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Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), Office of the Under-Secretary-General (OUSG) (1992-present) Serie
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Mine Action

The title of S-1890 was drawn from the function series Mine Action (PKH.MIN) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1890 contains records documenting the administration and coordination of mine action activities by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO).

Included are memoranda of the DPKO’s Demining Expert and the Demining Unit, covering such topics as: job descriptions and recruitment for the Demining Unit, coordination between DPKO and the Department of Humanitarian Affairs in the area of mine clearance, and the procurement of technical expertise. There are also briefs issued by the Demining Unit on the landmine situation and clearance activities in specific countries and geographic areas, including Somalia, Sudan, Mozambique, the Libya/Chad border, and other areas. Additionally, there are summaries of meetings of the Working Group on Mine and Munitions Clearance (WGMC), which were attended by the Demining Expert. The WGMC was established in 1992 to coordinate demining activities across all United Nations departments and to develop a United Nations demining policies.

S-1890 also includes draft plans for mine clearance in Angola dating from 1994. The drafts outline the scope of the mine problem in Angola, and preparatory and implantation phases of clearance activities with the assistance of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II) and the Angola Mine Clearance Training Facility. Additionally, there are code cables and briefs documenting mine clearance operations conducted during the United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III). The briefs cover topics such as medical support for mine clearance, the mine threat in regional areas of Angola, and staffing and operations of the UNAVEM III Demining School.

Other records in S-1890 include: a reconnaissance report, dating from 1991, on minefield clearance in the United Nations Buffer Zone, prepared by Canadian forces in the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP); draft mine clearance plans for Rwanda dating from 1994; and a summary, dating from October 2000, of mine clearance statistics prepared by the Mine Action Coordination Centre (MACC), which operated in Pristina under the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK). A brief dating from c. 2005 on the United Nations Mine Action Office in Sudan covers the history of UN-assisted mine action clearance activities in Sudan, the objectives of the office, and the integration of the office with the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS).

Military - Planning, strategy - Analysis of current mission capacity

The title of S-1831 was drawn from the function series PKH.MIL004 from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1831 contains records documenting the planning for and analysis of deployed military capacity of peacekeeping operations, transition and exit operations in peacekeeping missions, and the liquidation of missions.

Records relating to deployment consist of plans of deployment phases; status and update reports of air, maritime and ground assets; strength reports; and memoranda and communications regarding a mission’s military reinforcement requirements. S-1831 also contains records relating to air operations in peacekeeping missions, and these document tasks and plans of mission air units; mission activities at airports and airfields; meetings between parties on the use of air power; and the procurement and utilization of helicopters by the mission. Also included are records pertaining to mission-specific operations of the United Nations Standby Force, and deployment of rapid reaction forces in specific missions and/or regions.

S-1831 also contains records pertaining to the expansion and reconfiguration of deployed missions. These include reports and memoranda analyzing options for the future presence of the mission and implications of different expansion scenarios. There are also plans for the disengagement of military operations in the mission area, outlines and briefs on the withdrawal of assets and personnel from the mission area, and technical documents relating to the liquidation of the mission.

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)

Records include: summaries of visits by the DPKO Planning Team to MINURSO in 1994 and 1995; papers describing the logistical concepts and implications of the repatriation and referendum phases of the mission; briefs and tables on the downsizing of the military component; and maps of Western Sahara depicting Force deployment. Records relating to the implementation plan of the settlement proposals put forth by the Secretary-General concern the military, logistics, and operational aspects of the plan, and they detail the deployment, transition, referendum, and post-referendum phases of the plan; composition and tasks of military units during phases; size and composition of disputing parties; operational time lines; and the operational environment. Records pertaining to air support in MINURSO include outlines describing air operations, including aerial surveillance and verification, transport of troops and Military Observers, and casualty evacuations; correspondence concerning flights over Algerian territory; memoranda on helicopter support; and maps depicting air deployment and landing points.

UNAVEM I, UNAVEM II, and UNAVEM III
Records concerning operations and logistics consist of monthly reports providing operational updates on activities in various regions in Angola; briefs on the composition, mission, and deployment of the Rapid Reaction Force; and outlines describing the downsizing, withdrawal, and liquidation of military forces. Weekly logistics reports and minutes of logistics implementation meetings cover deployment; supply and fuel stores; ground and air transport activities and transport equipment; infrastructure and engineering projects; and medical operations. There are also updates on the status of the UNAVEM III Implementation Plan and the state of readiness of UNAVEM III infantry units.

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
Records include maps produced by the Department of Public Information (DPI) of UNAMIR deployment throughout Rwanda from May 1994 to February 1996; a draft of the UNAMIR Operations and Support Instruction directives, which describes liquidation policies and procedures for all civilian and military elements of the mission; a brief on possible scenarios for the expansion of UNAMIR, dating from June 1994; and staff planning directives on liquidation, which include schedules and tasks. There are also executive summaries prepared by the DPKO Field Administration and Logistics Division (FALD), which note air, land, and naval movements and transport; medical, logistics, and engineering support; and drawdown and liquidation developments. Attached to the executive summaries are weekly logistics reports detailing procurement matters; ration requests; the status of service contracts; and communications support.

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
Records include summaries of security meetings; reports by the Chief of the Observer Group, Egypt (COGE) (an outstation); briefs on the streamlining of UNTSO operations; and briefs on political Islam and the peace process. Monthly reports on UNTSO military, political, and administrative activities sent to DPKO headquarters also describe strength levels and operational deficiencies; activities at UNDOF outstations; and activities of the Chief of Staff. Records relating to security describe unrest related to Palestinian rule in the Gaza Strip, beginning in 1994; fatalities caused by the occupying forces, and among the Israeli military staff and civilians; updates on hostages held in countries in the region; harassment and attacks against UNTSO and UN agency personnel; and violations of UN premises.

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
UNDOF records consists of reports on inspections carried out by UNDOF personnel in the Area of Limitation (AOL); UNDOF reports of violations in the Area of Separation (AOS); chronologies of military events in the UNDOF mission area; reports on battalion deployment; and summaries of meetings between the UNDOF Force Commander and government officials of the Syrian Arab Republic. Information summaries provide figures on military, civilian, and shepherd violations; ground and construction activity; air activity; and small arms fire. Periodic reports submitted to DPKO headquarters by the UNDOF Force Commander in Damascus note activities in the Syrian Golan, such as - inspections of the Area of Limitation (AOL); violations of the Agreement on Disengagement, signed 31 May 1974, in the Alpha Side and Bravo Side, such as shootings, overflights, and ground incursions; minefield activity; and patrolling.

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
Records consist of summaries of meetings between the UNIFIL Force Commander and Lebanese Army officials, and between the UNIFIL Force Commander and officials of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF); reports of incidents and statistics on clashes between the armed elements (AE) and the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and the de facto forces (DFF); summaries of changes in UNIFIL deployment; deployment maps; lists of positions of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF), the de facto forces (DFF), and the South Lebanon Army (SLA) in the UNIFIL area of interest; briefs on the reduction and streamlining of Force strength; memoranda on the operations of armoured personnel carriers (APC) in the UNIFIL mission area; and outlines and reviews of security arrangements.

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
UNIKOM records encompass weekly and monthly reports detailing ground and air monitoring of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), violations in the DMZ committed by Iraq and Kuwait, and UNIKOM’s investigations of Iraqi and Kuwaiti complaints; summaries of meetings between the UNIKOM officials and Iraqi officials from the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Foreign Affairs; and deployment maps. Briefs and memoranda are included, covering organization, composition, and deployment of UNIKOM; maritime capability of UNIKOM and the movement of Iraqi ships in the estuary Khawr ‘Abd Allah; UNIKOM’s use of ground surveillance radar; appointments to mission posts; and relations between UNIKOM and the Iraqi Border Police. There is also a Contingency Plan for the Reinforcement of UNIKOM dating from 1992, called Plan Locksmith, which was to be enacted in the event of threat to the security of UNIKOM personnel or property. Additionally, there is a plan for the liquidation and asset disposal of UNIKOM dated from 2003.

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
Records pertain largely to planning and expansion of the mission. They include summaries of DPKO-held meetings on planning and expansion, covering areas such as the concept of operations, and the need for personnel, equipment, and vehicles; summaries of meetings held between United Nations officials and Georgian and Abkhaz authorities on the expansion of UNOMIG; figures on the provision of Military Observers for the expansion of UNOMIG; and briefs on the participation in the operational aspects of UNOMIG by Member States, including the United States, Russia, and Cuba. In addition to these records, there are briefs and progress reports on deployment and operations of the Civilian Police; briefs on the relations between UNOMIG and the peacekeeping force of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); political addresses on the situation in Georgia made to the Security Council by Permanent Representatives; summaries of meetings held between United Nations officials and Russian officials on the Agreement on a Ceasefire and a Separation of Forces signed on 14 May 1994; and comments and analyses of the 14 May 1994 ceasefire agreement.

Haiti
Included are records pertaining to operations in several peacekeeping missions in Haiti, namely, the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH), the United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH), and the United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH). These records include outlines and tables detailing the medical support provided; outlines providing figures for adjustments in Force deployment, and on the Force structure of UNMIH; Force Operation Orders for UNMIH and UNSMIH detailing threats to the Government of Haiti (GOH) and to a secure and stable environment, plan tasks and execution, and the Force Commander’s intent; the UNTMIH Military Campaign Plan; assessments of the future of UNMIH and future peacebuilding activities in Haiti; and maps depicting developments in Force liquidation. Records on air operations in Haiti include code cables, briefs, and memoranda on the transport of non-UN personnel on UN aircraft, and Member States’ contributions of helicopters to the mission.

Additional records contained in S-1831 include: a briefing about the logistical requirements and capabilities of the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) dated 2 March 1993; briefs on the withdrawal and exit strategy for troops in the United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB); briefing papers about military contingency planning of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, particularly in Srebrenica and Tuzla; briefs on the strength and operational situation of the United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP); statistics and identifying information for aircraft in operation in the United Nations Military Observers in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) and in peacekeeping missions in the Middle East; and an Operation Order for the withdrawal of the Military Component of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC).

Legal - Legal agreements development and review

The title of S-1840 was drawn from the function series Legal (PKH.LEG) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

Records in S-1840 relate to DPKO headquarters and peacekeeping mission legal matters and agreements. The records primarily consist of mission-specific legal documents, including: Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs), Status of Mission Agreements (SOMAs), Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs), and Rules of Engagement (ROE). Also included are records relating to the development of agreements, and model agreements.

Status of Forces and Status of Mission Agreements between the United Nations and the governments of countries hosting peacekeeping missions address such areas as: the international status of the peacekeeping mission; civil and criminal jurisdiction of mission personnel; mission use of premises; freedom of movement and use of roads, airfields, and waterways by mission personnel; wearing of uniforms and civilian dress by mission personnel; possession and carrying of arms by mission personnel; travel by mission personnel to and from the host country; local recruitment of mission personnel; facilities for mission contractors; and privileges and immunities granted to mission personnel.

Also included are Memoranda of Understanding between the United Nations and mission host countries, as well as MOU between the United Nations and United Nations Member States. Memoranda of Understanding cover various topics, including: security of United Nations premises in the host country; provision of standby arrangements by Member States; transport of personnel, logistical supplies, and equipment through Member State territories; mission support provided to judicial, police, and electoral institutions in the host country; relations between the mission and countries neighbouring the host country; cost-sharing; and relations between DPKO and United Nations agencies with regard to mission operations. There are also Letters of Assist (LOA) in which Member States and host countries agree to provide a peacekeeping mission with support, such as equipment and transportation. Other legal agreements included cover such topics as: expansion of the mission mandate; temporary ceasefire and cessation of hostilities between parties in conflict; establishment of mission liaison offices; and the contribution of equipment and personnel to a mission.

Rules of Engagement (ROE) provided specific guidance on the use of force within the mission area to military commanders at all levels of a peacekeeping mission. They also address the use and carriage of weapons, and civil actions permitted by military personnel in the mission area. Procedures on warning, firing, search, and apprehension are also detailed.

The files also contain drafts, revisions, and amendments to legal documents; briefs and correspondence from the Legal Counsel and the Office of Legal Affairs detailing opinions on mission-related matters; correspondence with Members States regarding the development and review of legal agreements for peacekeeping operations; and code cables exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and Special Representatives of the Secretary General (SRSG). In addition, the files contain records relating to mission use of host country property and premises, such as: lease agreements; and memoranda concerning rental fees, property condition and damage.

Security

The title of S-1888 was drawn from the function series Safety Management (PKH.SAF), Security Management (PKH.SEC), and Security Sector Reform (PKH.SSR) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

Records primarily consist of memoranda, code cables, and reports on: security incidents, such as seizure of weapons from mission troops, attacks on mission troops and personnel, and violations of mission freedom of movement; health and safety issues, such as control of infectious diseases; and assessments of the security situation in mission areas of responsibility, based on military activity, criminality, civil disobedience, availability of arms, socio-economic factors, and effectiveness of law enforcement institutions. Also present are mission-specific security plans. There are also DPKO-produced standard operating procedures, “Headquarters Crisis Response in Support of DPKO-led Field Missions,” and “Crisis Management in DPKO-led Missions.” The SOPs outline procedures concerning basic and complex crisis response and the responsibilities of DPKO senior management to crisis situations.

There are also memoranda, code cables, and reports related to hostage crises. These are accompanied by lists of hostages giving information such as their locations and nationalities. There are also records concerning the May 2000 hostage-taking of approximately 500 United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) personnel by the Revolutionary United Front (RUF); these detail the participation of President of Liberia Charles Taylor in the hostage negotiations, and give updates on the security situation and military activity in locations where hostages were held.

One file focuses on the Special Battalion for Security in the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT), an integrated Tajik Government / United Tajik Opposition (UTO) military unit that was established to provide security for United Nations personnel. The file contains: a training program for the battalion, memoranda on recruiting battalion trainers from Member States, and rules and regulations for the battalion.

Law enforcement

The title of S-1884 was drawn from the function series Law Enforcement (PKH.LAE) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1884 contains records documenting the provision and management of police activities in peacekeeping missions, as well as support for and reform of the host country’s institutional police capacity.

Records consist of code cables, memoranda, briefs, and internal notes covering a variety of topics, including: the activities, drawdown and phasing out of Civilian Police; outlines and concept of operations for mission police activities; training and activities for the reform of national police agencies; debriefing of the Police Commissioner at DPKO headquarters; and the role of the mission police component in mandate implementation. Also included are mission-produced concept papers for policing initiatives.

Included are guidelines for Civilian Police on assignment in the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH).
There are also reports, dating from 2006, about DPKO’s policy on the reform, restructuring and rebuilding of local police and law enforcement agencies; and on internal evaluations of mission police components.

Human rights

The title of S-1886 was drawn from the function series Human Rights (PKH.HRT) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1886 contains records documenting the administration and coordination of human rights activities in peacekeeping missions.

The records include daily reports of the Human Rights Division of the United Nations Operations in Burundi (ONUB), which cover: the activities of Human Rights Officers (HROs); the administration of justice and developments of major trials observed by Division officials; major incidents of alleged abuse by the police and by the Forces de défense nationale (FDN), killings and arbitrary executions, sexual violence, local crime; prison visits; and human rights protection capacity-building activities. Also included are two reports prepared by the ONUB Human Rights Division about the human rights situation in Burundi, which cover the period from June 2004 to May 2005.

Other records include: memoranda and letters about the coordination of the High Commissioner for Human Rights with the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH); and a speech delivered by Mary Robinson, High Commissioner for Human Rights, at the International Symposium on Strengthening Human Rights Field Operations, held in Bonn on 26-27 May 1998. There are also records documenting the activities of the Committee on Mission Persons (CMP), of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) from 1992 to 1999. The CMP records primarily concern the effectiveness and administration of the Committee, and an audit of the Committee completed in April 1996.

Humanitarian affairs

The title of S-1887 was drawn from the function series Humanitarian Affairs (PKH.HUM) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1887 contains records relating to the administration and coordination of humanitarian activities in peacekeeping operations, including the provision of assistance to victims of war and natural disasters.

Records consist of code cables, memoranda, briefs, and internal notes about the humanitarian and refugee situation in several African countries, namely the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Burundi, and Sierra Leone. These records cover a variety of topics, including: mission and government responses to refugee crises; DPKO coordination with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); and statistics on the number of refugees and food aid distribution.

Some records document the Mission on Detainees undertaken in September 1989 by Ambassador B. A. Clark, a representative of the United Nations Transitional Assistance Group (UNTAG), during the operation of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I). The Clark mission sought to determine the status of Namibians allegedly being detained in Angola and Zambia by the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO).

Additionally, there is a report, dated August 1991, by the United Nations Border Relief Operation (UNBRO). UNBRO established in 1982 to provide material and protection assistance to Cambodian displaced persons at the border between Cambodia and Thailand. S-1887 also includes “Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Action,” a speech by Kofi Annan, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, delivered in October 1993.

Political Affairs - Coordination, partnership - Discussion and negotiation

The title of S-1833 was drawn from the function category Political Affairs (PKH.POL) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS). Records primarily fall under PKH.POL004, PKH.POL005, and PKH.POL006, and PKH.POL008.

Records contained in S-1833 document negotiations conducted by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping on conflict in peacekeeping mission host countries, fulfilment of mission mandates, and the support of peacekeeping missions from Member States. Records also document the DPKO’s role in advising and contributing to the Secretary-General’s negotiations on peacekeeping matters. Also contained in S-1833 are records documenting developments in peacekeeping operations as reported by the Secretary-General to the Security Council.

S-1833 also includes weekly reports on mission operations produced by the DPKO Situation Centre for the Secretary-General (these reports exclude press or outside agency coverage of the mission). Documented also are visits to peacekeeping mission areas undertaken by DPKO officials, the Secretary-General, and other United Nations officials. Files pertaining to visits include visit programmes and itineraries; briefs on key issues prepared for visiting officials; summaries of meetings; and reports of visits.

Included in S-1833 are talking points prepared by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping for the Secretary-General’s meetings and telephone conversations with heads of state, foreign ministers, ministers of defence, foreign dignitaries, ambassadors, Permanent Representatives of Member States; as well as representatives of international organizations and non-governmental organizations. There are also briefs for the Secretary-General’s meetings and trips. Additionally, there are notes for the file summarizing the Secretary-General’s meetings and telephone conversations. The files also contain briefings on peacekeeping operations delivered by the Secretary-General to the Security Council. The Secretary-General’s meetings cover mission operations; contributions to missions; political developments and elections in countries; troop developments in national civil, judicial, police institutions in countries; views of the international community on the peace process; and UN/Member State relations. These files are arranged alphabetically by country.

Mission-specific files in S-1833 contain timetables and calendars for the implementation of peace agreements, and reports detailing phases of the peace process; and briefs and reports on issues pertaining to peace agreements, such as constitutional reform, ceasefire and human rights monitoring, the reintegration of ex-combatants, demobilization and weapons destruction, the release of prisoners of war, and the return of refugees and displaced persons. There are also code cables, reports, and figures on the work of monitoring and verification bodies enacted by peace agreements, such as the Commission on the Truth for El Salvador, and the Identification Commission, which was active during the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO).

In addition, the mission-specific files contain notes for the file authored by DPKO staff about political developments in mission host countries; notes and briefs exchanged between DPKO staff and Executive Office of the Secretary-General; letters between the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council about major developments in the peace process in mission host countries and conflict areas; notes for the file describing consultations of the Security Council on mission developments; and draft reports by the Secretary-General to the Security Council about recent developments in peacekeeping missions and the status of compliance with peace agreements.

Mission and Region-Specific Files

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO
Records pertaining to MINURSO include: summaries of negotiations attended by James Baker, the Special Envoy for the Secretary-General for Western Sahara, on the peace settlement; briefs on legal, economic, and regional perspectives of the conflict; analyses on the way ahead options for action; analyses of the process of identifying members of tribal groups for participation in the Referendum; notes to the Secretary-General; letters to the Secretary-General from foreign dignitaries; and briefs on the implications of the Paris-Dakar Rally crossing through the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Also included is a country brief prepared by the DPKO Situation Centre which provides a general overview of the political and military conflict and of MINURSO operations.

United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)

Records related to the electoral monitoring conducted by UNAMSIL consist of: the report of the Electoral Assistance Needs Assessment Mission to Sierra Leone conducted in May 2001; the UNASMIL Operational Plan for the presidential and parliamentary elections scheduled to be held on 14 May 2002; memoranda describing the political and institutional context of the elections; and memoranda on the Sierra Leone electoral process as described by the National Electoral Commission.

Congo-Brazzaville and African Great Lakes
There are also notes for the file, analyses, and briefs about political developments, the security situation, and the humanitarian needs in Congo-Brazzaville. In addition, there are: consultations of the Security Council on Congo-Brazzaville, outlines for a potential UN peacekeeping presence in the region, and summaries of meetings with potential troop contributors. Records related to the African Great Lakes Region consist of briefings to the Security Council, and daily notes for the Secretary-General about political developments in the region, activities of the Great Lakes Task Force, and humanitarian and refugee activities.

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
Records related to UNAMIR include: Situation Centre Information Digests gathered from commercial and academic media sources covering the regional political outlook and economic and infrastructure development in Rwanda; claims by the Government of Rwanda against UNAMIR for failing to protect citizens’ lives during the chaos of the genocide and the withdrawal of UNAMIR forces; and reports of security assessment missions conducted in November 1995 by the United Nations Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD) of the International Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha, Tanzania, and of the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) in Kigali, Rwanda. There are also memoranda concerning the Kibeho Massacre, which occurred in a camp for internally displaced persons near Kibeho, in south-west Rwanda on April 22, 1995.

Rwanda Updates (memoranda provided by Member States to the Situation Centre) report on activities in UNAMIR, such as: insurgent and bandit activities against civilians, the Rwandan government, and military forces; activities of ex-members of the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR); activities of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA); activities of non-governmental organizations and foreign aid agencies; security and living conditions in refugee camps; figures on the population and ethnic makeup of displaced persons at refugees camps; refugee activity in Burundi; mass repatriation of Rwandan nationals; tensions and incidents along Rwandan borders with Zaire, Tanzania, and Burundi; and discord between UN and Rwandan forces.

Burundi
Included are records relating to the peace process in Burundi in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These records consist of: communications and memoranda related to the United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB); analyses produced by DPKO’s Africa Division about the political and security climate in Burundi; statements about the situation in Burundi delivered to the Security Council; country analyses of Burundi; outlines on negotiation for a ceasefire agreement for Burundi; and briefs about humanitarian developments in Burundi. There is also report titled “Political and Strategic Appraisal of the Situation in Burundi,” December 2003, prepared by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Burundi of the United Nations Office in Burundi (UNOB).

UNAVEM I and UNAVEM II
There are records documenting Secretary-General’s negotiations on the Angola peace process in the late 1980s through the 1990s, and of the operations of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I) and the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II). Notes of the Secretary-General’s meetings with the President of Angola José Eduardo dos Santos are present, as well as letters they exchanged. Memoranda concern the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola, Angola’s relations with Namibia and South Africa, presidential and parliamentary elections in Angola in September 1992, and other topics.

Angola Updates (memoranda provided by Member States to the Situation Centre) report on activities in the United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III), including: political steps and manoeuvres in the Angolan peace process; conditions in quartering areas and the troop quartering process; and developments in military discussions between the Government of Angola and leaders of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).

Sudan
Records pertaining to Sudan include briefing notes to the Secretary-General and high-level DPKO personnel regarding: recent military and operational developments in Darfur; International Criminal Court investigations in Darfur; rounds of the Inter-Sudanese Peace Talks on Darfur, held in various locations from 2003 to 2006; assessments of peacekeeping requirements in Sudan; the establishment and progress of the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), as well as its coordination with the United Nations; meetings between high-level DPKO personnel and Sudanese politicians; demining; and violence against women.

Chronological files on Sudan contain: summaries of Meetings of Experts on Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Sudan, held by the African Union from 5-6 December 2005; talking points for high-level meetings between the Secretary-General and politicians such as the President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir; statements by United Nations Member State representatives on the financing, establishment, and progress of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS); summaries of meetings of the United Nations Interdepartmental Task Force on the Sudan, which concern the Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (IGADD) Peace Process and obstacles to humanitarian work in Darfur; and a Sudan Task Matrix defining the responsibilities of the United Nations and other entities in the Sudanese peace process. Also present are memoranda, articles, and copies of protocols relating to the Abuja Agreement signed on 5 May 2006 and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), a set of agreements signed between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan.

United Nations Protections Force (UNPROFOR)

Files related to UNPROFOR contain memoranda and notes exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and high-level UNPROFOR staff on issues relating to the implementation of the Vance-Owen Plan in the early 1990s. These issues include: military aspects of implementation; meetings between Cyrus Vance, David Owen, and UNPROFOR staff; views of Member States; logistical planning; and UNPROFOR mandate negotiations. There are also memoranda concerning coordination between UNPROFOR and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The memoranda detail meetings between UNPROFOR and NATO officials such as the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe Exercise conference (SHAPEX) and informal meetings with the Chiefs of Defence Staff from NATO troop contributing countries. There are also position papers on strengthening UNPROFOR prepared by NATO troop contributing countries.

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
Records pertaining to UNOMIG consist of: informal consultations of the Security Council on developments in Georgia and on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia; memoranda summarizing demarches of the Friends of Georgia (FOG), a group of Member State representatives and UN officials; and notes for the file. Notes for the file cover such topics as: the future status of Abkhazia and negotiations between Georgia and Abkhazia; living conditions in Tbilisi, Georgia, and the location of the UNOMIG headquarters; humanitarian aid operations in Georgia, including aid to Tkvarcheli, Abkhazia; the approach of the Russian Federation in peacekeeping in Georgia; contributions to UNOMIG from Member States; and telephone conversations between DPKO officials and UNOMIG military leaders.

The UNOMIG files also contain: notes for the file describing visits of the Secretary-General and DPKO and DPA officials to Moscow, Georgia, and Tajikistan; notes for the file on political developments concerning the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, a landlocked region in Azerbaijan with a majority ethnic Armenian population; briefs on military and political developments among countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); and transcripts of news conferences on the Georgian conflict.

United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
UNGOMAP was mandated to monitor the implementation of the Agreements on the Settlement of the Situation Relating to Afghanistan, also known as the Geneva Accords, signed 14 April 1988 between the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The records consist of note verbale submitted to UNGOMAP officials by the parties to the agreement describing violations of the Accords. Also included are reports by UNGOMAP officials of their investigations of alleged violations. The alleged violations occurred in provinces along the Afghan-Pakistani border, and include: the operation of military training camps for extremists; explosions of bombs and rocket attacks; civilian discoveries of caches of arms and explosives, and unexploded bombs and rocket missiles; the transportation of arms and ammunition across the border; the distribution of weapons to local tribal groups; intrusion into parties’ airspace; Pakistanis’ prevention of the voluntary repatriation of Afghan refugees; and the broadcasting of political propaganda. The investigation reports include photographs, hand-drawn sketches of the scene of the incident, witness statements, information about fatalities and casualties, and maps depicting incident locations.

United Nations Observer Mission in Bougainville (UNOMB)
Files pertaining to UNOMB, which was headquartered in Arawa, Papua New Guinea, consist of: working papers, analyses, communiques, and records of understanding related to the peace and ceasefire process between the Government of Papua New Guinea and leaders of the island of Bougainville; minutes of ceasefire anniversary celebration ceremonies; funding requests for reconciliation ceremonies between clans; briefs on weapons hand-in and disposal activities; and memoranda and correspondence of Noel Sinclair, the Director of UNOMB.

United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
Notes for the file cover: meetings between United Nations officials and Ambassadors on MINUGUA operations; functions and activities of the Guatemalan Assembly of Civil Society; anti-narcotics operations in Guatemala; and MINUGUA’s electoral assistance and results of elections. There are also summaries of meetings of the Group of Friends of the Guatemalan Peace Process attended by United Nations officials and government representatives. Also included are presentations, briefings, and outlines of MINUGUA operations related to a visit undertaken from 15-18 May 1997 of the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping to MINUGUA headquarters.

United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)
Notes for the file cover: contributions to ONUSAL by troop-contributing countries; reductions to ONUSAL’ s Military Observer strength; consultations of the Security Council on ONUSAL operations; assassinations of high profile Salvadorans; relations between El Salvador and Honduras with regard to land pockets (bolsones). Also included are: talking points about ONUSAL and the Central American peace process for the Secretary-General’s meetings of the Four Friends; report, forms, and lists documenting technical assistance provided by ONUSAL for the Salvadoran general election in 1994; progress reports of the ONUSAL Electoral Division; and DPKO Situation Centre reports on ONUSAL operations.

Haiti
S-1833 also includes records pertaining to the International Civilian Mission in Haiti (MICIVIH), the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), and the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH). Document types consist of notes for the file, correspondence, memoranda, analyses, discussion papers, and talking points.

Topics covered in the Haiti-related records include: the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping missions in Haiti; strength of the military force and Civilian Police; UN observation of the Haitian elections; environmental conditions in mission areas; public information activities of Haiti missions; appointments to mission posts; contributions by Member States to Haiti missions; the Haitian refugee crisis and Haitians’ right to asylum; the state of democracy and human rights protection in Haiti; assistance to Haiti provided by the international community; cooperation between the United Nations and the Organization of American States (OAS); the Governors Island Agreement signed in July 1993; and relations between the United Nations and the United States on the operation of Haiti missions. Informal consultations of the Security Council on Haiti missions are also included.

Additional Haiti-related records include: summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; summaries of meetings of the Friends of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the Question of Haiti; summaries of meetings by members of the Security Council and governments contributing military and police personnel to Haiti missions; talking points and briefings of the Secretary-General’s meeting with heads of governments of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM); summaries of meetings between representatives of Haiti, the United Nations, and the United States; and summaries of United Nations interagency meetings on Haiti. The Haiti Updates relate to United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) and were issued by the DPKO Situation Centre. They describe: the general security situation in Port-au-Prince (PAP) and other locations in Haiti; incidents of vigilante justice and actions of street gangs; activities of the Haitian National Police (HNP); mass demonstrations; activities of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; political developments in local governments; developments related to elections; and economic development and improvements in the standard of living in Haiti.

Management and Integration - Reporting to United Nations Headquarters

The title of S-1829 was drawn from the function series PKH.MAT002 “Management and Integration – Reporting to UNHQ” from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1829 consists of code cables and clear cables exchanged between peacekeeping mission headquarters in the field and Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters, and situation reports sent from peacekeeping mission headquarters to Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters on a daily and weekly basis. Monthly reports sent from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) or Head of Mission (HoM) to Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters are also included.

Additionally, S-1829 contains a collection of end of mission reports, end of tour of duty reports, and debriefings of Heads of Missions, Force Commanders, Police Commissioners, and other high-ranking personnel deployed in the peacekeeping missions. Often written in the first person, the reports contain a wide variety of information about the missions, including: political and military background about specific conflicts; mission mandates and concepts of operations; functions of the missions’ components and offices; the history of mandate fulfilment in the mission; the achievements of the mission component or office under the command of the reporting staff; firsthand experiences of staff; difficulties and setbacks encountered in discharging duties and responsibilities; lessons learned about the mission; inter-mission relations; recommendations on policy, management, mission structure, and operations; the exit strategy for the mission; and the way ahead for the United Nations in the region.

Included in S-1829 are code cables and situation reports for the following peacekeeping missions and field offices:

United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I)

United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II)
United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III)
United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA)
United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS)
United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL)
United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)
United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL)
United Nations Peace-Building Support Office in Liberia (UNOL)
United Nations Mission in Côte d’Ivoire (MINUCI)
Opération des Nations Unies en Côte d'Ivoire (ONUCI)
United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)
United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)
United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)
United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB)
United Nations Office in Burundi (UNOB)
United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)
United Nations Operations in Somalia I (UNOSOM I)
United Nations Operations in Somalia II (UNOSOM II)
United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS)
United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
United Nations Office of the Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq (UNOHCI)
United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI)
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process (UNSCO)
United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
United Nations Military Liaison Officers-Yugoslavia (UNMLO-Y)
United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Zagreb
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Belgrade
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Skopje
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Tirana
United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF)
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)
United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
Office of the Secretary-General in Afghanistan and Pakistan (OSGAP)
Office of the Secretary-General to Afghanistan (OSGA)
United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA)
United Nations Special Mission to Afghanistan (UNSMA)
United Nations Military Observer Group in India & Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)
United Nations Mission in East Timor (UNAMET)
United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)
United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET)
United Nations Office in East Timor (UNOTIL)
United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)
United Nations Mission in El Salvador (MINUSAL)
United Nations Support Unit in El Salvador
United Nations Verification Office in El Salvador (ONUV)
United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
Mission Civile Internationale en Haïti (MICIVIH), OEA/ONU
United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH)
United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH)

United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH)
United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)

United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II)
United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III)
Clear cables and code cables consist of: summaries of visits of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) Military Adviser Major General Van Kappen to UNAMVEM III; summaries of meetings between the SRSG and the President of Angola Jose Eduardo dos Santos; updates on the freeing of prisoners by the Government of Angola registered with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); updates on the induction of troops of the Forcas Armadas Angolanas (FAA) into the Quartering Areas; summaries of meetings among members of the Security Council and representatives of troop-contributing countries, and statements delivered at these meetings; papers on the special status of the president of UNITA, as granted by the Lusaka Protocol; and transcripts of the SRSG’s press conferences. There are also memoranda and reports covering such topics as: the collection of weapons handed over by UNITA to United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM); the transformation of the UNITA radio station “Vorgan” into a non-partisan station; the condition of roads in Angola; the methodology for the extension of state administration; the repatriation of mercenaries; and the extension of the mission mandate.

Daily situation reports provide updates on topics such as: the free circulation of people and goods in both Government- and UNITA-controlled areas; the appointments of government ministers and leadership changes occurring in UNITA; the extension of state administration; the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol; activities at the demining school in Viana; discoveries of mass graves; and military activities in the Eastern, Central, Northern, Southern, North Eastern, South Eastern regions of Angola. Situation reports note the SRSG’s meetings with: the Joint Commission, consisting of representatives of the Government of Angola, UNITA, and the Observer States (the Russian Federation, the United States, and Portugal); Dr. Jonas Savimbi, the president of UNITA, at the headquarters of UNITA in Bailundo; representatives of United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations; and heads of UNAVEM components. Daily situation reports also note incidents reported by the Civilian Police and allegedly carried out by elements of UNITA and FAA, such as: armed attacks against civilians by UNITA elements; the ambushing of vehicles by armed bandits; kidnappings and abductions; arson carried out against homes in villages; the mounting of road blocks; landmine explosions; the forced conscription of young men into UNITA forces; the unlawful arrest and detention of civilians; and cattle theft.

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
Code cables consist of: correspondence and communiqués exchanged between representatives of the POLISARIO Front and the SRSG; summaries of Security Council consultations; assessments by the Force Commander on the current situation in Western Sahara; correspondence and memoranda describing the Identification Commission and its work; memoranda describing logistics support provided to the mission; memoranda and notes about the establishment and living conditions of refugee camps, and on the movements of Saharawi people within the territory; memoranda on the release of Moroccan prisoners of war by the Frente POLISARIO.

In addition, code cables consist of: summaries of the meetings held by the Force Commander and the SRSG with POLISARIO Front authorities, and with authorities of the Royal Moroccan Army (RMA); summaries of meetings between officials of the United Nations Office of Special Political Affairs (OSPA) and United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) officials during their visit to United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) in January 1992; and summaries of meetings between POLISARIO Front representatives and United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) officials held at the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) Liaison Office in Tindouf, Algeria.

Code cables exchanged between the SRSG and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping include memoranda about a variety of subjects, including: negotiations about the Baker Plan and the resignation of Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General James A. Baker III; the development of confidence-building measures such as family visits exchanged between Saharawi refugees and their relatives living in Moroccan-held territories; demonstrations by pro-POLISARIO Front non-governmental organizations at the Moroccan Wall, which divides Moroccan-controlled and POLISARIO Front-controlled areas; and illegal immigration routes through Western Sahara to Morocco and Europe.

Daily and weekly situation reports detail: relations between the SRSG and Moroccan, Algerian, and Mauritanian government officials; violations of the ceasefire allegedly committed by the Frente POLISARIO and by the Royal Moroccan Army; visits by the Force Commander to the North and South Sectors; the manning of Observation Posts; and activities of Team Sites in the North and South Sectors. Also noted in situation reports are activities of the Identification Commission, which was established by the mission in 1994 to identify potential voters for participation in the referendum on the future sovereignty of the territory. Notes about operations carried out at Identification Centers detail: daily and weekly volume of voters identified; and the Saharawi tribes, fractions, and subfractions participating in the identification process.

United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS)
Code cables forwarded to Department of Political Affairs (DPA) from the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS), consist of: summaries of meetings and telephone conversations between the SRSG and Bissau-Guinean political officials, including the former president João Bernardo “Nino” Vieira, former President Kumba Yalá, and Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Júnior; letters exchanged between the Secretary-General Kofi Annan and the President of Guinea-Bissau Henrique Pereira Rosa; memoranda noting visits of heads of state of neighbouring West African countries; the activities of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC); and briefs about the legislative elections held 28 March 2004 and the presidential elections held 19 June 2005. There are also memoranda and briefs on: the UNOGBIS mandate; elections of individuals to the Supreme Court; and the activities of the Transitional Government in 2003 and 2004. Notable records include: the End of Mission Report prepared by David Stephen, Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) in Guinea-Bissau, dated 16 April 2004; the report of the Multidisciplinary Review Mission requested by the Security Council and dispatched to Guinea-Bissau during 12-17 February 2005; and the report of the End of Mission of the Special Envoy for Guinea-Bissau, dated 1 August 2005.

United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)
Included among code cables are: summaries of meetings conducted by the SRSG, including with the President of Sierra Leone Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, and with General Issa Sesay, a commander in the Revolutionary United Front (RUF); summaries of meetings of the High-Level Contact Group held between officials of the Government of Sierra Leone (GOSL) and UNAMSIL officials; summaries of Police Steering Committee meetings held between members of the Sierra Leone Police, the Commonwealth Community Safety and Security Project, and UNAMSIL; summaries of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Donor Coordination meetings held between embassy officials, UNDP staff, UNAMSIL staff, and representatives of the European Union and the World Bank; reports about liquidation and the transition to the United Nations Integrated Office in Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL); and periodic reports by the United Nations Assessment Team on the progress of UNAMSIL. The end of mission reports of the Police Commissioner and Force Commander are also found in the code cables.

In addition, the UNAMSIL code cables contain: consultations of the Security Council about the situation in Sierra Leone; draft reports of the Secretary-General on United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) for the Security Council; analyses of the general elections of 1996 and 2002, the local government elections of 2004, and the presidential and parliamentary elections of 2007; analyses of Paramount Chieftaincy elections; analyses on the reform of Sierra Leon’s National Electoral Commission and Political Parties Registration Commission; profiles of political parties; briefs on the diamond mining trade in Sierra Leone, regulation measures enacted by the GOSL on the diamond mining trade, and implementation of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme for diamonds; weekly assessments of the demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants into civil society; statistics on child soldiers; briefs about the protection of civilians in armed conflict; and briefs on the facilitation the repatriation of refugees.

There are also monthly reports prepared by the UNAMSIL Human Rights Section, which detail: activities of the Sierra Leonean judiciary and the Special Court for Sierra Leone, including trials of President of Liberia Charles Taylor and prominent members of the Civil Defence Forces (CDF), Revolutionary United Front (RUF), and Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC); the mission’s monitoring of police stations; conditions in prisons and internment centers; developments in cases of human rights violations being monitored; investigations of mass graves conducted by forensic experts; activities of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission; training in human rights awareness provided to civilians and local police; statistics concerning refugee movements and humanitarian needs. Monthly reports by the Child Protection Adviser detail: training in child protection and child rights for mission personnel; updates on strengthening child protection measures in Sierra Leonean civil society; the reintegration of child ex-combatants and children separated from their families and communities; child trafficking; and issues concerning street children and refugee children.

Additional code cables, including monthly and daily situation reports, detail topics such as: relations between the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) and the Sierra Leone Police; amputee rights; alleged violations of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora by UNAMSIL staff; the border dispute between Guinea and Sierra Leone over the town of Yenga; and youth unrest.

United Nations Peace-Building Support Office in Liberia (UNOL)
Code cables consist of: letters exchanged between the President of Liberia Charles Taylor and the Secretary-General, and letters exchanged between President Charles Taylor and the President of the Security Council; summaries of meetings between the SRSG and Liberian government ministers; analyses of activities of the Government of Liberia (GOL); text of President Charles Taylor’s addresses to the national legislature and to the nation; position statements of political parties and non-governmental organizations; comments and analyses of the UNOL mandate; annual reports on UNOL and overviews of its objectives; meeting summaries and reports about the Mano River Union, a regional economic union which during the mandate of UNOL comprised representatives of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea; updates on UNOL’s weapons disposal program; briefs on border hostilities and tensions between Guinea and Liberia; and security briefs on activities of insurgents representing the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), a rebel group that sought to remove the Taylor government.

United Nations Mission in Côte d'Ivoire (MINUCI)
Code cables consist of: briefs on activities of the Monitoring Committee, and on the implementation of the Linas-Marcoussis Agreement, signed on 23 January 2003; briefs for the Security Council on the situation in Cote d’Ivoire, describing developments affecting the political climate and activities of the SRSG in promoting the peace dialogue; briefs describing the Ivorian conflict and the challenges faced by the country in transitioning from a one-party state and patriarchal regime to a multi-party constitutional and democratic system; memoranda on demonstrations and incidents of small arms and machete violence resulting in the killing and injuring of civilians; and briefs on staffing and deployment. Additionally, there are summaries of meetings between MINUCI officials and leaders of FANCI (Forces Armée Nationales of Côte d'Ivoire), and summaries of meetings between the SRSG and: the president of Côte d'Ivoire Laurent Gbagbo; the Ivorian Prime Minister Seydou Diarra (May - October 2000); and heads of state of West African countries.

United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (ONUCI)
Code cables consist of: briefs on the security situation in the Zone of Confidence (ZOC), a buffer zone established between the Ivorian government and rebel groups, and patrolled by Opération des Nations Unies en Côte d'Ivoire (ONUCI) peacekeepers; reports by the Tripartite Monitoring Group, which detail major developments in the peace process in Cote d'Ivoire (the Tripartite Monitoring Group was established by the Accra III Agreement of 30 July 2004); updates on political and military developments for Security Council consultations on Cote d’Ivoire; reports on human rights violations in Cote d'Ivoire, including reports on incidents in Bouaké and reports by the Fact-Finding Mission on Human Rights Violations in Korhogo; briefs relating to the mediation effort led by the African Union and South African President Thabo Mbeki, which culminated in the Pretoria Agreement, signed on 6 April 2005; Media Monitoring Reports; briefs on the status of disarmament, dembilization, and reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants in Cote d'Ivoire; and briefs and memoranda on the activities of militia groups in Cote d’Ivoire, and on the Young Patriots, a youth movement supportive of Gbabo and his ruling Ivorian Popular Front party. There are also summaries of meetings between the SRSG and: the President of Cote d'Ivoire Laurent Gbagbo; the Prime Minister of Cote d'Ivoire Charles Konan Banny (2005-2007); leaders of the Forces Nouvelles; and heads of state of neigboring countries, including Burkina Faso, Niger, and Senegal.

United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)
Code cables consist of: summaries of meetings of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General’s (SRSG) with the President of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Joseph Kabila; summaries of meetings of the SRSG with heads of state of countries neighboring the DRC, including the President of Rwanda Paul Kagame and the President of South Africa Thabo Mbeki; summaries of meetings of the Force Commander with the Minister of Defence of the DRC; outlines of the political, military, security, and humanitarian strategies of MONUC in the Ituri region and the eastern provinces; memoranda related to the activities and arrest of Mathieu Ngudjolo, a former senior commander of the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI); reports about the taking and release of hostages; minutes for meetings of the Security Management Committee; informal consultations of the Security Council on the situation in the DRC; and letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and heads of state in the Great Lakes Region.

Additionally, code cables include briefs and memoranda about: the efforts of the Transitional Government, set up in July 2003, to re-establish state authority throughout the DRC; the activities of the International Commission to Accompany the Transition (CIAT), a body that was composed of the five permanent members of the Security Council plus representatives of Angola, Belgium, Canada, Gabon, South Africa, Zambia, the African Union, the European Union and MONUC; cooperation between MONUC and the International Criminal Court (ICC); measures issued by the SRSG to combat sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) perpetrated by MONUC personnel; and diamond mining and the local economy. Also included are Memoranda of Understanding relevant to MONUC’s operations and activities.

There are also: weekly summaries describing MONUC military activities; a Campaign Plan for MONUC Eastern Division forces dated 14 March 2005; and the MONUC Rules of Engagement dated 14 February 2006; correspondence on the operations of MONUC’s Ituri Brigade, which coordinated with the Armed Forces of the DRC to intervene in the Ituri conflict; and briefs about arms trafficking in the Ituri region. Additionally, there are reports about the brassage process, the formal integration, beginning in 2004, of combatants from various armed groups in the DRC, to dismantle faction loyalties and form a National, Restructured and Integrated Army (NRIA). Also present are: Standard Operating Procedures, dated 8 January 2004, for arrests and detentions carried out by the MONUC Ituri Brigade; and updates about individuals held in detention at MONUC military camps, the status of accused individuals awaiting trial, and the conditions of prisons in the DRC.

Daily reports sent from the MONUC Office in Bunia, located in the Ituri district in the north east, note: political developments; field trips undertaken by MONUC staff to towns and villages near Bunia to verify human rights protection and the humanitarian situation; relations among ethnic groups in the Ituri region, particularly between the Lendu farmers and the Hema herdsmen; meetings between MONUC military officers and leaders of a rebel groups, particularly the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI); the exodus of local populations of towns and villages to camps for internally displaced persons (IDP); and the discoveries of mass graves.

Monthly reports of the MONUC Human Rights Section note: obstruction of justice, maltreatment, looting and destruction of property, arbitrary arrest, extrajudicial executions, massacres, killings done by machete and other crude instruments, disappearances, family separation, hostage taking, forced labor, detention in clandestine underground cells, and sexual violence carried out throughout provinces in the DRC by members of armed rebel groups on the civilian population. These groups include: the Nationalist and Integrationist Front (FNI), Union of Congolese Patriots (UPC), former troops of the Congolese National Army (ANC), Mai-Mai militias, and Forces Armées du Peuple Congolais (FAPC). Monthly human rights reports also describe incidents of cannibalism. There are also briefs about the arrests and trials of warlords who operated in the Ituri region and in the eastern provinces of North Kivu and South Kivu, who were suspected of orchestrating massacres and large scale human rights violations targeting various ethnic groups, including Rwandaphone community, the Hunde ethnic group, the Banyamulenge ethnic group, and the Alur ethnic group.

The “MONUC Ituri Special Report” dated 20 April 2004 describes gross violations of human rights in the Ituri region between January 2002 and December 2003. There is a report dated 13 September 2004 about the massacre that took place on 13 August 2004 at a transit centre housing Banyamulenge and Burundian refugees in the village of Gatumba, Burundi, that killed approximately 166 civilians. The Gatumba report was jointly authored by MONUC and the United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB). There are also reports about killings, abductions, forced labor, and sexual slavery in communities along the shore of Lake Albert.

Monthly reports of the MONUC Child Protection Section cover such topics as: child soldier demobilization, child victims of sexual abuse, and health and vaccination campaigns for children.

United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)
Code cables consist of briefs and memoranda on a variety of topic, including: the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), brokered in 2005 and signed by the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A); inter-factional fighting in Darfur; troop movements and militia attacks in Eastern Sudan, and on the deployment of the Sudanese People’s Liberation Army; and violence and political and military tensions along the Sudan/Chad border. There are also: summaries of the SRSG’s visits to Asmara, Eritrea, to meet with leaders of the Eastern Front (a coalition of rebel groups opertating in eastern Sudan along the border with Eritrea), Eritrean government officials, and Sudanese political groups; meeting summaries and notes to the file on negotiations among the parties in conflict attended by United Nations Missions in Sudan (UNMIS) officials and held in Abuja, Nigeria, which culminated with the signing of the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) on 5 May 2006 between the Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM); briefs on the human rights situation in Darfur, and meeting summaries of the Sub-Committee of the Joint Implementation Mechanism for Human Rights and Protection (Sub-JIM); updates for the Security Council on developments in United Nations Missions in Sudan (UNMIS); briefs on camps for internally displaced persons (IDP); and analyses and discussion papers on topics such as countering violence against women in Darfur and mine action support in Sudan. There are also summaries of meetings held by the SRSG with: President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir; President of Eritrea Isaias Afwerki; leaders of the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS); and John Garang, a Sudanese politician and leader of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLM/A).

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
Code cables include: notes on proceedings and informal consultations of the Security Council on the situation in Rwanda; briefs exchanged between the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) Military Adviser Franklin van Kappen and the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR) Force Commander; military assessments authored by the Force Commander Major General Romeo A. Dallaire; letters exchanged between United Nations officials and representatives of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF); reports of mass murders and atrocities; memoranda and reports pertaining to the work of the Commission of Inquiry on Kibeho; briefs and analyses on the location and security of United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR) headquarters, anti-United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR) sentiment, and prison conditions in Rwanda; briefs on United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR)’s withdrawl plan Operation Harbour Lights; memoranda detailing visits by members of the Commission of Experts to Rwanda in 1994 and actions of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and of its prosecutors. There are also: analytical summaries of broadcasts on the Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines (RTLM), a Rwandan radio station that played a role in the genocide; transcripts of broadcasts on Radio Rwanda and Radio Muhabura; and memoranda and updates on the operations of Radio United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR). Records related to the refugee crisis detail: logistics operations and the collection of intelligence in refugee camps; the categories of refugees in the camp population; camp infrastructure; humanitarian activities; and reasons for the delay of repatriation. There are also: briefs on the refugee situation in Burundi: and reports about Rwandan refugee camps in Zaire and Tanzania, which describe security in the camps and the intimidation of refugees by extremist elements. Also included are summaries of meetings of the Force Commander with the Chief of Staff of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and summaries of the SRSG’s meetings with: Rwandan President Pasteur Bizimungu; Rwandan Vice-President General Paul Kagame; and Prime Minister Pasteur Twagiramungu.

Daily situation reports detail: the SRSG’s and Force Commander’s activities; patrol, reconnaissance, and investigation conducted by Military Observers in sectors; incidents of banditry, cattle theft, raiding of homes, landmine explosions, beatings, machete killings, and discoveries of mass graves; visits to prisons; arrests due to alleged participation in the 1994 genocide; civil demonstrations and conditions at primary schools; activities of bourgemestres in communes; the delivery of humanitarian aid; and the safe and voluntary return of refugees to locations in Rwanda, conditions experienced by returnees to Rwanda, and the registration of returnees at commune offices.

United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)
Code cables sent from United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Asmara, Eritrea, consist of: summaries of meetings of the SRSG with Ethiopian and Eritrean government ministers, foreign ambassadors, representatives of the African Union, and the Friends of United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE); reports of incidents in the Temporary Security Zone (TSZ), a 25-kilometer buffer zone created by the Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities between Ethiopia and Eritrea, signed on 18 June 2000; reports of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) Human Rights Office on conditions experienced by residents of contested areas along the Ethiopian-Eritrean border, including harassment, disputes over the use of good grazing land, looting of houses, and abductions; summaries of meetings of the Military Coordination Commission (MCC), a body mandated by the Agreement; briefings and informal consultations of the Security Council on United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE); letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and the Heads of State of Ethiopia and Eritrea; analyses and briefs on the work of the Ethiopia-Eritrea Boundary Commission (EEBC); correspondence and memoranda concerning such topics as drought and food security, Ethiopia’s release of Eritrean prisoners of war and Eritrean civilian internees, animal rustling, and landmine clearance; and implementation plans and outlines of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) mandate.

Situation reports note: political developments in Ethiopia and Eritrea as monitored by the SRSG; battalion training, patrolling, and reconnaissance carried out in Sector East, Sector Centre, and Sector West; battalion encounters with local militia; denials of freedom of movement of United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) military units; humanitarian activities, such as visits by humanitarian workers to local schools and medical clinics, and conditions and infrastructure requirements at camps for internally displaced persons (IDP); and mine action activities.

United Nations Operations in Somalia I (UNOSOM I)
United Nations Operations in Somalia II (UNOSOM II)
Code cables include: memoranda pertaining to the Addis Ababa Agreement of 1993 and the 1993 Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia; summaries of informal consultations of the Security Council about the situation in Somalia; summaries of meetings between United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM) officials and representatives of humanitarian agencies; briefs on the security situation in Mogadishu; and statements issued by Mohamed Farrah Aided, Chairman of the Somali National Alliance (SNA).

Situation reports detail military, political, humanitarian, and civil affairs activities of the United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM) and United Nations Operations in Somalia II (UNOSOM) missions. Noted about the military situation are: organized violence, including ambushes, battles, mortar attacks, and sniper activity; activities of armed gangs, factional militia, and militia on sea; inter-clan fighting in villages; convoy escort and troop movements; discoveries of weapons and explosives caches; demonstrations around United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR)-occupied buildings; and activities of United States Marines. Political developments described in situation reports include: progress of peace and reconciliation conferences and factors impeding the reconciliation process; political developments in Mogadishu, Belet Weyne, Hargeisa, Baidoa, and other cities in Somalia; meetings of UNOSOM political officers and clan elders; discussions between the Political Affairs Division officials and clan representatives about the formation of district and regional councils in Somalia; inaugurations attended by the SRSG of district councils; training workshops for new district councilors; meetings of the SRSG with the President of Somalia Ali Mahdi Mouhammad and Somali factional leaders; and visits by the SRSG to villages in Somalia. Humanitarian activities noted are: activities of humanitarian agencies, such as World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Food Programme (WFP), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and OXFAM; agricultural assessments; drought and locust control conditions; measures to address malnutrition and starvation; locations and statistics of cholera outbreaks; assessments of small scale social service projects; the rehabilitation of school buildings and restoration of education services; and refugee movements.

United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS)
Code cables sent to Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters from the UNPOS headquarters operating from Nairobi, Kenya consist of: briefs concerning the 3 January 1997 signing of the Sodere Declaration in Sodere, Ethiopia, in which Somali leaders agreed to set up a National Salvation Council and a National Executive Committee in preparation for the establishment of a transitional government in Somalia; briefs concerning the cancellation of a peace conference in 1998 in Baidoa, Somalia, due to security concerns; briefs concerning the Mbagathi Conference, which was organized by the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) and held in Kenya between 2002 and 2004, and addresses delivered at sessions of the conference; and briefs on the 10 October 2004 elections for the President of the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG).

UNPOS code cables also include: summaries of the SRSG’s political visits to countries neighbouring Somalia, including Ethiopia, Djibouti, Egypt, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia, and summaries of the SRSG’s meetings with heads of state and politicians; letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and the President of the Republic of Somalia Dr. Abdikassim Salad Hassan, as well as the Prime Minister of Somalia Khalif Galaydh; analyses of the situation in Mogadishu and the activities of faction leaders and warlords; analyses of the activities of the de facto government in Somaliland, a region in northeastern Somalia which declared itself an autonomous state in 1991; memoranda and analyses of the constitutional crisis in Puntland, a region in northeastern Somalia which declared itself an autonomous state in 1998; and draft reports by the Secretary-General about the situation in Somalia.

Memoranda exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General of UNPOS describe: the security situation in Somalia, including banditry and threats to the safety of humanitarian workers; violations of ceasefire agreements; droughts, floods, and other natural disasters; diseases affecting UN staff, such as Rift Valley fever and cholera; the declaration made on 29 July 1998 by the president of Somaliland that United Nations Development Programme staff members were personae non gratae; reform of Somalia’s parliament structure and membership; and other political incidents, such as accusations by President Abdiqasim Salad Hassan of the Transitional National Government (TNG) that Ethiopia violated the arms embargo on Somalia by supplying weapons to warlords opposed to the Transitional Government.

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
Code cables consist of: summaries of meetings between United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) officials and Iraqi and Kuwaiti government officials; briefs on tensions in the Iraq-Kuwait border area, the security situation in Umm Qasr, the deployment of infantry battalions, and on the maintenance of ammunition bunkers; updates on the pillar demarcation of the border between Iraq and Kuwait; updates on activities of the Iraqi police; summaries of meetings of the Technical Sub-Committee of Military and Civilian Missing and Mortal Remains, chaired by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); and analyses and updates on United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)’s monitoring of the Khawr Abd Allah waterway.

Situation reports received from United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) headquarters in Umm Qasr, Iraq, detail: Iraqi and Kuwaiti violations in the demilitarized zones (DMZ), including the sighting of aircraft, machine gun fire, and weapons possession; activities at border checkpoints; restrictions on the freedom of movement of United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) personnel; shipping activities on the Iraqi and Kuwaiti sides of the border, including patrolling and dredging; the movement of international cargo ships in the Umm Qasr Port; illegal fishing activities; the repatriation of Iraqi and Kuwaiti nationals and their families; civilian demonstrations; and abductions, disappearances, and causalities of civilians.

United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI)
Code cables consist of: analyses of Security Council meetings on Iraq; summaries of meetings attended by United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) officials on issues relating to the Iraqi Kurdistan Region; reports of human rights violations in Iraqi detention centers; papers on the humanitarian needs of refugees and internally displaced persons in Iraq and in neighboring countries; updates on proceedings of the Iraqi High Tribunal (IHT), and on the trial of Saddam Hussein held in 2005-2006; reports and analyses of security incidents, including explosions of roadside bombs, abductions, kidnapping for ransom, unlawful arrest, and torture; reports and briefs and on Sunni-Shiite intercommunal violence and sectarian violence in Iraq. In addition, there are memoranda, briefs, and analyses about: elections in Iraq; the formation of a new government and the constitution-making process in Iraq; the role of the United Nations in Iraq; the activities of the Multi-National Force-Iraq (MNF-I); and the International Compact with Iraq. Code cables also include summaries of meetings between the SRSG and: Iraqi Prime Ministers Ibrahim al-Jaafari and Nouri al-Maliki; the Iraqi President Jalal Talabani; Iraqi government ministers; and foreign ambassadors. There are also summaries of high-level meetings on the situation in Iraq held at United Nations headquarters in New York between United Nations officials and United States officials.

Security risk assessment (SRA) reports detail structural and non-structural vulnerabilities, mitigating factors of threats, and risk levels for identified threats. Included are SRA for: the Forward Support Base at the Baghdad International Airport; the compound of the Independent Electoral Commission of Iraq (IECI) in Baghdad; the Tamimi Compound in Baghdad; the Erbil International Airport in northern Iraq; the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) Compound in Amman, Jordan; the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) Compound in Kheitan, Kuwait; and additional locations.

United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process (UNSCO)
UNSCO code cables were sent from offices located in Jerusalem and Gaza, and consist of: summaries of meetings between UNSCO officials and Palestinian, Israeli, Lebanese, Jordanian, Egyptian, and Syrian government officials; summaries of meetings of the Middle East Quartet; notes on informal consultations of the Security Council on the Middle East and on the question of Palestine; summaries of public meetings on the Middle East held by the Security Council; briefs addressed to the Security Council, which cover Palestinian and Israeli political developments, the Road Map for peace proposed by the Middle East Quartet, and security incidents and the humanitarian situation in the region; briefs on UNSCO visits to the West Bank; briefs and technical surveys about the supply and utilization of the Hasbani River and the Wazzani Springs situated between Lebanon and Israel; and updates on incidents occurring along the Blue Line, a border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel established by the United Nations in June 2000.

United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
Code cables were sent from United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) headquarters in Nicosia and consist of: analyses of United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)’s mandate and its renewal; reports on human rights violations allegedly carried out by Greek Cypriot police; Quarterly Gender Reports; reports on the security of the fenced area of Varosha, a quarter in the abandoned Cypriot city of Famagusta monitored by the United Nations, and on the proposed transfer of control of Varosha to the Government of the Republic of Cyprus; and correspondence pertaining to Turkish and Greek relations in the village of Pyla, located in the Buffer Zone, and to the village’s administration and building plans. Code cables also include summaries of meetings of the Head of Mission with: Rauf Denktash, President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1983-2005); Mahmet Ali Talat, President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (2005-2010); Glafcos Clerides, President of the Republic of Cyprus (1993-2003); and Turkish and Greek ambassadors and government officials. There are also memoranda and reports pertaining to such topics as: violations of the ceasefire and incursions in the Buffer Zone; the activities of the Turkish terrorist organization Grey Wolves; political parties in Cyprus; mine clearance; and confidence-building measures (CBM) aimed at the reopening of the Nicosia International Airport. Also included are memoranda, correspondence, and summaries of meetings documenting the activities of the Committee on Missing Persons in Cyprus (CMP), including the establishment of the Forensic Anthropological Laboratory, and its work on the exhumation and identification of human remains. The committee was set up in 1981 by the General Assembly to search for Greeks and Cypriots missing as a result of the conflicts in 1963-1964 and 1974.

United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Zagreb
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Belgrade
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Skopje
United Nations Liaison Office (UNLO), Tirana
Included are records received from United Nations Liaison Offices in: Zagreb, Croatia; Belgrade, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); Skopje, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM); and Tirana, Albania. Among these records are: briefs and memoranda about developments taking place in politics and government, such as appointments, election results, constitutional amendments, pending laws, activities of government officials, activities of political parties, and civil unrest; weekly reports; reports of visits undertaken by UNMO officials to locations in the region; summaries of meetings between UNLO officials and government representatives; and summaries of meetings between UNLO officials and heads of missions in the former Yugoslavia. There are also analyses and briefs on such topics as: the role of the European Union in regional stability; border delineation and demarcation; ethnic tensions; relations between the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and governments; the arrests of individuals accused of war crimes; and reactions to ICTY sentencing.

United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA)
Code cables sent from the headquarters of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) in Kabul, Afghanistan consist of: summaries of meetings between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the President of Afghanistan Hamid Karzai; summaries of meetings between the SRSG and heads of state of neighboring countries, including the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, and the Russian Federation; papers about the implementation of the Bonn Agreement, signed by Afghanistan on 5 December 2001 under the auspices of the United Nations, which note reconstruction developments in Afghanistan and the drafting of a new Constitution; updates about meetings of the Constitutional Loya Jirga, or grand assembly of representatives of Afghanistan’s tribes and factions, on the approval of the Constitution in January 2004; and reports about the implementation of the Afghanistan Compact, adopted at the 2006 London Conference on Afghanistan, which convened representatives of the Government of Afghanistan (GoA), donor countries, and the United Nations.

Other briefs concern: the presidential election held 9 October 2004; the parliamentary and provincial council elections held 18 September 2005; the activities of the Joint Electoral Management Body (JEMB), the independent body mandated to oversee the electoral process during the transitional period; the activities of the Afghan National Assembly, made up of the Wolesi Jirga (House of the People) and the Meshrano Jirga (House of the Elders); strategies proposed by UNAMA on strengthening the authority of the Afghan government in remote provinces; and assistance provided by UNAMA and United Nations agencies for the reform of the Afghan justice, police and security sectors. There are also briefs prepared by the UNAMA Liaison Office in Tehran, Iran which describe the situation in Afghanistan from the Iranian perspective. Periodic analyses of the political situation from UNAMA’s Liaison Office in Islamabad, Pakistan cover: relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan; the activities of the Taliban in northern Pakistan, including the movement of the Taliban across the Afghanistan-Pakistan border; the question of support by Pakistan for the Taliban; and military activities on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border and in the areas of Waziristan and Baluchistan in Pakistan.

Additionally, there are briefs and updates about: the United Nations-assisted disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programme (DDR), noting weapons collection in various locations throughout Afghanistan; the development of the Afghan National Army (ANA); and the activities of national and international military forces operating in Afghanistan, including the Afghan National Army (ANA), the Coalition Forces under the command of the United States, and the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF).

Security reports describe violent incidents occurring throughout Afghanistan. Noted are: suicide and car bombings, explosions of and/or removal operations for improvised explosive devices (IED), beheadings, civilian unrest, drug-related violence, criminal activities, fighting between insurgents and anti-Government elements (AGE), and assaults on United Nations staff and property. The security reports note the number of individuals killed and injured, the group claiming responsibility for the attack, and possible political and military motivations for the attacks.

Other briefs and memoranda cover: activities of the UNAMA Gender Unit and the Afghan Ministry of Women’s Affairs; media coverage of national and international reporting on events in Afghanistan; and poppy planting trends and counter narcotics measures. Additionally, there are briefs that note alleged sites of mass graves in Afghanistan and forensic investigations of these sites proposed by Physicians for Human Rights in conjunction with Afghan authorities and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.

United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
Clear cables and situation reports received from United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) headquarters in Kabul, Afghanistan, and Islamabad, Pakistan, provide information about: violations of the Agreements on the Settlement of the Situation Relating to Afghanistan signed on 14 April 1988 (also known as the Geneva Accords), which were registered with the mission by Afghanistan and Pakistan; investigations carried out by United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP) personnel of reports of violations of the Geneva Accords; fighting in Kabul between the Afghan Army and the de facto forces (DFF); the battle for the Afghan city of Jalalabad enacted by the Mujahidin; Mujahidin-led fighting in other Afghan cities, including Kandahar and Lashkarhgar; and movements of Afghan refugees returning to Afghanistan. The violations describe: air and ground incursions; militia training camps in Pakistan for Afghan opposition groups; acts of sabotage; and captured arms and ammunition.

United Nations Military Observer Group in India & Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
Situation reports were sent from United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) headquarters in Srinagar, India, and Rawalpindi, Pakistan, to Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) headquarters in New York. They detail: the military situation along the Line of Control (LOC), which was the ceasefire line agreed to by India and Pakistan in 1949; activities of Military Observers along the LOC; alleged ceasefire violations (ACFV) lodged with the mission; investigations of ACFVs undertaken by the mission; international diplomatic interventions in the conflict; activities of Benazir Bhutto, a leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party; activities of the All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC); and military and political developments as reported by the Indian and Pakistani press. Situation reports also note the military and political situation in the Kashmir Valley, the Jammu and Kashmir state, and in the Poonch District, a district of Kashmir divided between India and Pakistan. Also noted are hostilities and armed clashes carried out by Muslim militant groups, including the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) and the Hizbul-Mujahidin, such as: small arms fire; bomb and grenade throwing aimed at civilians; attacks on military training areas; the destruction of village homes; abductions; and the hijackings of vehicles. Additionally, the reports note: parties declaring responsibility for terrorist acts; United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)’s interventions in the kidnappings of six western tourists by the Al-Faran terrorist group in 1995; casualties; the release of detainees and prisoners; the activities of Amnesty International; and civilian demonstrations and the imposition of curfew.

United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET)
Code cables sent from United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) headquarters in Dili, East Timor, consist of: briefs and memoranda about the admission of East Timor to the United Nations on 27 September 2002; outlines of United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET) military operations; reports on belligerence between the Falintil-Timor Leste Defence Force (F-FDTL) and the National Police of East Timor (PNTL); briefs on the functions and deployment of the Rapid Deployment Service (RDS), the mission’s specialist police unit that dealt with threats posed by armed groups in border areas and rural areas in East Timor; reports on demonstrations organized by Catholics, university students, and other groups; reports prepared by the International Observer to the Ad Hoc Human Rights Court in Jakarta; briefs on the activities of the Commission of Experts (COE), a group tasked by the Security Council to review the prosecution of crimes against humanity committed in East Timor in 1999 and reports of oral briefings to the Security Council on developments in United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET). There are also briefs, analyses, and communiqués on such topics as: support for the East Timorese justice sector; elections of local Chefes de Suco; the activities of armed groups in East Timor; disturbances in prisons; and riots and civilian unrest.

Additionally, there are summaries of the SRSG’s meetings with: the President of East Timor Xanana Gusmão; the Prime Minister of East Timor Mari Alkatiri; the President of the National Parliament of East Timor Francisco “Lu Olo” Guterres; government officials of Indonesia and neighboring countries; and foreign ambassadors. Meeting topics cover: the demarcation of the land border between East Timor and West Timor, the Indonesian portion of the island of Timor; Indonesian opposition to the work of the COE; the gathering of prosecutorial evidence against suspects under investigation for atrocities committed in 1999, the year the referendum on East Timor’s independence was held; human rights abuses allegedly committed by the National Police of East Timor (PNTL); state institution-building and industry development in East Timor; Australian-Timorese discussions on oil and gas resources in the Timor Sea; the grievances of veterans and ex-combatants; the resettlement and repatriation of Timorese refugees; and the language of instruction in Timorese schools.

United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
Code cables sent from United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) headquarters in Guatemala City include: United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)’s reports on the verification of the Agreement on the Definitive Ceasefire between the Government of Guatemala and the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (URNG), which was signed in Oslo on 4 December 1996; summaries of meetings of the Consultative Group; reports on activities of armed groups in Guatemala; memoranda on security threats to United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA) staff; briefs on activities of the Guatemalan Human Rights Ombudsman; reports about prison riots and inter-gang violence in prisons; memoranda pertaining to United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)’s support of leaders of indigenous communities in the peace process; and briefs on strikes carried out by agencies in the private sector. Also included are summaries of meetings between the SRSG and: the President of Guatemala Alfonso Portillo (2000-2004); the former President of Guatemala Ramiro de León Carpio (1993-1996); the Guatemalan Congressional President Efraín Ríos-Montt, and other government ministers; foreign ambassadors; and representatives of the Group of Friends of Guatemala.

Situation reports provide information about: political developments and activities of the Government of Guatemala, including constitutional reforms and activities of political parties; the SRSG’s visits to departments in Guatemala; incidents of politically-motivated violence; the activities of United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) operating in Guatemala; developments related to the murder of anthropologist Myrna Mack, the murder of Monsignor Juan José Gerardi Conedera, and other high-profile human rights cases; and the resettlement of former combatants and internally displaces persons (IDPs).

United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH)
Code cables sent from United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) headquarters in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, to United Nations headquarters, New York, encompass: summaries of meetings of the Friends of the Secretary-General for Haiti; summaries of the Trilateral Commission, attended by representatives of the Government of Haiti (GOH), United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), and Friends of the Secretary-General for Haiti, which detail measures taken to transfer to the GOH, the responsibilities and functions United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) had been carrying out on behalf of the GOH; military situation reports noting activities in mission-designated zones; comments and corrections to the Secretary-General’s report to the Security Council about United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) operations; and summaries of informal consultations of the Security Council on developments in Haiti. There are also briefs on: the United States presence in Haiti; the activities of President of Haiti Jean-Bertrand Aristide; elections; the future of United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH); infrastructure developments; and civilian demonstrations. Weekly executive summaries by the SRSG detail: political, economic and humanitarian developments; and developments in the Haitian Nation Police (HNP) and in the justice sector. They also provide maps on deployment and figures on incidents, such as vigilante and non-vigilante murders, threats against United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) personnel, assault, armed robbery, looting, and jail escapes.

United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)
Code cables sent from the MINUSTAH headquarters operating from Port-au-Prince, Haiti consist of memoranda and briefs on the following topics: the 2004 Haitian coup d’etat, and resulting exile of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; MINUSTAH operations against armed groups illegally occupying Haitian National Police commissariats post-coup; the occupation of Aristide’s home by former members of the Haitian Armed Forces (FADH), led by rebel leader Ravix Remissainthe; the interim government of Prime Minister Gérard Latortue and President Boniface Alexandre; the arrest and illegal detention of Prime Minister Yvon Neptune on charges of participation in the La Scierie Massacre in Saint Marc from 9 to 11 February 2004; the February 2006 election of René Préval as President, and related security incidents and demonstrations; MINUSTAH and Haitian National Police armed operations against gang leaders in Cité Soleil, such as Gren Sonnen and Emmanuel Wilmer; accusations by human rights organizations that MINUSTAH’s operations against gangs had caused civilian deaths; and the activities of the Group of 184, the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti (FRAPH), and other militant groups. There are also minutes of meetings of the Core Group on Haiti established in 2004, which was chaired by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and promoted cooperation between MINUSTAH and the donor and diplomatic communities. Other records include meeting minutes of the Friends of Haiti and proceeding of the Security Council about MINUSTAH.

Management and Integration - Policy, procedure, best practice

The title of S-1832 was drawn from the function series PKH.MAT001 from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

Records contained in S-1832 document policy, procedure, and best practice relating to DPKO’s administration of peacekeeping missions, and DPKO’s contribution to peacekeeping strategy and response within the United Nations system. Records pertaining to military policy, procedure and best practice in peacekeeping operations have been assigned to S-1828.

Included in S-1832 are records documenting coordination between DPKO and other United Nations departments and agencies regarding the management of peacekeeping operations; summaries of meetings of the DPKO Directors and of the DPKO Senior Management Team; and fact sheets about deployed missions. There are also briefs and draft submissions about DPKO’s collaboration with the General Assembly’s Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations. There are also final and draft versions of the Guidelines for Peacekeeping, authored by DPKO in the early 1990s about the history of peacekeeping in the context of the United Nations, and the principles, functions and operational tasks of peacekeeping operations. Dating from 1997 is a draft of the DPKO-authored Survey Mission Manual, which provided guidelines for the collection and analysis of information gathered by UN personnel while conducting field surveys for peacekeeping missions in conflict areas.

S-1832 contains updated and final versions of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for peacekeeping missions dating from 1979 to 2005. There are also directives for Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and Heads of Mission (HOM), which describe the HOM’s: authority; relations with parties in conflict, Member States, donors and the media; and reporting responsibilities. The files also contain executive summaries and recommendation reports of Forums of Former Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG). Also present are guidelines issued for civilian personnel employed in peacekeeping missions. There are also memoranda, letters, and briefs outlining regulations for the awarding of medals to United Nations peacekeepers, and noting the significance of the colors of medal ribbons.

Also included in S-1832 are records, about organizational changes within DPKO, primarily dating from the 1990s. These include papers of the DPKO Working Group on Organizational Redesign, proposed organization charts, and briefs on staffing. Several files contain information about the establishment and activities of the following DPKO divisions and offices: the Field Administration and Logistics Division (FALD); the Mission Planning Service; the DPKO Situation Centre; the Medical Support Unit; the Training Unit; the Demining Unit; and the United Nations Logistics Base in Brindisi, Italy. Records include operational concepts of the Situation Centre, maps of the Logistics Base in Brindisi, and guidelines dating from 1993 on medical service in peacekeeping missions.

Information about human resources management policy and procedure in DPKO and in peacekeeping operations is also included in S-1832. Memoranda and correspondence detail a variety of topics, including: recruitment of DPKO personnel; gratis military personnel in DPKO; rotation, discipline, and repatriation of Military Observers and Civilian Police in peacekeeping missions; the deaths of mission personnel; proposed changes to staff regulations and rules; gender mainstreaming in peacekeeping; the advancement of women in DPKO; and other topics.

S-1832 also contains chronological files of the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit (PBPU); the Policy Analysis and Lessons Learned Unit (PALLU), the Policy and Analysis Unit (PAU), and the Lessons Learned Unit (LLU). The Policy and Analysis Unit was set up within the DPKO in 1993 and served as a think tank to provide in-depth research and analyses of emerging questions related to peacekeeping policy, procedure, and doctrine. The Lessons Learned Unit was set up within the DPKO in 1995 to provide a capacity for in-depth study and analysis of experiences from peacekeeping operations; to draw out lessons that could be applied to on-going and future operations; and to develop an institutional memory for peacekeeping operations. In July 1999 the Policy and Analysis Unit merged with the Lessons Learned Unit to form the Policy Analysis and Lessons Learned Unit. In 2001, the Policy Analysis and Lessons Learned Unit was renamed the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit.

The chronological files include summaries of weekly meetings of the Lessons Learned Unit; correspondence and itineraries related to trips undertaken by LLU staff to peacekeeping missions to develop lessons learned profiles; briefs on the field coordination of Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG), United Nations Resident Coordinators, and Humanitarian Coordinators; outlines describing the annual programme of work for the Lessons Learned Unit; memoranda on minimum age requirements for United Nations peacekeepers; and briefs on the commemoration of 50 years of United Nations peacekeeping. Additionally, the files hold correspondence, participant lists, itineraries, public addresses, and final reports related to seminars attended or organized by the Lessons Learned Unit.

There are also talking points and briefs prepared by the staff of the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit (PBPU) for meetings and speaking engagements of the Secretary-General, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping. Records also contain comments by PBPU for the Secretary-General’s Annual Report on the Work of the Organization. There are also summaries of meetings held by the Under-Secretary-General with United States government officials, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations, ambassadors, and representatives of United Nations agencies. Meetings topics include promotion and support of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations; strengthening UN relations with regional organizations; United States support for peacekeeping operations; representation of Member States in United Nations peacekeeping operations; preventive action; peace-building strategy; and AIDS and peacekeeping operations. Also included are program agenda and speeches delivered by the Under-Secretary-General at seminars and conferences at non-profit and educational institutions.

Chronological files also include essays and discussion papers on such topics as Security Council decision-making on mission transition and closure; the role of non-state actors, such as transnational corporations and financial institutions, in intra-state conflict; private sector engagement in international peace and security; the reform process of United Nations peace operations; early warning and conflict prevention; harnessing institutional capacity in support of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants; the impact of armed conflict on children; the impact of armed conflict on women and women’s role in peace-building; gender mainstreaming in peace operations; the protection of civilians in armed conflict; public information as a strategic component in peace operations; the role of peacekeeping in the process of democratization; the security and neutrality of refugee camps; the role of police in peacekeeping operations; and humanitarian assistance in the context of peacekeeping operations.

S-1832 also contains materials related to DPKO seminars and workshops on the role of police in peacekeeping operations attended by representatives of Member States, United Nations agencies, and representatives of regional organizations and non-governmental organizations. These include the Seminar on the Role of Police in Peacekeeping Operations, held in New York on 19-21 March 1998; the (first) Follow-up Workshop on Civilian Police in United Nations Peacekeeping held on 29-30 July 1999; and the Second Follow-up Workshop on Civilian Police in United Nations Peacekeeping, held in New York on 11 August 2000. Records for police seminars and workshops include daily programmes; speeches by the Under-Secretary-General; handwritten notes taken during discussions; correspondence between DPKO and invitees; and statistics on the scope of police activity on peacekeeping operations. Discussion papers and speeches concern such topics as standards for recruitment of police from contributing countries; coordination between Civilian Police and military contingents, and between the police component in the field and DPKO headquarters; the political role of police in peacekeeping; international coordination in assisting judicial, penal, and human rights institutions; policing needs resulting from refugee flows; and the role of police in a follow-on peacekeeping presence.

Also included in S-1832 are summaries of meetings of the Senior Management Group (SMG), established in 1997 by Secretary-General Kofi Annan, as a cabinet of senior officers to advise and ensure coordination between all organs of the United Nations. The Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations served as a member of the Senior Management Group. Topics covered in meetings include priorities for the Secretary-General and the United Nations; long-term objectives in establishing international peace and security; developments in peacekeeping missions; analyses of statements made at the General Debate meetings of the General Assembly; activities in departments and offices of the Secretariat; fraud and corruption in the United Nations; gender balance and geographical distribution in the United Nations; human rights objectives for the United Nations; the Millennium Development Goals; perceptions of the United Nations among Member States; North-South relations and the United Nations; anti-Americanism in the United Nations; economic development in the Third World; the global fight against terrorism and the events of September 11, 2001; global disarmament; international migration; protection from sexual exploitation and abuse in humanitarian crises; HIV/AIDS initiatives; global science and technology initiatives; climate change and the environment; and United Nations responses to natural disasters. Records also include annotated agenda; correspondence exchanged between members of the Senior Management Group; background papers; and handwritten notes taken during meetings.

The Senior Management Group was assisted by four executive committees, also established in 1997: the Executive Committee on Peace and Security (ECPS), the Executive Committee on Humanitarian Affairs (ECHA), the UN Development Group (UNDG), and the Executive Committee on Economic and Social Affairs (ECESA).

The Executive Committee on Peace and Security (ECPS) functioned within the Secretariat as a policy development and management instrument on issues of peace and security. The Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations served as members of the Committee. Records consist of agenda; background briefs and memoranda prepared for ECPS members in advance of meetings; email; papers detailing possible scenarios and proposed United Nations system responses; and meeting summaries.

A sampling of agenda items for ECPS meetings includes conflict in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR); narcotics trafficking in Afghanistan; political, military, and human rights developments in Afghanistan and Central Asia; the crisis and the way forward in the Côte d’Ivoire; the Sudan peace process; peace and security in central Africa; monitoring developments in Nepal, Venezuela, Iraq, and other countries; terrorism and weapons of mass destruction (WMD); the implications of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the post-September 11th international situation; and the prevention of genocide.

Also included are records of the Task Force for the Development of Comprehensive Rule of Law Strategies for Peace Operations, a subsidiary body of the ECPS.

The Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping as well as other DPKO officials served on the Executive Committee on Humanitarian Affairs (ECHA). Summaries of meetings detail activities of United Nations departments and agencies involved in humanitarian relief operations; humanitarian relief operations in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi, Sudan, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Afghanistan, the Ferghana Valley in Central Asia, Indonesia, Colombia, and other countries; relations between the United Nations and the European Union with respect to development and humanitarian affairs; drought in the Horn of Africa; strengthening the United Nations’ field capacity to address issues concerning refugees and internally displaces persons (IDP); resettlement initiatives; access constraints experienced in the field by United Nations and international agencies; the protection of civilians in armed conflict; the problems of girls and women in conflict situations; and natural disasters. There are also agenda; background papers and briefs; and ECHA proposals for the Secretary-General’s annual priorities.

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