motivated kidnapping of civilians and political officials
• Unlawful arrests of civilians
• Registration fraud
• Threats to UNTAC by faction soldiers
• Military attacks on political offices
• Human rights violations
• Shooting and grenade throwing at district party offices
• Allegations of politically-motivated crime
• Alleged violence committed by party officers
• Alleged violence committed against party officers
The files for the Administration and Coordination Division were geographically organized by province. They hold memoranda on electoral policy and procedures, such as the handling of objections to registration, as well as working papers on, for example, possible creation of national identification cards to facilitate the electoral process. In addition, there are meeting summaries of the Communications Working Group and the Transport/Deployment Working Group. These detail voter registration efforts.
The Operations and Computers Division records consist of memoranda, reports, and maps. The memoranda largely concern tally disputes and post-election transport of ballots from polling sites. PEO weekly situation reports are annotated by the CEO and attached maps depict the locations of registration sites. In addition, there are reports about logistics of security and access to polling stations. Also included are the Division’s Logistics and Communications Planning Group reports and working papers.
A final set of records documents the activities of the Security Liaison Officer, who reported to the CEO. The files hold meeting summaries, memoranda, and copies of information requests that were sent to PEO offices. The meeting summaries describe deployments for mobile polling places, the movement of warring factions, and safety ratings for provinces. The memoranda detail a variety of subjects, such as the use of metal detectors at polling places. There are also copies of reports that were sent to the UNTAC Operations Component about the movements of warring factions; security and safety measures checklists that were completed by PEOs; and security plans and briefs.
Electoral Component, Banteay Meanchey Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Banteay Meanchey Province contain DES issued weekly reports; Information/Education Division press briefings and analysis; civic education pamphlets; minutes of Coordination and Electoral Component meetings; and annotated maps of district offices, memoranda, and notes. The memoranda exchanged between the PEO, DESs, and DCEOs concern a variety of topics, including: training programs for registration and civic education staff; registration procedures; a code of conduct for political parties; and the role of party agents in monitoring elections. There are also memoranda between DESs and the Provincial Human Rights Officer about joint planning for programs such as Human Rights Day, celebrated on 10 December 1992. In addition, there are handwritten notes by the PEO and DESs about returnees settling in the province, collaboration with Civilian Police, and the distribution of UNTAC civic education materials.
Electoral Component, Battambang Province
The files for the Electoral Component in Battambang Province contain memoranda, meeting minutes, descriptions of villages, and civic education materials. The memoranda exchanged between the PEO, DESs, and the Electoral Component DCEOs concern registration strategies, as well as seminars for political parties and civic education. Minutes are available for: coordination meetings attended by local UNTAC personnel, civilians, and political parties; Battambang Province personnel meetings; and the Battambang Public Roundtable meeting of political parties held on 15 May 1993. The Advance Electoral Planning Unit (AEPU) created the village descriptions. Among the civic education materials is a March 1993 collection of Cambodian stories titled “On the Road to Pailin: Songs and Stories from the Electoral Team of Rattanak Mondul District.” There are also civic education lesson plans.
Electoral Component, Kampong Cham Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Kampong Cham Province consist of memoranda written by the PEO for the CEO about the political situation in the province, the timing of the polling process, and the safety of personnel. Other memoranda directed to DESs also concern the safety and security of polling stations. In addition, the files contain civic education material about the polling process.
Electoral Component, Kampong Chhnang Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Kampong Chhnang Province contain memoranda sent by the PEO to DESs about human rights and civic education in districts; district-level registration procedures; and CIVPOL assistance to be provided at registration sites.
Electoral Component, Kampong Speu Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Kampong Speu Province consist of meeting minutes and correspondence. The minutes are for coordination meetings held at the Kampong Speu Provincial Headquarters and attended by local UNTAC personnel, civilians, and political parties. The correspondence, sent between the DESs and the Provincial Human Rights Officer, concerns plans for public programs, such as Human Rights Day.
Electoral Component, Kampong Thom Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Kampong Thom Province focus on military security. The files contain AEPU reports with annotated maps of district boundaries; memoranda about security for UNTAC personnel and Cambodian civilians; and a set of reports prepared by the Joint Control Center (JCC) about security at registration sites. In addition, there is a Detailed Security Plan for Kampong Thom Province Town, dated 13 April 1993. Another file contains the Force Provost Marshal’s 1 June 1993 final investigation report on the deaths of DES Nakata Atsuhito and his interpreter Lay Sok Pheap.
Electoral Component, Kampot Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Kampot Province include meeting minutes, weekly reports, and procedures prepared for DESs about the registration process and training of political party agents. The minutes are from a meeting about electoral law held by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) for provincial political parties. The weekly reports were authored by DESs and sent to the PEO along with meeting reports about the civic education of women in the province. Topics covered in the weekly reports include the registration process, DES access to remote villages, and communication with other UNTAC components.
Electoral Component, Kandal Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Kandal Province primarily consist of weekly reports authored by DESs. Topics include access to registration sites, meetings with Commune Chiefs, and agenda for civic education programs. The files also contain detailed descriptions of the districts in the province, with hand-drawn maps and demographic data. These were prepared by the AEPU.
Electoral Component, Koh Kong Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Koh Kong Province consist of weekly reports authored by DESs about the progress of the registration effort in villages. Included in the files is A Handbook on Returnee Monitoring in Cambodia, which contains information about the administration of health and social services for returnees to Koh Kong Province. It was prepared by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees’ (UNHCR).
Electoral Component, Kratie Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Kratie Province contain weekly reports authored by DESs. In addition, in an AEPU file, there is information about the cartographic methodology used to delineate districts. The AEPU file also has reports on villages which describe living conditions such as availability of water, sanitation, security, and means of transportation.
Electoral Component, Phnom Penh Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Phnom Penh Province consist of detailed provincial and district reports prepared by the AEPU. The reports contain maps and data on the province’s population, communes, and villages. The names of local officials, public buildings, and possible registration and polling sites are indicated in the reports. They also describe the local economy and the availability of services such as fuel, rice mills, markets, and transportation, as well as describing.
Electoral Component, Prey Veng Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Prey Veng Province consist of weekly reports and meeting minutes. The reports, authored by DESs, cover: civic education events; civic education targeted at female voters; and false identity cards presented at registration sites; and other subjects. The minutes detail: weekly meetings of the DES, the Provincial Special Task Force on Public Order, and Coordination, Security Meetings, and JCC Meetings. Coordination with Civilian Police and other Components on such topics as arrest procedures and the security of registration sites, polling sites, and staff is described in the minutes.
Electoral Component, Pursat Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Pursat Province include weekly reports and village reports, prepared by DESs, the weekly reports detail activities of local political party offices. The village reports contain information about the political climate, the questions asked by villagers about the electoral process, and civic education activities implemented, such as the distribution of UNTAC pamphlets.
Electoral Component, Sihanoukville Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Sihanoukville Province consist of DES AEPU reports on the local population and weekly reports. The DES reports concern such topics as security, civic education, establishment of polling stations, and cases of political intimidation.
Electoral Component, Stung Treng Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Stung Treng Province consist of a variety of reports and memoranda. There are weekly reports authored by DESs which detail civic education, the training of local polling station staff and meetings about political freedom in provincial districts. There are also reports on weekly PEO meetings held with DESs. The memoranda sent from the Coordination Officer at Electoral Component Headquarters, through the PEO, to various UNTAC personnel are largely about air operations, plans for polling, and support from military and CIVPOL components.
Electoral Component, Svay Rieng Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Svay Rieng Province include weekly reports prepared by DESs and by Civil Administration staff. There are also pamphlets with the text of the Paris Agreements, in English and Khmer.
Electoral Component, Takeo Province
The records of the Electoral Component in Takeo Province include weekly reports prepared by DESs. In addition, there are “Election Planning” files, which contain hand-annotated maps indicating locations for polling station sites.
S-1854: Military Support
The Cambodian military factions, and their respective political parties, consisted of:
Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF) - State of Cambodia (SOC)
National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK) - Party of Democratic Kampuchea/Cambodia National Unity Party (PDK/Khmer Rouge/CNUP)
Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF) - Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF)
National Army of Independent Cambodia (ANKI) - United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC)
The UNTAC headquarters was located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and led by a Force Commander who reported directly to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) at United Nations Headquarters in New York. There was a Chief of Staff who reported to the Force Commander and the Deputy Force Commander. Reporting to the Chief of Staff were the Operation Branch, Plans Branch, Personnel Branch, Logistics Branch, Engineer Branch, and the Medical Branch.
The UNTAC Military Component was mandated to: monitor the ceasefire and disengagement of forces; monitor withdrawal of Vietnamese forces from Cambodia; facilitate and monitor the demobilization and disarming of 70 percent of each faction’s force, as well as the cantonment of the remaining 30 percent; and to conduct mine clearance. The military also provided security for the electoral process.
The Paris Peace Agreement (October 1991) made a provision for a Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG), to be chaired by the most senior United Nations military officer in Cambodia (or his representative), with participation by the ANKI, CPAF, KPNLAF, and NADK factions. Each faction nominated a principal representative and three special advisors with technical expertise (in legitimate military functions, such as operations, administration, engineering, or transport) to attend MMWG meetings.
The MMWG met regularly to resolve problems that arose in the observance of the ceasefire. Similar liaison arrangements were made at lower military command levels to resolve practical problems on the ground. The level of the MMWG meeting determined who attended. The meeting levels were:
Secretariat Level - Chaired by Chief of MMWG Secretariat and Chief Civil Liaison Officer, Lt. Col. J. Damien Healy, and attended by Faction Liaison Officers and the MMWG Secretariat staff.
Level I – Weekly meetings of high-level, permanent representatives of all parties, chaired by the Force Commander. The focus of these meetings was to summarize the achievements of the week and project tasks for the following week.
Level II – Meetings were conducted on a daily basis or as required. Chaired by the Deputy Force Commander,
Level II meetings were attended by special advisors or technical experts from the parties as required.
MMWG subgroups (alternatively referred to as working groups) included: Security Working Group; Force Structure Working Group; Engineer Planning Subgroup; and a Finance and Infrastructure Working Group.
UNTAC Provisional Standing Operating Procedures called for local MMWGs to be formed at each sector headquarters. Chaired by the Sector Commander, the local MMWG working groups focused on border checkpoints, cantonment, and the resolution of local interfaction problems, especially ceasefire violations. There were also emergency meetings. The convening of emergency meetings was the exclusive right of the Chairman following the advice of his staff or a request from a Level I or Level II permanent member. Each party was to be given at least six hours notice of an emergency meeting and attendance by the principal representative or by the senior member of the special advisors was desired.
The UNTAC Military Component was led by Force Commander (FC) Lieutenant Colonel John Sanderson of Australia, who was based at UNTAC HQ in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Sanderson reported directly to Yasushi Akashi, Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG). Their communications exchanged operational information concerning UNTAC troop contributing nations, as well as the military and diplomatic coordination between UN-NY and UNTAC. Routine correspondence from the Force Commander’s Military Assistant (MA) to Sector Commanders and Senior Maritime Operations Officers is also present in the records. Documents of note are periodic liaison letters prepared by the MA, for dissemination throughout the Military Component. The liaison letters describe the general situation, including information about faction activities, the Civilian Police (CIVPOL), finances, and human rights violations.
The records include summaries of MMWG meetings chaired by the FC. The summaries describe the discussion of issues such as: post-election security; the structural arrangement of the Cambodian Armed Forces and Navy; the role of a quadripartite maritime liaison office in the formulation of a maritime strategy for Cambodia; and proposals of the Cambodian People’s Armed Forces (CPAF) for the return of weapons and ammunition for the CPAF Navy.
The FC’s records contain Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs), Operation Orders (OPORDERS), and memoranda establishing UNTAC’s military action. These comprise: directives of the SRSG reflecting on legal issues, such as the reluctance of Cambodian judges to hear cases prosecuted by the Special Prosecutor and drafts toward establishing procedures for the prosecution of persons responsible for human rights violations; Proposed Development and Operation of the Cambodian Border Control Mechanism (September 1993); Logistics Instructions for Military Units and Electoral Teams (October 1992); Use of Military Aircraft in UNTAC Mission Area (December 1992); UNTAC Communications Facilities (March 1992); and reports concerning the use of United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) and other UN staff as election officers. Other records describe the activities of the Cambodia Mine Action Centre (CMAC) and include documentation of the agreements between UNTAC and CMAC, and a paper on the future of CMAC, post-UNTAC (July 1993).
The records include information on the rehabilitation and cantonment of warring factions’ troops by the UNTAC military component, such as: a brief titled “Employment of Cantoned Troops” authored by Chief of Plans (July 1992); a paper on the Employment Generation Programme, formulated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Labour Organization (ILO,) which includes extensive training schemes for demobilised soldiers (September 1992); and a Statement on Rehabilitation by the SRSG to the Supreme National Council (January 1993).
The records also contain the SRSG’s statements to UNTAC staff and to the Cambodian Supreme National Council (SNC) about electoral issues, made in July 1992 and May 1993.
The FC files also comprise records of the Chief of Military Public Information, who was based at HQ UNTAC and who liaised directly with the FC. These include a military public information plan, weekly military information summaries, and military information notes.
The UNTAC Military Police (MILPOL) were headquartered in Phnom Penh, and their records consist of investigation reports and planning documents, such as MILPOL SOPs (June 1993) and a memorandum titled “Functioning of UNTAC Military Police,” from Force Provost Marshal to Chief Military Police Officer (August 1992). These documents were circulated widely, including to the FC and COS. Records of the Civilian Police (CIVPOL), also headquartered in Phnom Penh, include: a report on the phasing out of CIVPOL, from the FC to the CIVPOL Commissioner; a Concept of Operation of CIVPOL Withdrawal Operation; and an investigation of the theft of ancient religious artefacts and a cave-in at the Bante Chmar Wat, in Banteay Meanchey Province (August 1992).
The records of UNTAC battalions document the presence of contingent nation’s contribution to the military component. Documents of note include: Ghanaian Battalion (GHANBAT) OPORDERS 2, 3, 4, and 6; and a report titled “Background of Japanese Engineering Battalion,” describing the historical background, domestic political situation, organization of peacekeeping operations in Japan, and the legal background for their involvement in UNTAC. The Battalion records also include investigation reports on the Tuk Meas Slaughter (August 1992) and the Strategic Investigation Team’s report on the alleged threat against UNMOs by the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK) at Kraya (August 1992).
The UNTAC Plans Branch was headquartered in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and reported to the Force Commander (FC) through the Chief of Staff (COS). The Plans Branch included: the Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG); the MMWG subgroups (alternatively referred to as working groups); the Civil Liaison Cell; and the Training Cell.
The files of the Plans Branch contain summaries of meetings of various levels of the MMWG. The levels represented are: Level I; Level II; Secretariat Level; Chiefs of General Staff Level; the Engineer Planning Subgroup; the Maritime Subgroup; the Finance and Infrastructure Subgroup; and the Sector Liaison Section. Topics of the meetings range from faction requests for the return of cantoned weapons due to a deteriorating security situation (Level I) and ceasefire violations (Level II); to training and formation of the Combined Maritime Development Group (Maritime Subgroup). In addition to meeting summaries, the records also contain MMWG policy papers and discussion papers, often with annotated drafts, prepared by the MMWG Secretariat and circulated between the FC and the Plans Branch (General Chiefs of Staff Level).
The Civil Liaison Cell (CLC) was headed by the Chief Civil Liaison Officer and Chief of the MMWG Secretariat, Lieutenant Colonel J. Damien Healy. The records of the CLC are comprised of correspondence between UNTAC and high-level faction representatives and/or their respective political party. The correspondence was exchanged primarily between Lt. Col. Healy and: the FC; the Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF); the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK); Khmer People's National Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF); and the National Army of Independent Cambodia (ANKI). Topics of the correspondence include: proposed UNTAC responses to NADK actions, prepared by Lt. Col. Healy and sent to the FC (August 1992); UNTAC-authored Policy Advice Papers (October 1992 and April 1993); internal responses to drafts of discussion papers prepared by the Plans Branch for MMWG meetings (January 1993); and UNTAC official responses to statements issued by factions. The records also contain correspondence and summaries of meetings between the FC and faction leaders, which were copied to the CLC. There are: summaries of monthly meetings between the FC and CPAF (February - July 1993) and correspondence between the FC and the KPNLAF regarding a rupture within the faction, and the FC’s call for a single command structure (June 1993).
The records of the Chief of Plans contain incoming and outgoing faxes which include: weekly military information summaries, describing the general activities of the military component; a paper prepared by the FC for Sector Commanders entitled, UNTAC’S Isolation from the Cambodian Population (August 1992); and a Civic Action Pamphlet, prepared by the Deputy Force Commander which describs the purpose and philosophy of civic action and the duties and responsibilities of the Civic Action Cell, Sector Commanders, and United Nations Military Observers (July 1992).
The Training Cell, headed by a Senior Training Officer, coordinated and monitored the retraining of cantoned soldiers. The records of the Training Cell consist of incoming and outgoing faxes pertaining to the progress and development of rehabilitation programs. Details of the reintegration training programmes during cantonment are found in the cantonment records. The programmes detailed include: entrepreneurship training (January 1993); learning vocations such as soap making, metal work, fish drying and natural fibre rope making (March 1993); a functional literacy programme (November 1992); and a drivers training project (November 1992). The cantonment records also contain extensive interviews with self-demobilized soldiers.
The records of the Plans Branch also hold drafts of Operation Orders (OPORDERS) 1 - 4, and 6, which were for the joint military component of UNTAC. The Orders direct: engineering support to the military component; the control and coordination of maritime operations; and UNTAC’s withdrawal operation.
The UNTAC Operation Branch (Ops Branch) of the military component was headquartered in Phnom Pehn, Cambodia, and was comprised of the: Air Support Cell; Maritime Cell; Monitoring Cell; Civilian Police (CIVPOL) Liaison Cell; and the Signals Cell. The Operation Branch was headed by the Chief of Operations (COO), Colonel Mohd Aris, who reported to the Force Commander (FC) through the Chief of Staff (COS). The primary task of the Ops Branch was the execution of the FC’s orders.
The records largely consist of periodic reports on the general activities of the military component. These include daily situation reports (SITREP) drafted by the COO and sent from UNTAC Ops headquarters to the Assistant Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, at the United Nations headquarters in New York. The SITREP detail the operations and activities of the military component providing information about: Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG) liaison; faction activity; cantonment progress; and personnel strength. Also present in the records are periodic summaries (PERSUM) prepared monthly by the Senior Sector United Nations Military Observer (SSUNMO) and sent to UNTAC headquarters. These describe: the political and military situation in a sector, ceasefire violations (CFV), firing incidents (FI), and reports on UNMO activities. The records also contain daily ceasefire violation (CFV) reports prepared by the SSUNMO and sent to the Monitoring Cell at the Ops Branch headquarters. These reports briefly describe the investigation of CFV carried out by UNMO, and indicate the location and the faction(s) involved.
The records also contain UNTAC Operation Orders and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). The directives pertain to: the carriage and use of weapons by UNTAC personnel; security plans for military support during the election, such as an electoral registration safety and security plan (October 1992); and the guarding of political party offices (December 1992).
In addition, there are summaries of meetings of the sector level and Level I MMWG and subject files concerning the self-demobilisation of members of the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK). The records also contain reports of the Strategic Investigation Team (SIT) which was tasked with investigating violations of the Paris Agreement of 23 October 1991. The allegations investigated include: the presence of foreign forces in Cambodia, ceasefire violations, and violations of general security measures.
Operation Branch, Monitoring Cell
The Monitoring Cell was a component of to the UNTAC Operation Branch (Ops Branch), headquartered in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
The records of the Monitoring Cell contain periodic reports on the general activities of the military component. These include daily situation reports (SITREP) drafted by the Chief of Operations (COO) at the Ops Branch for the Assistant Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, at the United Nations headquarters in New York. The SITREP detail the operations and activities of the military component and include information about: Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG) liaison, faction activity, cantonment progress, and personnel strength. Also present in the records are periodic summaries (PERSUM) drafted monthly by the Senior Sector United Nations Military Observer (SSUNMO) and sent to UNTAC headquarters in Phnom Penh. These describe: the political and military situation in a sector, ceasefire violations (CFV), firing incidents (FI), and reports on UNMO activities.
Incoming and outgoing correspondence from the UNTAC sectors are also present in the records. Documents of note in this general correspondence include: “Lessons Learned” reports prepared by the SSUNMO and sent to the Monitoring Cell and the Plans Branch at UNTAC HQ (July 1993); a handwritten Area of Operation (AO) report prepared by the UNMO team at Prey Veng Province, describing faction activities, the political situation, and general information about the area; and cantonment site reports prepared by sector monitoring teams detailing the Chhanang and Toek Poh cantonment sites, evaluating site objectives and providing recommendations, photos, and a hand-drawn layout of the facilities.
Also present in the records is documentation of investigations carried out by UNMOs and sent to the Monitoring Cell. Acts of aggression perpetrated by the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK) against other factions, villages, and UNTAC are prominent in the investigations. There is also a NADK subject file which contains faction information and memoranda regarding procedures for self-demobilisation of NADK forces, as well as interviews with self-demobilised soldiers.
The records also include reports of the Border Liaison Cell. This cell consisted of border check points established by UNTAC at selected locations along the Cambodian side of the border and at airfields inside Cambodia. Stationed at these checkpoints were five UNMO, ten soldiers as well as faction Liaison Officers. The UNMO monitored and verified parties’ compliance with the Paris Agreement, including the cessation of outside military assistance to Cambodian factions. The records contain general incoming and outgoing correspondence as well as monthly border and foreign liaison briefs, which were sent from the Border Liaison Cell and widely circulated. These briefs cover activities of the Cell, and contain information about the intrusion of foreign forces; smuggling of Arms/Ammo; density of cross-border traffic and trade; and cross-border liaison.
Phnom Penh Special Zone
The records of Phnom Penh Special Zone (PNP SZ) document the general activities of the UNTAC Military Component.
Included in the records are daily situation reports (SITREP) drafted by the Chief of Operations (COO) and sent from UNTAC headquarters in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to the Assistant Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, at the United Nations headquarters in New York. The SITREP detail the operations and activities of the military component including information about: Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG) liaison; faction activity; cantonment progress; and personnel strength. Weekly military information summaries (MILINFOSUM) prepared by the Military Information Branch at UNTAC HQ and widely distributed, are also present in the records. MILINFOSUM describe the general situation and activities of the military component.
The records also contain meeting summaries of the MMWG Secretariat level. These often include supporting documents such as: discussion papers and annotated drafts prepared by the Secretariat; text of presentations; and a brief titled, “MMWG Guidance on Faction Responsibilities for the Provision of Security during the Elections” (May 1993).
Investigations carried out by the United Nations Military Police (MILPOL) are also included in the records. These investigations are primarily concerned with assaults on party officials and party offices in PNP SZ. The records also contain some investigations carried out by United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) of ceasefire violations.
General incoming and outgoing correspondence from the PNP SZ is also present in the records. Documents of note include: drawings of officer rank insignia for the Cambodian People's Armed Forces (February 1993); and a publication from the Military Information Branch, “New Hope for Cambodia” (June 1993).
The records also contain Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) and Operation Orders issued by the Force Commander to the Military Component. Security instructions for the May 1993 general elections (Operation Safeguard) aimed to secure the city of Phnom Penh during the election are prominently represented in the records.
Operation Branch, Monitoring Cell, Strategic Investigation Team
The Strategic Investigation Programme was initiated in June 1992 with the primary purpose of investigating allegations of the presence of foreign forces (FF) in Cambodia. The operations of the Strategic Investigation Teams (SIT) drew their legitimacy from provisions of the Paris Agreement of 23 October 1991.
The SIT tasks included the investigation and verification of: the location of arms, ammunition and other military supplies for disposal by the respective sector troops; ceasefire violations (CFV) by one or more factions; deliberate violation or interference with the cantonment process; and other matters as directed by the Force Commander.
The records contain general and detailed information about SIT investigations including transcribed interviews with witnesses and supporting documentation such as photos and/or sketches.
SIT investigations present in the records include:
• The killing of Bulgarian Battalion (BULBAT) soldiers in Kampong Speu Province, April 1993
• The killing of 6 Vietnamese at Peam Chhkaok in Kampong Chhnang Province, August 1993
• The killing of 8 Vietnamese in Kampong Chnang, July 1993
• CFV in Angkor Chum, Siem Reap Province, March 1993
• Ambush near Phum Ku, Cambodia, which resulted in the death of a Japanese CIVPOL officer, May 1993
• Firing Incident and detention of UNTAC vehicles and personnel, January 1993
• Alleged presence of FF in the State of Cambodia (SOC) Communications Ministry, May 1993
• Alleged presence of FF in Kampong Cham Province, February 1993
Documents of note, also included in the records are: a paper titled, “Cambodian People's Armed Forces Position on the Accusation of the Presence of Foreign Forces in Cambodia,” prepared by the Coordinator of Communication of the SOC Ministry of Defence, for the UNTAC Force Commander (March 1993); and a “Table of Allegations of Political Intimidation in Cambodia” (January 1993). Another paper, “Reference material and Investigation Reports on the Presence of Foreign Forces,” was prepared by the Chief of the SIT, for UNTAC’s Legal Advisor (February 1993). This paper provides a synopsis on recent investigations of FF, and includes the response from the Legal Advisor assessing which cases investigated, were legally within the scope of the term “foreign forces.”
Border Liaison Cell
The Border Liaison Cell functioned under the office of the Deputy Force Commander (DFC), Brigadier General Robert Rideau. Through the DFC, the Cell reported to the Force Commander and advised the Operations Branch.
The Border Liaison Cell consisted of border checkpoints established by UNTAC at select locations along Cambodia’s border with Thailand, Laos, and Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), and at airfields within Cambodia. Stationed at these checkpoints were five UNMO, ten soldiers as well as faction Liaison Officers. The UNMO were to monitor and verify parties’ compliance with the Paris Agreement of 23 October 1991, including cessation of outside military assistance to Cambodian factions.
The records include border liaison summaries, sent from checkpoints to the Border Liaison Cell in the office of the DFC. These reports describe the activities at the checkpoint, contain the names of faction LOs posted at the location, and provide details about incidents such as: smuggling of arms and ammunition; entry of foreign civilians; airspace violations; and illegal trafficking of natural resources. The records also document UNMO investigations of logging and gem operations in Cambodia (March - May 1993).
Daily press briefings are also present in the records. These were sent from the Liaison Coordinator at UNTAC headquarters and widely circulated. They summarize the daily briefing, delivered by UNTAC Spokesman Erick Falt or his Assistant, Eric Berman.
The records contain notable documents such as: a working paper titled, “UNTAC Border Control Mechanism” (September 1992), which includes an annotated and handwritten drafts; a “Draft Declaration on the Mining and Export of Minerals and Gems” prepared by the director of the Rehabilitation Component (December 1993); and a mission report prepared by the Natural Resources Controller of Civil Affairs and titled, “Declaration on the export of logs from Cambodia” (November 1992). The Border Liaison Cell files also include the 26 October 1992 “Guidelines for UNTAC Operations in Thailand,” which details crossing point locations along the Thai border, in addition to the Force Commander’s crossing point procedures for UNTAC personnel.
The records also provide information about violations by UNTAC of SRV airspace (1993). Documentation relating to these incidents includes: protest letters from SRV representatives; summaries of meetings between LOs of respective parties; a memoranda from the Force Commander to the Ambassador of the SRV expressing regret over the reported incidents.
Memoranda from April 1993 concern Operation Safe Passage, which facilitated the safe escort of over 18,000 SRV refugees from Cambodia. A “SRV Exodus Log,” present in the records provides information about SRV refugee movement, including the: total number of SRV; number of vessels; the number of families. The Naval Operations Order 1/93, Operation Safe Passage, dated 30 March 1993, is also included.
The files also contain summaries of meetings between the Border Liaison Cell and SRV which detail the movements of ethnic Vietnamese in and out of Cambodia. The military climate of the border area after the 23-28 May 1993 Cambodia elections is also documented. The records which relate to the Cambodian-Vietnamese border also notably include: memoranda regarding the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) of UNMOs; and an 11 May 1993 report titled “Report on the Training of Cambodian Immigration and Border Control Officers.”
The Logistics Branch was tasked with ensuring efficient flow of material and equipment to the Military Component. Posted at UNTAC headquarters in Phnom Penh, Cambodia was a Chief Logistics Officer (CLO) who was responsible for the planning, execution and supervision of all logistics activities within the Military Component. The CLO reported to the Force Commander (FC) through the Deputy Force Commander (DFC).
The records of the Logistics Branch contain operational planning documents such as Logistics Directives, issued between June 1992 and April 1993, which establish how the Branch’s responsibilities would be carried out. There is also a 1 October 1992 document titled “Logistic Instructions for Electoral Teams,” which details logistics for the Electoral Component’s deployment of voter registration kits.
The records also include minutes of the Commanding Officer’s conferences from February and April of 1993. There is also a document titled, “Long Programme for the Secretary-General 7-8 April 1993,” with the agenda for the visit of the Secretary-General, a list of attendees, and plans for the arrival and departure ceremonies with hand-drawn diagrams. Also present in the records are a “Lessons Learned” report, prepared by the CLO and sent to the Chief of Plans (July 1993), and a lengthy document titled, “Surface Transport Report – Cambodia,” which reports, reconnaissance of rail, waterway, and road transportation in Cambodia.
Military Police, Force Provost Marshal
UNTAC Military Police (MP) operated under the authority of the Force Commander (FC) and was tasked with the discipline of military personnel. The Force Provost Marshal (alternatively referred to as Military Provost Marshal) was posted at UNTAC headquarters in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and reported to the FC through the Chief of Staff (COS).
The records of the Force Provost Marshal include: minutes of weekly Chief of Staff meetings; agenda for the Deputy Force Commander Conference (December 1992); and statements issued by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Yasushi Akashi, to UNTAC staff (March, May 1993). The records also contain memoranda on topics such as: the Military Police’s role in the UNTAC-sponsored, public meeting among the political parties (May 1993); and Military Police powers of arrest and search, prepared by the UNTAC Special Prosecutor (August 93).
Headed by the Force Engineer, the Engineer Branch was managed by the Engineer Planning and Liaison Cell. Included in the records are the Engineer Branch Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), operation orders, and operation order annexes. The annexes detail the maintenance of Cambodian infrastructure in relation to activities of the warring factions. Also included in the files are the meeting minutes of the Mixed Military Working Group (MMWG) and the Engineer Planning Sub Group.
Civilian Police, Commissioner
The Civilian Police consisted of the Operations Branch, the Logistics Branch, the Liaison Branch, the Personnel Branch, and the Inspection and Discipline Branch. The Civilian Police also managed a Special Task Force, which reported to the Operations Branch. Twenty-one provincial headquarters, headed by Provincial Commanders, were also established. The headquarters of the Civilian Police was located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The Civilian Police were mandated to ensure that law and order were maintained effectively and impartially in Cambodia, and that human rights were fully protected. Additionally, the Civilian Police: supervised and trained local police; ensured that political rallies were free of harassment and intimidation and that campaigners could exercise freedom of speech; ensured safe and orderly voter registration; monitored static and mobile polling stations during the election for the Cambodian Constituent Assembly held 23-28 May 1993; and assisted refugees returning to Cambodia. Brigadier General Klaas C. Roos of the Netherlands served as the Commissioner of the Civilian Police for the duration of the mission.
Chronological and operations files primarily contain briefs and memoranda issued by the Commissioner and sent to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the Civilian Police on the following topics: maintenance of security and neutrality in the electoral environment; monitoring of political party activity; the progress of investigations; the operation of the Khmer Police Training School and CIVPOL’s training of Khmer police; operations of the Special Task Force of the Civilian Police; the protection of ethnic Vietnamese and their movements within and out of Cambodia; and the closure of Civilian Police headquarters in September 1993. There are also directives for the Civilian Police when reporting on public meetings, rallies, and demonstrations, when stationed at political party offices, and during the May 1993 election. Chronological and operations files also contain a concept for the withdrawal of the Civilian Police operation.
In addition, the Commissioner’s files contain: briefs on the organization and mandate of the Civilian Police; Standard Operating Procedures for Civilian Police Monitors; summaries of meetings between the Commissioner and leaders of the State of Cambodia (SOC), political parties, and factions; summaries of meetings of Provincial Commanders; briefs describing terrorism and incidents of politically-motivated violence, particularly grenade attacks on political party offices and murders of political party members; a discussion paper titled “UN Peacekeeping: Lessons Learned from the Cambodia Mission”, dated 22 July 1993; an evaluation report on the UNTAC Civilian Police, dating from August 1993. There are also lists with data on the geographic deployment of CIVPOL, and on the strength and nationality of CIVPOL monitors.
Civilian Police, Operations Branch, Communications Centre
Part of the Operations Branch, the Communications Centre was the focal point for the transmission of information to Civilian Police deployed throughout Cambodia. The Centre’s records consist of daily and weekly situation reports compiled by the Civilian Police Deputy Chief of Operations and sent to the Commissioner.
The situation reports detail incidents throughout the provinces, including armed robberies, shootings, shelling, murders, abductions, political intimidation, vehicle theft and traffic accidents. Incidents often were perpetrated by the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK), the Cambodian People’s Armed Forces (CPAF), and the Khmer People National Liberation Armed Forces (KPNLAF). The reports note: CIVPOL’s confiscation of weapons and ammunition; CIVPOL’s monitoring of the activities of political parties; operations at UNTAC-monitored checkpoints; activities of the local police of the State of Cambodia (SOC); ceasefire violations; the movements of Vietnamese; landmine explosions; and anti-UNTAC demonstrations and activities, such as attacks on UN vehicles and the circulation of anti-UNTAC leaflets among the population. Also reported are the activities of the Civilian Police Airport Team stationed at the Pochentong International Airport in Phnom Penh. The Civilian Police Airport Team monitored the arrival and departure of VIPs and items, particularly gold and foreign currencies, being declared at the airport Customs Office.
Records of the CIVPOL Communications Centre also include: weekly reports on arms and ammunitions seized by CIVPOL, noting the locations and circumstances of the seizures; and weekly reports of political intimidation, such as arson, vandalism of party offices and signage, death threats against party members, and bomb throwing at political party offices. In addition, the files contain statistics on political party activity and statistics on voter registration.
Civilian Police, Operations Branch
The Operations Branch was commanded by the Chief of Operations, who reported to the Commissioner.
Records primarily consist of chronological files documenting routine operational activities of the Civilian Police. These hold briefs and memoranda on a range of subjects, including: monitoring and closures of political party offices; the training of local police; activities of factions, including the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK) and the Cambodian People’s Armed Forces (CPAF); activities at road checkpoints; security provided to electoral registration and polling centres; security at the Pochentong International Airport in Phnom Penh; and the harassment of Vietnamese in Cambodia.
The chronological files also include reports on a variety of topics, such as: reconnaissance and familiarization tours of provinces and districts conducted by the Civilian Police; secret meetings held by warring factions; soldiers who approached the Civilian Police after surrendering from factions; conditions in provincial prisons and the status of individual prisoners; the confiscation of weapons and ammunition; and ceasefire violations. Chronological files also contain: leaflets circulated in the local population and collected by UNTAC indicative of anti-UNTAC sentiment and political intimidation; reviews and analyses on the criminal justice system in provinces; and statistics on the movements and resettlement of displaced persons.
In addition, the chronological files contain summaries of meetings held by the Civilian Police with: provincial government representatives; chiefs of local police; representatives of political parties, including the National United Front for and Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), the Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party (BLDP), the Cambodia People’s Party (CPP) and the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP); and leaders of factions. Daily situation reports and daily patrol reports sent from the CIVPOL Province Commanders to CIVPOL headquarters in Phnom Penh document CIVPOL visits to districts and villages. They are also found in the chronological files, and they note: the status of investigations; conditions in prisons; living conditions in villages, such as the availability of food and potable water, and the conditions of roads and bridges; and civilian complaints against the local police and provincial government officials.
Chronological files of Civilian Police operations in provinces also contain reports of investigations carried out by the Civilian Police. Crimes investigated include: murders of political party members, locally-recruited election staff, and local police; death threats, hand grenade attacks, and arson carried out against political party members; abduction of political party members; attacks and arson on political party offices and disruptions of political party meetings; the removal, destruction, and defacing of political party signboards and posters; forced conscription; attacks on villages by factions; extortion and bribing of local police in communes, at trading posts, and at road checkpoints; land disputes; the circulation of counterfeit money; and thefts of cultural heritage objects at temples. Politically-motivated crime primarily targeted the Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party (BLDP); the Cambodia People’s Party (CPP); the National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC); the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP); and the Molinaka and Naktaorsou Khmer for Freedom Party. The files contain: final and interim reports of investigations; victim and witness statements, as well as transcribed testimony, which often feature fingerprint impressions; hand drawn sketches; and photographs of crime scenes.
Also included among records of the Operations Branch are records of the Special Task Force, which was overseen by the Operations Branch and which reported to the Commissioner through the Chief of Operations. The Special Task Force investigated high-profile and politically sensitive cases and worked closely with Provincial Commanders, who maintained command of all Civilian Police-led investigations in the province. The records of the Special Task Force are arranged in chronological order by case number. The case files consist of: final reports; sworn statements of victims and witnesses; hand drawn maps; photographs of the crime scene; sketches indicating victims’ injuries; death certificates; and investigation diaries of the Special Task Force.
The records of the Operations Branch also include several station diaries and visit registers which document activities at the UNTAC Detention Centre. The UNTAC Detention Centre was administered by the Civilian Police and was located in Phnom Penh. The diaries and registers note: activities of the Detention Centre’s Chief Warden; patrol and hand-over operations at the Detention Centre; cell checking; and the physical condition of individual prisoners.
There are also records pertaining to Civilian Police policy and guidelines, and these include memoranda, briefs, and administrative circulars on topics such as: the maintenance of a neutral political environment; the duties of Civilian Police at polling stations and when monitoring political rallies and public meetings; the carriage of weapons and ammunition and the use of force; the procedures for arrest and prosecution; the procedures for investigation; the security of Vietnamese in Cambodia; and the handling of defectors from the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (NADK).
In addition, there is one file with information about the remains of American military personnel missing or killed during the Vietnam War and found in various locations in Cambodia. UNTAC obtained this information from Cambodian locals.
Civilian Police, Koh Kong Province
The records document the activities of the Civilian Police stationed in districts in Koh Kong Province in southwestern Cambodia. Included are daily and monthly situation reports prepared by District Commanders and sent to Provincial Commanders, noting the political climate, statistics on returnees, and progress on investigations of criminal activity and human rights violations. There are also briefs, authored by District Commanders, about: seizures of arms and ammunition; incidents, including murder, abduction, rampant firing, banditry, and robbery; faction activities; and weekly crime statistics. Also present are several case files for investigations carried out or monitored by the Civilian Police, including the killing of fourteen Vietnamese fishermen in the Chamkalor Village in the Botum Sakor District in October 1992. The case files contain: final reports, witness statements, hand drawn sketches of the crime scene, and photographs.
Civilian Police Liaison Cell
The Civilian Police Liaison Cell was established following the termination of the UNTAC mandate on 24 September 1993. The Cell was tasked with monitoring the crime situation in Phnom Penh and protecting United Nations personnel and property remaining in Cambodia during the post-UNTAC period. It was headed by the Chief Police Liaison Officer and was located at the headquarters of the Municipal Police Commissioner in Phnom Penh. The records consist of: briefs on the functions of the Civilian Police Liaison Cell; Standard Operating Procedures and administrative instructions for investigating and reporting criminal activity; daily and weekly situation reports noting incidents involving international personnel and local citizens, and activities of the local police; and tables with tallies on crime throughout thedistricts in Phnom Penh. The Civilian Police Liaison Cell was closed on 31 December 1993.
Civil Administration, Banteay Meanchey Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Banteay Meanchey Province was located in the provincial capital city of Sisophon.
The chronological files consist of weekly reports prepared by the Acting Provincial Director of Banteay Meanchey and sent to the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General (DSRSG) in Pnom Penh. They describe: the general security situation in the province; relations between UNTAC and provincial authorities and factions; the progress of political campaigns and activities of political parties; training activities carried out in coordination with United Nations agencies; the status of displaced persons; and developments in the reformation of the judiciary.
The chronological files also contain: minutes of Coordination Meetings, which were headed by the Provincial Director and attended by representatives of UNTAC components and United Nations agencies; minutes of Round Table Discussions held between representatives of Civil Administration and representatives of political parties; updates on property claims filed with the UNTAC office; and memoranda concerning the activities of political parties, including rallies, meetings, and openings of party offices in the province. In addition, there is an End of Mission report about Civil Administration in Banteay Meanchey Province, dated13 July 1993.
Other records document the establishment and work of Civil Administration offices in the Ampil District and in the Thmar Pouk District, which were controlled by the National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC) and the Khmer People's National Liberation Front (KPNLF). These records include: analyses of the political situation; reports on meetings between the Zone Controller appointed by Civil Administration, and faction and political party leaders; and reports prepared by Zone Controllers which focus on community development programmes.
In addition, there are: summaries of meetings of the Special Task Force on Public Order, which were attended by representatives of UNTAC components and the government officials of Banteay Meanchey Province; analyses and reports describing the work of the Foreign Affairs Service of Civil Administration, including consular affairs, and in passport, visa, and border control; and outlines of the command structure of factions and their leaders.
Records pertaining to political parties include: lists of candidates of political parties; minutes of Round Table Discussions held by representatives of the Civil Administration of Banteay Meanchey Province with representatives of political parties; directives for UNTAC staff for the maintenance of a neutral political environment, including on the security of political party offices; and notices about the openings of political party offices in Banteay Meanchey Province.
Civil Administration, Battambang Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Battambang Province was located in the provincial capital city of Battambang.
Records consist of: a descriptive overview of Battambang Province; chronological files documenting the activities of the Provincial Director; weekly reports describing the political, military, and security situation, as well as complaints and logistics activities; lists of provincial officials; and project proposals of non-governmental agencies active in Battambang Province. Also included are reports on such topics as: UNTAC’s recommendation for the removal of the Battambang Provincial Governor; patterns of political harassment in the province; and the campaign period in the province. In addition, there are letters, briefs, investigation reports, recommendation summaries, and legal papers detailing the work of the Civil Administration’s Public Security Service and Complaints and Investigations Service.
There are also summaries of Coordination Meetings, which were attended by representatives of: Civil Administration, Battambang Province; UNTAC components; Civilian Police; and United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations active in the province. Additionally, there are summaries of meetings held by officials of Civil Administration, Battambang Province, with provincial officials. Summaries of meetings of the Mixed Committee, held between UNTAC officials and provincial authorities, concern complaints about land issues and evictions originating in Battambang Province and banditry.
Other records pertain to political parties. There are lists of addresses of political party offices; requests to hold political rallies; approval notices prepared by the Chief Electoral Officer about political party registration; summaries of inaugurations of political party offices; complaints of political intimidation, including grenade throwing at party offices and defacing of political party signage; summaries of rallies; and briefs on UNTAC’s seizure of weapons from political party offices.
There are also summaries of meetings of political party representatives and representatives of the Existing Administrative Structure (EAS) in Battambang Province, held under the aegis of UNTAC. The meeting summaries detail: the holding of political party meetings, the conduct of campaigns, security during polling, political messages in the media, violations of electoral law, and preparation of the security plan during the electoral period.
Civil Administration, Pursat Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Pursat Province was located in the provincial capital city of Pursat.
The records include weekly activity reports sent by the Provincial Director to the Provincial Coordinator with summaries of Coordination Meetings with human rights and military components and Round Table meetings with registered Pursat politicians. Some of the subjects addressed during Round Table meetings were the use of billboard displays and the role of UNTAS in resolving threats and allegations of political intimidation. There are also provincial Civilian Police reports about intimidation and violent acts against civilians, as well as complaint forms addressed to the Provincial Human Rights Officer and completed by civilians.
The files for political parties contain letters addressed by the Action for Development and Democracy Party, Cambodian People’s Party (CPP), Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party (BDLP), National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (FUNCINPEC), and other parties. These were sent to the Electoral Component Provincial Headquarters with requests to open political party offices. The letters detail political party objectives, and include proposals for the accommodation and staffing of offices. The files also contain of letters sent by civilian party members to the Provincial Director about complaints of alleged political intimidation and barriers to the freedom of political expression.
The Pursat Province files also feature: the “Guidelines for the Work of Civil Administration for the Remainder of the Transitional Period,” 19 June 1993; the “Report of UN Fact-Finding Mission to KPNLF and FUNCINPEC Areas of Cambodia,” 18-22 May 1991, which is a draft authored by the Office of the Special Representative for the Secretary-General (SRSG) for the Coordination of Cambodian Humanitarian Assistance Programs; and the SRSG’s address “To the KPNLF Congress Delivered on behalf of SRSG 21 May 1992,” which defines election rights as human rights and describes UNTAC role in the electoral process.
Civil Administration, Kampong Chhnang Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Kampong Chhnang Province was located in the provincial capital city of Kampong Chhnang.
The records document collaboration between the Civil Administration and Rehabilitation Components. Memoranda from the Provincial Director to the Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General (DSRSG) and Rehabilitation Component staff concern rehabilitation project proposals. Other memoranda from provincial authorities and UNTAC provincial staff to the Provincial Director describe requests for Rehabilitation Component assistance for infrastructure and school renovations. Memoranda from the Provincial Director to non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also request aid, such as food and draft animals. There are also documents relating to the Donor Consultative Group, which funded Rehabilitation Component projects. These include meeting minutes, agenda, working papers, Rehabilitation Component newsletters, and project proposals.
There is also correspondence between the Provincial Director and the provincial authorities, primarily the Governor of Kampong Chhnang Province. The correspondence concerns: meetings between provincial authorities, political parties, and UNTAC; plans for provincial security; alleged military activity by the Movement for the National Liberation of Kampuchea (MOLINAKA) political party; Khmer Rouge activities; and violations of electoral law.
Records pertaining to political parties include: complaints about violations of electoral law, such as intimidation of party agents; lists of addresses of political party offices; summaries of inaugurations of political party offices; analysis of party media by the Information/Education Division; requests to hold political rallies; memoranda and organization charts about party leadership; summaries of rallies; and speeches by party officials. There is also correspondence from the Provincial Director about plans for a multi-party political rally to be held on 8 May 1993 by UNTAC in Kampong Chhnang, the provincial capital.
Civil Administration, Koh Kong Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Koh Kong Province was located in the provincial capital city of Koh Kong.
The records document the activities of the Financial Controller, the Human Rights Officer, and the Public Security Service. The records kept by the Financial Controller consist of weekly reports and memoranda about control of the logging industry, customs, tax collection, and the finances of political parties. These were prepared for the Provincial Director, the Director of the Civil Administration Component, the Director of the Rehabilitation Component, and provincial authorities. The reports include statistics on the economy and the finances of the provincial government. The one file for the Human Rights Officer contains reports and memoranda about racial discrimination, slavery, the judicial system, prisons, repatriation, education, police, the investigation of human rights cases, and other subjects. They were directed to the Provincial Director and Director of the Human Rights Component. The Public Security Service records consist of correspondence with provincial authorities about prison administration and inspection, militia, and banditry.
The files also contain information about collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and Cambodian human rights groups. There are statistics relating to demographics and social needs, as well as memoranda about NGO surveys and the establishment of NGO offices.
There is also correspondence with provincial authorities of the State of Cambodia on such topics as the control of smuggling, electoral registration, security, the organization of local governmental structures, and the state budget.
Records relating to political parties include: complaints about violations of electoral law, such as intimidation of political party agents; summaries of inaugurations of political party offices; lists of addresses for political party offices; and memoranda and organization charts about party leadership.
Civil Administration, Svay Rieng Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Svay Rieng Province was located in the provincial capital city of Svay Rieng.
The records consist of: overviews of Svay Rieng Province; technical reports and project proposals for rehabilitation activities in the province, such as the construction and restoration of hospitals, schools, roads and bridges; and correspondence between representatives of Civil Administration and non-governmental organizations, such as International Medical Corps and Church World Service; reports and memoranda on conditions in prisons and on prison administration; and summaries of radio broadcasts of political party activities.
Summaries are available of Coordination Meetings between representatives of Civil Administration and UNTAC components, covering such topics as UNTAC’s relations with the Acting Governor of Svay Rieng Province and other provincial authorities, alleged violations of human rights and electoral law in the province, economic activity in the province, rehabilitation and resettlement, and visits to cantonment areas. There are also summaries of meetings of the Provincial Popular Committee.
Civil Administration, Kandal Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Koh Kong Province was located in the provincial capital city of Ta Khmao.
The records document the activities of Civil Administration and its Financial Control Service and Complaints and Investigations Service.
The Complaints and Investigations Service’s records include letters of complaint, investigation reports, and statistical reports detailing the prevalence of various types of complaints. The files contain weekly activity reports and summaries of Coordination Meetings between representatives of Civil Administration and UNTAC Components, which detail the political, military, and security situation. Other reports were produced by local authorities, such as a “Five Years Plan for Economic and Social Development and the Planning for 1993” dated 22 February 1993. In addition, there is correspondence with the Governor of Kandal Province and provincial authorities about: controlling armed robbery; Khmer Rouge activities; implementation of the electoral law; intimidation; land disputes; meetings with provincial authorities; and the organization of the Province’s administration.
The files for the Financial Control Service contain memoranda about a wide range of subjects, such as: control of the logging industry; corruption in the provincial authorities’ control of the border; provincial budgets and expenditure; tax collection on rental properties; meetings with provincial treasury officials and other local authorities; and statistics on the province’s finances and economy. These memoranda were generated by the Financial Controller, the Provincial Director, the Director of Rehabilitation, the Chief of Foreign Affairs, and the Governor of Kandal Province.
Also included are records of the Rehabilitation Component, which consist of: memoranda about repatriated children’s education; a survey of the province’s needs; project proposals; and a presentation about delivering foreign assistance without political bias, prepared by the Foreign Affairs Service’s External Aid Group for a Civil Administration seminar.
Other records relate to political parties, such as: memoranda, directives prepared by the Provincial Director, and meeting summaries which detail: security, propaganda, political intimidation, and rallies.
Civil Administration, Kampong Speu Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Kampong Speu Province was located in the provincial capital city of Kampong Speu.
The records consist of a chronological file, weekly activity reports, coordination meeting and political round-table meeting summaries, and correspondence with political parties. The chronological file includes reports and memoranda prepared by the Provincial Director, Investigations Officer, Director of Civil Administration, and Provincial Popular Committee, about land disputes, rehabilitation projects, security, and political harassment cases. Summaries of Coordination Meetings between representatives of Civil Administration and other UNTAC components concern such topics as payment of civil servants and the military, meetings with local authorities, activities of warring factions, and banditry. Summaries of round-table meetings held by representatives of Civil Administration, Civilian Police, the Human Rights Component, and political parties describe alleged military activity by the Movement for the National Liberation of Kampuchea (MOLINAKA) political party, land disputes, rehabilitation projects, and political parties’ cooperation with local authorities. Records relating to political parties include public notices about the electoral process produced by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and correspondence between the Provincial Director and political parties about the parties’ activities in Kampong Speu Province.
Civil Administration, Kampot Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Kampot Province was located in the provincial capital city of Kampot.
Reports and chronological files document the activities of the Provincial Director. There are weekly activity reports about complaints, warring faction activity, security, and the political climate. Other reports include summaries of all other provinces’ weekly reports and detail Civil Administration training seminars for provincial directors held at headquarters, including speeches by Akashi and summaries of presentations. Chronological files contain summaries for Coordination Meetings held between provincial representatives of Civil Administration and other UNTAC components. These concern UNTAC’s relationship with provincial authorities, alleged violations of human rights and electoral law, economic activities, rehabilitation, resettlement, and other subjects. Summaries of meetings with the Governor of Kampot Province and the Provincial Popular Committee concern such topics as the judicial system, rental taxes, and cease fire violations.
The records of Civil Administration in Kampot Province also contain memoranda about alleged administrative and financial mismanagement within provincial authority structures and non-governmental organizations’ freedom of association in the province. There are also procedures and guidelines generated by the Director of Civil Administration, such as “Procedures When Working with Ministries and other Civil Institutions” and “How Advanced is the Control Exercised by the Civil Administration Component?” both dated 26 June 1992.
Also included are records of the Foreign Affairs Service, the Financial Control Service, the Complaints and Investigations Service, the Public Security Service, the Defence Service, and the Specialized Control Service.
Files for the Foreign Affairs Service contain Border Control newsletters, demographic statistics, and memoranda prepared by the Director of Civil Administration, Provincial Director, and Foreign Affairs Service staff. The memoranda concern: the ban on rice export; training for Cambodian immigration and border control officers; World Food Program distribution of aid; and Cambodian passport regulations.
The Financial Control Service-related files consist of memoranda, reports, requests from the Provincial Popular Committee for funds to restore electricity to the province, and minutes of a Financial Controllers meeting held 21 July 1992. Memoranda were generated by the Financial Controller and the Director of Rehabilitation and Economic and concern: procedures for areas of financial control, such as the disposition of state assets and the State of Cambodia’s public revenue; the control of petroleum and rice; and provincial budget and revenue. The reports include the Financial Controller’s descriptions for provincial financial structures such as the Customs Branch, and a “Financial Controllers Reports Summary” with nation-wide information on financial and economic matters, dated 5 February 1993.
The records of the Complaints and Investigations Service include investigation reports and lists of complaints about land disputes and political harassment. The records feature a memorandum dated 23 November 1992 from the Chief of the Complaints and Investigations Service to the Provincial Directors about procedures for complaints and investigations on the provincial level, and the Complaints and Investigations Counsellor’s “Notes on Complaints and Investigations,” dated 31 August 1992.
The Public Security Service files contain memoranda generated by the Provincial Director, Public Security Staff, and the Governor of Kampot Province, about: political activity of civil servants of the State of Cambodia; gun control; the functioning of the provincial judicial system; and the right to freedom of association. Other memoranda, from the Minister of National Security to the local police, concern cooperation with magistrates and State of Cambodia decrees about traffic regulation legislation.
Records of the Defence Service are primarily generated by the Chief of the Defence Service and relate to: a literacy program for demobilized soldiers; the establishment of border checkpoints; and the terms of reference for a technical advisory committee to study territorial boundaries of Cambodia.
The files for the Specialized Control Service records consist of memoranda and periodic reports. The memoranda were prepared by the Chief of Specialized Control, the Director of Civil Administration, and the Provincial Director. The memoranda concern: the Supreme National Council’s decree on the protection of cultural heritage; investigations of the cement-making and gold and gem mining industries; natural resources; and methods of control available to the Service. The reports cover the Service’s activities related to health, tourism, education, and social action.
Civil Administration, Sihanoukville Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Sihanoukville Province was located in the port city of Sihanoukville.
Records primarily consist of summaries of meetings coordinated by the Provincial Director and UNTAC component representatives, with representatives of the existing administrative structure in Sihanoukville Province, including the Governor of Sihanoukville Province and faction representatives. Additionally, there are summaries of Round Table Meetings held between the Provincial Director and representatives of political parties.
There are also: reports of investigations carried out by the Civilian Police on political intimidation in Sihanoukville; and reports about political rallies prepared by the Civilian Police. The reports of rallies describe political messages conveyed during speeches made by political party representatives and the security climate during the rally.
In addition, there is correspondence and memoranda relating to operations of the UNTAC Civil and Naval Port Authority in the port of Sihanoukville. The UNTAC Civil and Naval Port Authority reported to the Director of Civil Administration and the Force Commander and was tasked with rehabilitating and reorganizing Cambodia’s ports and inland waterway infrastructure.
Civil Administration, Ratanakiri Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Ratanakiri Province was located in the provincial town of Ban Lung.
The records include: an overview of Ratanakiri Province; a layout of the headquarters; and summaries of weekly meetings between Civil Administration officials and representatives of UNTAC Components stationed in Ratanakiri Province. The summaries contain information about meetings with the Governor of the province, refugee movements, and cooperation among UNTAC Components.
There are also: summaries of meetings between Civil Administration officials and representatives of political parties; reports about administrative activities at provincial headquarters; briefs and outlines about policy and guidelines for the investigation of complaints reported to provincial headquarters; weekly reports about activities of United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) stationed in the province; statements detailing positions of the State of Cambodia (SOC) and some UNTAC-authored analysis about the SOC’s positions and activities; reports and memoranda authored by the Civilian Police about incidents in districts; and a report dating from August 1992 about indigenous minorities in Cambodia and the elections.
Records of the Financial Controller include reports and briefs covering such topics as the management of finances and assets by the provincial government, gold mining, illegal logging, and the activities of rubber plantations.
Other reports were authored by the Human Rights Officer. These describe visits to prisons, incidents of human rights violations, the progress of land dispute cases, and educational activities in human rights carried out with the local population, highlander communities, and Buddhist monks. The files also contain reviews of prisoners’ cases.
Civil Administration, Takeo Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Takeo Province was located in the provincial capital city of Takeo.
Records include chronological files documenting the activities of the Provincial Director and weekly activity reports about complaints, warring faction activity, security, and the political climate. Summaries of Coordination Meetings held between provincial representatives of Civil Administration and other UNTAC components concern such topics as UNTAC’s relations with provincial authorities, alleged violations of human rights and electoral law, economic activity, and rehabilitation and resettlement.
There are also summaries of meetings between the Civil Administration and the Governor of Takeo Province about preparation of elections, human rights, dissemination of information about UNTAC’s mission, land disputes, theft of public funds, public security, cantonment, and civic education.
Records of the Financial Controller consist of memoranda, reports, and workshop information. The memoranda detail: non-acceptance of State of Cambodia currency in Takeo Province markets; the provincial budget and expenditures; production of currency; financial control procedures; and the theft of 5.5 million riels from the provincial Office of Agriculture. The reports include the Financial Controller’s monthly reports, financial inspection reports by the Takeo Control Team, and monthly activity reports by the Office for Economic Affairs and Rehabilitation. Summaries of discussions and presentations on rehabilitation programs, expenditure control, revenue control, and customs border controls are available for the provincial Financial Controllers workshop held 22-23 February 1993.
The Civilian Police records consist of investigation reports prepared by the Provincial Commander of Takeo Civilian Police for the Director of Civil Administration and the Chief of Operations, Civilian Police Phnom Penh. The reports include letters of complaint and memoranda from the Complaints and Investigation Service and Human Rights Investigator. The files also contain memoranda issued by the Director of Civil Administration, Provincial Directors, Provincial Commander, and Civilian Police Phnom Penh, about security concerns such as intimidation against political party officials and guarding political party offices. Also present are minutes for meetings held by local police and Civilian Police, on robberies and Mixed Units.
Other records relate to non-governmental organizations (NGO). These consist of summaries of meetings between NGOs and UNTAC about repatriation, rehabilitation, and potable water for the province, and between NGOs and provincial authorities about agriculture, education, health, and traffic accidents. There are also lists of NGOs by topic and location.
Some records relate to political parties. There are monthly reports on propaganda, activities in Takeo Province, and parties’ relationship with UNTAC, and summaries of political party meetings with UNTAC which concern electoral law and cooperation between political parties. In addition, the files contain memoranda about: party platforms; training of party officials; oversight of propaganda; rallies; the carrying of weapons by party officials; and disputes with the provincial authorities.
Civil Administration, Prey Veng Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Prey Veng Province was located in Prey Veng Town.
The records include: chronological correspondence documenting activities at headquarters; summaries of Coordination Meetings held between Civil Administration officials and representatives of UNTAC Components; summaries of meetings between Civil Administration officials and provincial authorities; lists of names of provincial authorities; and population statistics of villages. There are also periodic reports of the Human Rights Component; summaries of visits to prisons in Prey Veng Province, noting conditions in cells and the legality of prisoners’ detentions; and correspondence documenting the activities of indigenous human rights organizations, including the Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO).
Also included are reports and witness statements for criminal cases investigated by the Civilian Police stationed in Prey Veng Province. In addition, there are complainant statements and investigative reports for land and property disputes processed by Civil Administration officials.
Civil Administration, Mondolkiri Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Mondolkiri Province was located in the provincial capital of Senmonorom. The records consist of: summaries of meetings of the Human Rights Officer of Mondolkiri Province; reports authored by the Financial Controller about public revenue and natural resources control in Cambodia; memoranda about political meetings and rallies in the province; and briefs about activities of the Border Control Unit.
There is also a Survey of Demobilized Soldiers, which provides data about soldiers’ occupations, skills, and future plans upon re-entering civilian life. Additionally, a report prepared by the UNTAC Medical Branch dated January 1993 provides statistics on inpatient and outpatient care, and the incidence of infectious diseases among UNTAC personnel.
Civil Administration, Preah Vihear Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Preah Vihear Province was located in the provincial capital city of Tbeng Meanchey.
The records include chronological files documenting the activities of the Provincial Director and weekly activity reports about complaints, warring faction activity, security, and the political climate. Summaries of Coordination Meetings held between provincial representatives of Civil Administration and other UNTAC components concern such topics as UNTAC’s relations with provincial authorities, alleged violations of human rights and electoral law, economic activity, and rehabilitation and resettlement. There are also descriptive overviews of the province and of Tbeng Meanchey, detailing its geography, schools, economy, hospitals, populations, government, and warring factions.
Other records relate to visits to the province by politicians and UNTAC staff. A report by Civil Administration HQ and Provincial Coordination staff reviews the needs of the province, dated 11 March 1993, and memoranda concern the visits by dignitaries, such as the President of France.
In addition, the files contain memoranda between the Governor of Preah Vihear Province and the Provincial Director about: State of Cambodia legislation; civic education; separation of political party and provincial governmental structures; issues of law and justice such as the right to a trial; and factions’ responsibilities in the implementation of the Paris Agreements on the provincial level.
The records of the Financial Controller include reports, meeting summaries, and descriptive overviews of various provincial government structures, such as the Media Service, Social Welfare Service, and Commercial Service. The summaries detail meetings with Provincial Financial Services about: taxation; lack of National Treasury funds for payment of local salaries; state enterprise; and the province’s budget. Reports consist of the Financial Controller’s report to the Economic Advisor about provincial expenditures, including statistical information, and weekly reports sent to the Director of Rehabilitation on budgetary support activities.
Civil Administration, Stung Treng Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Stung Treng Province was located in the provincial capital city of Stung Treng.
The records include memoranda and summaries of weekly meetings with provincial authorities, about: aid from the World Food Programme and International Rice Research Institute; complaints; water purification, security; health issues such as STDs; rehabilitation projects such as renovating capital’s marketplace and airport; prisons and the judicial system; military faction activity; settlement of returnees; economic issues such as the use of bank notes; the roles of UNTAC components and provincial authorities in the elections; and the rapport between local police and Civilian Police.
Some records document control of the province’s agriculture. These include: daily logs of Civil Administration and Civilian Police investigations into illegal forestry, sent to the Director of Civil Administration and Civilian Police HQ; the UNTAC Forestry team’s report on the state of the province’s forests; and memoranda from the Provincial Director to the Provincial Coordinator about the province’s agriculture.
Records pertaining to the election consist of memoranda generated by the Provincial Director and Chief Electoral Officer, on: the return of registration cards taken from voters on the days of the election; training of IPSOs; use of billboards for political propaganda; and security for rallies and party offices.
Other records pertain to the Civilian Police. These include investigation reports sent from the Provincial Commander of the Civilian Police to Civilian Police HQ, and related letters of complaint and memoranda from the Complaints and Investigation Service and Human Rights Investigator. There are also reports on movements by warring factions. These were prepared by the provincial Civilian Police.
Civil Administration, Kampong Thom Province
The Civil Administration Headquarters in Kampong Thom Province was located in Kampong Thom City.
The records contain: a report dated September 1992 about UNTAC’s activities during the first six months of the mission; lists of names of local government officials; organization charts of local government offices and committees; security plans for the voter registration process in Kampong Thom Province; and briefs detailing the activities of the Financial Controller and about economic issues affecting Kampong Thom Province, such as the privatization of state-owned property and assets, and the management of the logging industry.
There are also: reports describing the activities of the Human Rights Officer; reports of inspections of prison; briefs and reports about the administration of justice in the province; and provisions relating to the judiciary and criminal law and procedure during the transitional period. Additionally, there are briefs, reports and directives issued by the Medical Branch about medical evacuation procedures, activities at UNTAC field hospitals, and malaria prevention.
Records of the Rehabilitation Component consist of descriptive overviews of rehabilitation projects proposed for Kampong Thom Province, such as the repair of roads and bridges, the extension of the health infrastructure in districts. There are also briefs about emergency food assistance to villages, and a survey about a camp for internally displaced persons located in the Prasath Balang District.
Additionally, there is a report on activities of the Cambodian Mine Action Centre (CMAC); briefs about UNTAC’s monitoring of the construction of a new market in Kampong Thom City; and briefs detailing UNTAC’s military operations in Sector 5 West (which encompassed Kampong Thom Province).
Civil Administration, Phnom Penh Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Phnom Penh Province was located in the provincial capital city of Phnom Penh.
The records primarily are from the Financial Control Service. These include memoranda issued by the Financial Controller, Director of Civil Administration, and Mayor of Phnom Penh, about such topics as foreign currency accounts, the penal code during the transitional period, and budgetary control procedures for the privatization of public property. The files also contain minutes for Coordination Meetings, notes on the operation of the municipal treasury, research on the State of Cambodia’s assets, draft budgets and legislation relating to the State of Cambodia, budget reports, and notes on daily briefings from the municipality of Phnom Penh. The daily briefings concern security, violations of electoral law, movement of warring factions, gun control legislation, public meetings, humanitarian aid provided by UNTAC, criminal incidents and arrests, distribution of electricity in Phnom Penh, and UNTAC’s oversight of the municipal government’s correspondence.
There are also meeting summaries and memoranda related to activities of UNTAC instruments and working groups staffed by Civil Administration personnel. These include the Control Team, which, in collaboration with Provincial Directors, visited provinces and met with representatives of the existing administrative structure (ESA) about issues such as public security. Also included are the Special Task Force on Public Order in Phnom Penh, made up of UNTAC staff and State of Cambodia authorities; and the Standing Committee on Public Security and Public Order, made up of UNTAC staff and municipal government representatives. These groups discussed crime rates, police training, prison crowding, complaints, robberies, and traffic control in the municipality. There are also minutes from Consultative Meetings between UNTAC, political parties represented in the new Constitutional Assembly, and representatives of the government during the transitional period after the elections. The minutes describe the collaborative work between political parties, and the handover of control from UNTAC and the previous government to the new government.
Information about public security can be found in: Mixed Committee weekly reports on robberies; prisoner lists from the Municipal Police Commissary; and security reports from the Cambodian People's Armed Forces (CPAF). In addition, memoranda between the Provincial Coordinator, the Complaints Officer, the Office of the Provincial Commander, and the Director of Civil Administration, concern illegal gambling in Phnom Penh, proposals for spot checking for illegal weapons in the street, and airport security.
Other records document people displaced by the secessionist movement in the eastern provinces after the elections, or who fled the provinces because of fear of political persecution. The records include statistics on displaced persons from the Supreme National Council, and from the political parties of the displaced persons, as well as memoranda between the Provincial Director and UNICEF, regarding aid.
In addition, there is information about evictions and squatters who illegally constructed houses on public land in Phnom Penh. The records consist of draft policies, circulars from the National Interim Government of Cambodia, summaries of meetings between the Interim Government and Prince Sihanouk, and minutes of ad hoc meetings held by UNTAC components and the municipality. There are also: memoranda from the Provincial Director to the Provincial Coordinator about eviction measures proposed by the municipal government; correspondence between the Provincial Director and the Mayor of Phnom Penh about terms of reference for a committee for human settlements; and a draft letter (dated 6 November 1992) from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) to Prime Minister of Cambodia Hun Sen about illegal construction.
Civil Administration, Kratie Province
The Civil Administration headquarters in Kratie Province was located in the provincial capital city of Kratie.
The records include weekly activity reports and summaries of meetings between UNTAC and provincial authorities about complaints, warring faction activity, security, and the political climate. Summaries of Coordination Meetings held between provincial representatives of Civil Administration and other UNTAC components describe UNTAC’s relations with provincial authorities, alleged violations of human rights and electoral law, economic activity, and rehabilitation and resettlement. In addition, procedures for UNTAC internal matters, such as provincial communication and Cambodian state matters such as immigration, are detailed in memoranda.
Records relating to the Cambodian justice system consist of draft legislation on topics including penal provisions during the transitional period, judiciary and criminal law, and freedom of assembly. The files also contain relevant reports from Civil Administration Services such as the Specialized Control Service.
The files also concern human rights monitoring in Kratie Province. These records include: memoranda generated by the Human Rights Officer about the treatment of prisoners, unlawful arrests and detention without a trial.; letters of complaint; and the Human Rights Component’s end of year report for 1992.
Records of the Rehabilitation Component describe collaboration with non-governmental organizations (NGO) and providing health assistance to the population. They consist of: summaries of Donors’ Consultative Group meetings about funding projects; project proposals; descriptive overviews of the United Nations Volunteers program and NGOs in Cambodia; reports on UNHCR and United Nations Development Program activities; needs assessments of the province by the World Food Program; and Civil Administration memoranda about returnees. The health-related records include Medical Branch working papers and informational circulars on health risks in the province and health project proposals. Memoranda between health-related NGOs, the Provincial Director, the Director of Civil Administration, Medical Branch staff, and Rehabilitation Component staff concern: the World Health Organization and Medical Branch’s attempts to combat the threat of bilharziosis (a parasitic disease); efforts to obtain doctors for the province; UNTAC’s donations of medicine to the local population; and Cambodian access to medical treatment.
There are also summaries and analyses prepared by the Information/Education Division about press conferences, public speeches, and radio and television broadcasts given by the State of Cambodia and representatives of political parties. Some of the topics discussed were: inflammatory defamation of political parties; violence and attacks against political party members; corruption and police brutality; transgressions of electoral law; anti-UNTAC sentiment in the media; the value of the riel; and activities of human rights organizations. In addition, there are summaries of field trips undertaken by officers of the Information/Education Division to various locations in Cambodia and to political party offices to monitor the peace process, to assess party platforms, and to note the perceptions of UNTAC in the population.
Human Rights Component
S-1881 contains subject files of the UNTAC Human Rights Component. The Human Rights Component endeavored to: encourage the Supreme National Council (SNC) of Cambodia to ratify relevant international human rights instruments; conduct an extensive campaign of human rights education; investigate allegations of human rights abuses; and exercise general oversight of human rights aspects of every component of UNTAC. The UNTAC Human Rights Component was headquartered in Phnom Penh and employed Provincial Human Rights Officers (PHRO) at the headquarters of the mission’s provincial offices.
The records of the Human Rights Component were produced by the Director of Human Rights and Provincial Human Rights Officers (PHRO), and primarily concern UNTAC-led human rights education initiatives and investigations of human rights abuses.
Memoranda, exchanged between Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Yasushi Akashi, Director of Human Rights Dennis McNamara, UNTAC staff, and Cambodian officials, concern: freedom of operation for Cambodian human rights groups; the independence of the judiciary; and the “UNTAC Fair Access Plan for Cambodia Campaign of 1993,” regarding fair journalistic coverage of political parties. There are yearly and final reports prepared by the Human Rights Component and the Provincial Human Rights Officers (PHRO). The reports summarize case investigations and relevant prosecution, human rights training, prison visits, activities of non-governmental organizations and political parties, and planning for the dissolution of UNTAC. There are also statistics and reports on the treatment, health, locations, and number of returnees, refugees, internally displaced persons, and Vietnamese living in Cambodia.
The administration of human rights case investigations is also documented. The minutes for meetings of the Action Committee, which convened representatives of the UNTAC components, detail proposals to the SRSG regarding specific cases of human rights violations. For example, the Committee could propose that the SRSG request: that the Cambodian existing administrative structures (EAS) conduct a particular investigation, that an administrative sanction be taken against an official, or that legal action be taken by the EAS. Prepared by the Special Prosecutor for the SRSG, a report dated 1 February 1993 focuses on the prosecution of cases. It is titled “Decision on the future of UN prosecutions of crimes involving human rights breaches during the transitional period.” In addition, memoranda and information circulars contain guidelines for reporting human rights violations.
Other records document training and initiatives in human rights. Agenda, reports, and invitations are included for the International Symposia on Human Rights in Cambodia. Hosted by UNTAC in 1992 and 1993, the symposia promoted understanding and support between international and regional human rights organizations, and Cambodian human rights groups. In addition, there are curricula, case studies, agenda, statistics, and evaluations of human rights training seminars. The seminars were held for Cambodian non-governmental organizations, Cambodian women’s groups, teachers, police, prison wardens, judges, prosecutors, and lawyers. There are also: minutes of meetings between the Human Rights Component and Cambodian non-governmental organizations about training priorities; radio and video scripts about human rights; radio and video interviews with Cambodian officials and UNTAC staff; and memoranda about the planning of educational and outreach initiatives. Human rights outreach initiatives included a human rights drawing contest and Human Rights Day celebrations.
The series also includes records of the United Nations Centre for Human Rights in Cambodia (UNCHR). These primarily relate to its establishment in 1993 by resolution 1993/6 of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. Additionally, there are records of Justice Michael Kirby, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Human Rights in Cambodia. These records consist of the SRSG’s reports to the General Assembly and the Commission on Human Rights, as well as State of Cambodia (SOC) officials’ comments on the reports. There is also correspondence sent from Justice Kirby to the King of Cambodia Norodom Sihanouk, bringing to his attention violations of human rights reported by the UNCHR and recommending responses.
Human Rights Component
S-1882 contains case files of human rights violations investigated by the UNTAC Human Rights Component in provincial villages and communes in Cambodia from 1992 to 1993. Files are arranged geographically by province. Case numbers are indicated on some documents.
The case files contain: intake sheets with basic facts about the incident and victim; correspondence between the Human Rights Component and Cambodian authorities about the case; handwritten notes drafted by Provincial Human Rights Officers (PHRO) about their observations; and reports about the incident generated by the UNTAC Civilian Police and then forwarded to the Human Rights Component. In addition, there are documents issued by Cambodian authorities, including government bodies, courts, and the police (often accompanied by English translations from Khmer); statements submitted by victims and witnesses, some with fingerprints serving as the legal signatures; photographs of the victims’ injuries and of the crime scene; hand-drawn sketches of the crime scene; case closure sheets; and final investigation reports.
The violations and incidents include: cruel, inhumane and degrading treatment; torture; shootings and murders; massacres; grenade throwing; rape; theft; illegal arrest, detention and imprisonment; destruction of property; false criminal accusations; disappearances; intimidation, harassment and death threats; police brutality; threats to freedom of speech and association; and land seizures by police and government agencies and land conflicts. Numerous investigations involve: violations against the ethnic Vietnamese population; politically-motivated crimes, including attacks against political party members and party office locations; and incidents occurring during the electoral campaign.
The files also contain information about prison investigations carried out by Provincial Human Rights Officers. These consist of: summaries of visits; lists of prisoners; briefs about cases; memoranda about incidents, such as escapes; and prisoner release forms.
The work of the United Nations Centre for Human Rights in Cambodia is also documented in several files. The Centre was established in February 1993 by resolution 1993/6 of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights. These records, dating 1993-1994, primarily consist of summaries of cases and correspondence with Cambodia authorities about them.
This series consists of mixed record types (documents, maps, brochures, photographs and posters) of the Interim Committee on Headquarters, which together describe the process leading to the selection of a permanent headquarters for the United Nations. Records of predecessor entities, including the Preparatory Commission, Executive Committee, Sub-Committee, Committee Eight (on General Questions) and Committee Ten (on General Questions) are also included. The Preparatory Commission was empowered to select a site for the permanent headquarters of the United Nations by the Interim Arrangements, signed 26 June 1945 in San Francisco, California, on the same occasion as the signing of the United Nations Charter. The Prepatory Commisssion established the Executive Committee, which formed ten committees, including Committee Eight and Committee Ten. A Sub-Committee appointed by Committee Eight created the Interim Committee on Headquarters in December 1945. An Inspection Group was subsequently tasked with visiting sites in the eastern United States that were approved by the Interim Committee on 28 December 1945.
Records in this series include summary reports, technical reports, recommendations and requirements, proposals, correspondence with officials and citizens, brochures, maps, photographs, posters and one photographic negative.
Please note the following inconsistencies relating to the dates of records in this series:
- Where earliest and/or latest dates are not supplied by the contents of a folder, the default dates given are 1 January 1945 to 31 December 1946, representing the period of the entire series, including the steps preceding the visit of the Inspection Group to the United States on 5 January 1946. However, in S-0532-0001-0004, the information release dated 4 January 1946 cites the process of selecting a permanent headquarters for the United Nations as tracing back to 26 June 1945, during the signing of the United Nations Charter. Therefore, the default dates of the series should more accurately be represented as 26 June 1945 to 31 December 1946.
- Earliest and latest dates noted in the series do not include the publication dates of maps, brochures and photographs in the series. However, in some cases, they do.
The following contents may be of particular interest for researchers; however, please note that records of note that are not supplied below are found throughout the series:
S-0532-0001-0004 (information release and extracts from reports describing background of project)
S-0532-0006-0001 (photo of meeting, uncaptioned)
S-0532-0010-0020 (working maps)
S-0532-0011-0001 (official vote for Manhattan-East River site)
S-0532-0011-0002 and 0003 (report, letters and drawings by Le Corbusier; some in fragile condition)
S-0532-0014-0004 (map - Districts Visited by the Inspection Group)
Series is the registry system of files kept by the Preparatory Commission in the course of consultative and administrative activities to prepare for the establishment of the United Nations. Some of the records date from a post-Preparatory Commission period (the Executive Secretary functioned as the Secretary-General of the United Nations from 11 January 1946; the Secretary-General was appointed 1 February 1946). Included are miscellaneous records of the Executive Committee, official records of the Preparatory Commission, administrative records relating to the establishment of the International Court of Justice, a few delegation files, early records of the Economic and Social Council (15 July 1945 - 16 Nov. 1945), early sub-committee records of the General Assembly of the United Nations (25 Apr. 1945 - 30 Jan. 1946), some correspondence with member state missions to the United Nations (2 Oct. 1945 - 15 Dec. 1945), General Assembly files relating to proposed sites for the United Nations Headquarters (14 Jan. 1945 - 30 Jan. 1946), a few League of Nations negotiation files (11 Sept. 1945 - 7 Jan. 1946), correspondence with the press, correspondence with libraries, and letter registers (24 Sept. 1945 - 14 Oct. 1946). Arranged in file classification number order, i.e., in the order cited above.
Series consists of records which supplemented those in the Registry filing system, and other particular types of records, such as Commission minutes, cables, and printed documents, in other words, chronological files, working papers, administrative files, and miscellaneous files. There is no particular sequence to the arrangement, but appears in this order: technical committee working papers, Sub-committee on Communications, Advisory Group of Expects (financial matters), Orders of the Day Office files, miscellaneous files, and at the end, the chronological files (1 Sept. 1945 to 30 Mar. 1946).