Geographic Branch (G2 Geo)
Included are records of the Geographic Branch based at UNPROFOR HQ in Zagreb, Croatia, whose mission was to ensure that all land, amphibious, maritime and air forces committed to UNPROFOR were provided with the geographic information (mapping & data) essential to the planning, preparation and execution of operations in support of the Force mandate. Records of the Geographic Branch consist of: Faxes about the supply and distribution of maps to field battalions; administrative memoranda concerning Geographic Branch staffing and efforts to maintain appropriate stocks of maps; reports concerning the evolving mission of the Geographic Branch in relation to activities in the field; and order forms from international map and Geographic Information System (GIS) data suppliers.
Other records reflect: the maintenance of a $3.5 million store of topographic maps; the investigation, research, and documentation of changes pertaining to physical and cultural geographic features in the field; representation of battle lines and peace plan maps referencing on-going international negotiations (S-1838 Box 2 Folder 2); and the assessment of geographic information requirements in relation to the planning of future military operations and the development of policies.
Military Information Branch (MILINFO)
The office of the Military Information Branch was located in Zagreb, Croatia, and was tasked with managing the on-going flow of intelligence about warring factions between field battalions and UNPROFOR Headquarters. Records of the Military Information Branch include: minutes of meetings held between the Sector North (SN) Commander and Commanders of the Kordun Corps and the Banja Corps, units of the Serbian Army of Krajina (SVK) of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK); and minutes of meetings held between the Sector North (SN) Commander and military leaders of Operation Zone Zagreb (OZ Zagreb) and Operation Zone Karlovac (OZ Karlovac) of the Croatian Army (HV). There are also letters of protest written by UNPROFOR Sector Commanders to military and political leaders of warring factions, and letters of protest written by military leaders of warring factions to UNPROFOR. The letters of protest concern such actions as: the unauthorized removal and theft of United Nations property; small arms fire; looting of UNPROFOR military camps; seizure of weapons; obstructions to freedom of movement; and the hijacking of vehicles.
Records of the Military Information Branch also include: biographical information about military and political leaders of warring factions compiled by UNPROFOR for intelligence purposes; memoranda about border crossings circulated by UNPROFOR Croatia Command; weapons storage and inspection reports; operation orders for the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994; and mission-wide reports of violations of the cease-fire agreement.
Also present are daily and weekly military information summaries compiled by Sector North, Sector South, Sector South West, sector battalions, Croatia Command, Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, and the Bihac Area Command. These cover: troop movements and positions in sector areas of responsibility (AOS); activities inside the Zone of Separation (ZOS); troop movements of warring factions; aggressive military actions; violations of the ceasefire agreement; the attitude towards UNPROFOR and the United Nations; and weather conditions.
Land Operations Branch (G3 Land)
The Land Operations Branch was located at UNPROFOR HQ in Zagreb, Croatia and was responsible for the tactical coordination of operations between commands and sectors, and for the passage of tactical information affecting the functions and tasks of other branches and UNPROFOR organizations. Records include: weekly summaries of incoming UNPROFOR troops, which provide numbers on troop strength and note ranks and geographic positions; summaries of meetings of the Troop Reinforcement Coordination Sub-Committee (TRCSC); operational instructions and briefs on battalion deployment; executive summaries on battalion reinforcement and withdrawal, noting geographic limitations, assumptions, movement options, and recommended courses of action; and chronologies of incidents resulting in the restriction of UNPROFOR’s freedom of movement.
Also included are analytical summaries to the Chief of Staff (COS) written by G3 Land Operations officers on topics such as: activity in United Nations-designated safe areas; UNPROFOR’s confiscation and destruction of ordnance; the use of tactical information; nuclear, biological, and chemical threat to UNPROFOR troops; and sector boundaries.
Additionally, records include reports on: the status of vital supply lines throughout the mission area; warring factions’ activity levels; attacks on UNPROFOR by members of warring factions; minefield activity and threat; and medical treatment policies for civilians and soldiers of warring factions. Casualty reports are also present. There are also records of the Vehicle Establishment Working Group, which governed vehicle distribution within UNPROFOR, as well as memoranda on requirements and requests for vehicles, armoured personnel carriers (APC), and snow vehicles.
Air Operations Branch (G3 Air)
The Air Operations Branch was located at UNPROFOR HQ in Zagreb, Croatia, and their records include: Civilian Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) and Casualty Evacuation (CASEVAC) flight requests, as well as Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) and Casualty Evacuation (CASEVAC) flight checklists that monitor the conditions and personnel of such flights. These flights typically operated between UNPROFOR’s base in Pale (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Belgrade (Serbia), utilizing the route: Pale – Sokolac (Bosnia and Herzegovina) – Belgrade – Sokolac – Pale.
Additionally, the records of the Air Operations Branch include reports of observations of warring faction aircraft suspected of violating the UN No Fly Zone (NFZ).
Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS)
The Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS) was the administrative and planning staff of the Rapid Reaction Force, established by UN Security Council Resolution 998 (1995) to respond quickly to attacks on UNPROFOR in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS) enabled the Rapid Reaction Force to carry out its orders and liaise with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), including land, naval, and air power.
The United Kingdom, as the lead nation for the Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS), provided the commander (Major General Pennefather, Royal Marines), two thirds of the staff officers, and the communications and support personnel. France provided the remaining staff officers. The Rapid Reaction Operations Staff (RRFOS) was based at Kiseljak, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Rapid Response Force Operations Staff (RRFOS) officers were also placed within G3 Plans, G3 Operations (OPS), G3 Air Operations, Engineering (ENGR), Medical (MED) branches in order to facilitate quick action.
The records of the Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS) include: key issues memoranda reflecting on freedom of movement into Bosnia and Herzegovina from training facilities in Croatia; briefs on Bihac (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina) operations; situation reports of the British Force (BRITFOR) within the RRFOS; Operations Security (OPSEC) reports; memoranda reflecting how the RRFOS should implement its mandate based on lessons learned; intelligence reports; situation reports and briefs on matters related to engineering exchanged with UNPROFOR and UNPF headquarters; reports on the winterisation of facilities and vehicles; and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), directives, and orders defining the functions and responsibilities of the RRFOS.
Additional records of the Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS) consist of: received the following records from other branches of the United Nations Peace Force (UNPF): Military Police guidelines; policies and procedures for the handling of prisoners; situation reports detailing the activities of the Air, Land, and Operations Branches; medical policies; reports and outlines on United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) restructuring; and a psychological operations study of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia.
Plans and Policy
Plans and Policy of the United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF) was tasked with planning for and tracking of UN military activities in the former Yugoslavia, particularly of troop levels and equipment the troops would require. Plans and Policy analyzed relationships between authorized strength, present strength, requirements on the ground, and incoming troops. Plans and Policy existed under UNPROFOR as G3 Plans. After UNPROFOR’s transition to UNPF administration in the former Yugoslavia on 31 March 1995, G3 Plans was renamed Plans and Policy (P and P). Included are records originating from UNPROFOR G3 Plans, as well as from UNPF Plans and Policy.
The records consist of: a “Baseline Study into UNPROFOR Force Levels” (29 April 1994) which analysed Force levels and made recommendations for the future; reports concerning the organization and equipment of battalions; weekly summaries of incoming troop levels in the sectors; operational security plans for the sectors that detail plans for emergency situations; lists of branches, offices, and units coming under the scope of UNPROFOR responsibility; and withdrawal plans to implement in the event that UNPROFOR was unable to carry out its mandate due to severe deterioration of conditions in the former Yugoslavia. Additionally, Plans and Policy records include: memoranda on the establishment of Croatia Command; protest letters to and from warring factions; and memoranda sent from the UNPROFOR Force Engineer on issues related to land mine clearance.
Memoranda issued by the Chief of Plans and Policy concern such topics as: troop reinforcements and movement; arms and vehicle supplies in the battalions; UNPF command and control; conversion training for battalions; and contingency planning for UNPROFOR withdrawal.
United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), Croatia Command
Croatia Command was established on 1 February 1994, pursuant to Security Council Resolution 871 (1994), during the tenure of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). Based at Ilica Barracks in Zagreb, Croatia, Croatia Command was responsible for coordinating and supervising the implementation of military and joint military, civil affairs, and humanitarian orders within the Croatian theatre. During the UNPROFOR mission Croatia Command’s objective was to: coordinate and conduct all operations in the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) and provide advice to the Force Commander on all related operational matters; represent the Force Commander in operational negotiations with Croatian and “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK) military authorities; ensure that the Force Commander’s directives, guidelines, and policies were clearly understood by sector commanders; conduct studies and analyses in order to improve operations in the United Nations Protected Area (UNPA’s); ensure a common standard of proficiency and procedures in mission-specific tasks; and coordinate an active visits programme within the Command. Croatia Command came under the purview of the United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), following UNCRO’s replacement of UNPROFOR, effective 31 March 1995.
Records reflect Croatia Command operations during both UNPROFOR and UNCRO. They include: reports on the Zagreb–Belgrade highway’s operability and safety; memoranda on the withdrawal of UN troops and the dismantling of bases in accordance with the exit strategy; reports of Croatian forces’ burning and looting private property; letters of protest regarding restrictions of UN troop movements; and lists of deployments of additional troops for enhanced sector security. Also included in the records of the Croatia Command are administrative and logistic operations instructions covering: battalion repatriation timelines; information technology services; sector withdrawal plans; UN protest letters to Croatian generals; and medical support planning documents.
There are also Operations Orders and Warning Orders issued by the Croatia Command. These concern: close air support for battalion withdrawal; observations of military vehicle movement in and out of Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, near the Croatian border; observations of the air field in Udbina, Croatia; bridges over rivers in Croatia; and command visits to battalion camps in the sectors.
United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), Sector South
Sector South was a United Nations Protected Area (UNPA) of the UNPROFOR mission and later UNCRO mission in the former Yugoslavia. Pursuant to the Vance Plan put forth in 1991 by Cyrus Vance, the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General, the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPA) were to be demilitarised and all armed forces other than UNPROFOR would be withdrawn or demobilised. These were areas where special measures were required and where a long-term cease-fire would have to be imposed. They were areas where Serbs constituted a majority or a sizeable minority of the population, and where tension between the ethnic communities had led to conflict.
Sector South had its headquarters at Knin, Croatia, and covered the geographic regions within Croatia of East Lika and North Dalmatia, including the municipalities of Donji Lapac, Titova Korenica, and Gracac in the eastern part of Lika, and the municipalities of Obrovac, Benkovac and Knin in northern Dalmatia. According to the 1991 Croatian census, the proportion of Serbs in Sector South was 75.7% and of Croats 21.2%. The situation on the ground made it necessary for UNPROFOR to take control of certain Serb-controlled counties or municipalities outside the UNPAs, called Pink Zones. The most extensive Pink Zones were established around Sector South. They included the Serbian-occupied parts of the municipalities within Croatia of Sinj, Drniš, Šibenik, Zadar, Gospic and Otocac. All of these municipalities contained an ethnic mix of Serbs and Croats. Pink Zones were also designated in occupied parts of the municipalities of Ogulin, Duga Resa, Karlovac and Sisak. At varying times, UNPROFOR and UNCRO battalions deployed to Sector South included: the Canadian Battalion (CANBAT); the Czech Battalion (CZEBAT); the Jordanian Battalion (JORBAT); the Kenyan Battalion (KENBAT); the Nepalese Battalion (NEPBAT) and the Danish Battalion (DANBAT).
The records of Sector South originate from both the UNPROFOR and UNCRO missions. These records include: reports on routine sector patrols; reports on civilian fatalities; briefs on battalion movements; vehicle accident reports; meeting minutes of the working group tasked with strategic planning for Sector South, the Joint Commission on Sector South; and daily situation reports (SITREP) reflecting the security conditions in the sector.
In addition, the records of Sector South contain: memoranda on the movement of displaced persons from Sector South; Displaced Persons Briefs documenting the 700-800 displaced persons present in Sector South Headquarters Camp at Knin, Croatia, including lists of all individuals present and lists of refugee medical patients; an After Action Report on Operation Safe Passage, an operation to transfer internally displaced persons (IDPs) from Knin to Lipovac; and Incident Reports (NOTICAS) on vehicle accidents, anti-personnel mines, and anti-tank mines.
United Nation Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), Sector West
Sector West was United Nations Protected Area (UNPA) of the UNPROFOR mission and later UNCRO mission in the former Yugoslavia. Pursuant to the Vance Plan put forth in 1991 by Cyrus Vance, the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General, the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) were to be demilitarised and all armed forces other than UNPROFOR would be withdrawn or demobilised. These were areas where special measures were required and where a long-term cease-fire would have to be imposed. They were areas where Serbs constituted a majority or a sizeable minority of the population, and where tension between the ethnic communities had led to conflict.
UNPA Sector West was comprised of the Western Slavonia region of Croatia. It included Serb-occupied parts of the municipalities of Novska, Nova Gradiska, and Pakrac, where, in 1991, Serbs formed the largest ethnic group. The larger, northern part of this sector included the municipalities of Daruvar and Grubisno Polje, areas in which Croats were in a majority. Sector West as a whole showed Serbs and Croats as evenly balanced. At varying times, battalions deployed to Sector West included: the Argentine Battalion (ARGBAT); the Jordanian Battalion (JORBAT); and the Nepalese Battalion (NEPBAT).
The records of Sector West originate from both the UNPROFOR and UNCRO missions. These records include: traffic accident reports; Serious Incident Reports (SINCREP) regarding the actions of Croatian police forces within Sector West; mine clearance requests sent to the headquarters of UNPROFOR in Zagreb; reports on routine sector patrols; and daily situation reports (SITREP) reflecting the security conditions in the sector.
Additionally, Sector West was copied for information purposes on the following records: UNPROFOR monthly morbidity reports reflecting the causes of death for fatalities; incident reports from United Nations Military Police Platoon West and the other UNPA Sectors.
Operations Branch (G3 Ops)
The Operations Branch was located at UNPROFOR HQ and HQ UNPF in Zagreb, Croatia and was responsible for maintaining the flow of routine operational and logistical information between Headquarters and individual sectors. Included are records generated by the Operations Branch, the Operations Planning Branch, and the Operations Centre. The Operations Branch coordinated closely with the Land Operations Branch (G3 Land).
Records consist of: lists of Operations (OPS) as of 8 March 1994; mortar shelling reports; reinforcement and replacement of UNPROFOR memoranda; reports concerning the movement and reinforcement of battalions; reports on visits to United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) by high ranking military officers; daily situation reports generated by the Operations Centre and G3 Operations Branch; and memoranda concerning security status in sectors; and weekly incoming troop summaries.
Also included are: reports on the military operation of Tuzla Airport; the Alert Measures Catalogue defining UNPROFOR Alert States of Readiness as Green, Yellow and Red Measures; and reports concerning the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994. There is also a set of Standard Operating Procedures authored by the Operations Planning Branch (G3) for incoming troops upon their arrival to the area of operations. Additionally, there is a guide to the battalion symbols featured on deployment maps. It was authored by G3 Geographic Branch and forwarded to the Operations Planning Branch (G3).
United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), Zagreb
Acronyms of warring factions:
HVO – Croatian Defence Council, the official armed forces of the Croatia Republic of Herceg-Bosnia, an unrecognized entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina that existed between 1991 and 1994 during the Bosnian war.
HV – Croatian Armed Forces
BSA aka VRS – Bosnian Serb Army, aka Army of Republika Srpska (RS). The VRS was made up almost entirely of Serb Orthodox officers and recruits from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The formations that fought for the Bosnian Serb Army also included various Serbian paramilitary units, as well as Russian, and other volunteers.
(A)BiH – Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, aka Bosnian Croat Forces, aka Muslim forces
“(A)RSK” – Army of “Republic of Serbian Krajina,” an unrecognized, separatist entity in Croatia that existed between 1991 and 1995, comprised of an ethnic Serbian population.
JNA – Yugoslav People’s Army
Organization charts of the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) and Bosnia and Herzegovina Command (BH Command), dating from February 1994 are attached to this series.
Records of the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) primarily consist of daily situation reports generated at the headquarters of UNMO regional sectors, sent to UNMO HQ Zagreb, and copied to other UNMO regional sectors. The daily situation reports describe the general situation in the sector with sector highlights, and include descriptions of: warring party activity, such as restriction of movement (ROM) with date of incident, the geographical grid reference, and the party responsible for the obstruction; firing incidents (FI) and ceasefire violations (CFV), reporting type and from which faction; meetings with warring factions; the status of routes and crossing points; air activity; UNMO patrol activities; and military information, derived from UNMO observations and investigations. Some daily situation reports include data on injuries and casualties, both civilian and military.
Daily situation reports are present for: Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, documenting warring activities of the Army of Republika Srpkska (BSA) and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH); Sector North, Sector South, Sector East, and Sector West, documenting warring activities of the Croatian Armed Forces (HV) and the Army of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK); Sector Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH), Sector Sarajevo, Sector Gorazde and Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector North East, documenting warring activities of BiH and BSA; Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector South-West, documenting warring activities of BiH and the Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna (HVO); Sector Bihac, documenting warring activities of BiH, “RSK,” BSA and the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA); Sector Dubrovnik, documenting warring activities of BSA, JNA, HV, and HVO; the Airfield Monitoring Branch, documenting flight activities of the Croatian Air Force (CA) and BSA; and UNMO Headquarters in Zagreb, summarizing warring activities of all factions which were then forwarded to HQ UNPROFOR or UNPF HQ.
Significant events recorded in the daily situation reports include: the January 1993 Croatian offensive, Operation Maslenica (Sector South); the July 1993 Erdut Agreement and its implementation (Sector South); the 1993 Croatian offensive, Operation Medak Pocket (Sector South); shelling in Bihac city (Sector Bihac); and the May 1995 Croatian offensive, Operation Flash (Sector West). Events before and after the July 1995 Srebrenica Massacre are described in detail in the daily situation reports from Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector North-East.
Also present in the records of UNMO Zagreb are weekly military information summaries that report: an overall summary of areas being described; changes in the confrontation line; capabilities and intentions of warring parties; military assessments; attacks on and restrictions of movement (ROM) of UN personnel; and training exercises. Significant events recorded in the military information summaries include: investigations into war crimes at the village of Mirlovic Polje, Croatia (Sector South); trials of Serbs taken into custody during and after the Croatian offensive of 4-8 August 1995, Operation Storm (Sector South); the worsening situation in the Žepa Pocket, Bosnia and Herzegovina, with regard to hostilities against UNMO (Sector South); and analysis of minefield locations (Sector North).
Also included in the records are Special Reports, generated by UNMO and UNPROFOR/UNPF. These include:
Assessment: Situation in Srebrenica Enclave
Postscript to Srebrenica
Srebrenica: the Aftermath
Special Report on the Current Situation in the Žepa Pocket
Report on the Medak Operation and assessment of Human Casualties and Material Damages
Other reports from UNMO and UNPROFOR/UNPF included in the records are: daily Srebrenica Updates sent from Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector North East to BH Command and UNMO Headquarters, Zagreb; reports from the Jordanian Battalion, the Danish Battalion and from UNMO Sector North, which provide an overview and timetable of Operation Storm; survey reports on the humanitarian situation in Sector South following Operation Storm; an interim progress report regarding the implementation of an UNMO mission on the borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); and reports on the system of humanitarian aid distribution in the Žepa Pocket.
UNMO Patrol Reports document observations made by by UNMO teams during routine patrols. Their contents include: details of the Bosnian authorities’ prison in Šilo, Croatia, with Serb and HVO detainees listed; mujahidin activities in Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector South West, their alliance with ABiH, and confrontations with UNPROFOR; observations of the situation in Sarajevo directly following the signing of the Dayton Accord 15 December 1995, reporting on Serbs’ sentiments of betrayal and stated refusals to vacate historically Serbian sections of Sarajevo, as well as refusals to live under the Bosnian government.
The records include the Order of Battle (ORBAT) for the warring factions, which provide information about a faction’s strength and organization, and assess the faction’s objectives. The Order of Battle sometimes includes a Who’s Who guide to the warring faction with the name rank, age, location, and character profiles of prominent figures.
Weapons storage site reports (WSS) were completed by UNMO on the weapons holdings of warring factions, and list: weapon types held and weapon deployment by location with geographic grid reference.
Protest letters were the standard means for communication of grievances among UNMO and warring factions. Significant events recorded in protest letters include: BiH authorities’ protest of attempted sexual assault of civilians by soldiers of the Pakistani Battalion (PAKBAT); protest from the Croatian Council of Defence against PAKBAT’s actions during a school closing; and attacks on UNMO personnel, equipment, and presence sent to the warring factions involved in specific incidents.
The records of UNMO Zagreb include operational memoranda concerning directives and the organization, deployment, and relocation of UNMO. Other memoranda regard: the Markale Massacres (Sector Sarajevo); the 1995 ceasefire agreement for Bosnia and Herzegovina; and UNMO assessments of Operation Storm.
UNMO operated in concert with UNPROFOR and with UNPF following the reorganization of UNPROFOR, effective 31 March 1995.
United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), Belgrade Airfield Monitoring Coordination Center (BAMCC)
Records of the Belgrade Airfield Monitoring Coordination Center (BAMCC) primarily consist of daily situation reports sent to the Airfield Monitoring Branch in Pleso, Croatia and the Monitoring and Close Air Support Coordination Centre in Zagreb (MCCC Zagreb). They note: restrictions to UNMO freedom of movement, flight details, humanitarian activities, warring party conflict activity, and logistics. Also included are: airspace violation target reports which document fighter patrols carried out by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and detail flight coordinates and incidents; faxes describing medical evacuation flight paths, and listing the names of evacuees; inventories of vehicles and computer and communication equipment held by UNMO teams; memoranda on security and administrative matters; personnel and duty rosters, documenting name, rank, and nationality; and UNMO traffic accident reports and incident reports in the BAMCC area of operations.
United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
Records primarily consist of daily and weekly situation reports sent from UNMO FYROM headquarters in Skopje to UNMO headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia. Situation reports provide the Commander’s assessment, and note: patrol and investigation activities of UNMO teams; restrictions to freedom of movement; the status of routes and crossing points; operational changes and communications; UNMO interactions with UNPFORO Civil Affairs and Civilian Police officers, as well as with the local authorities and the local population; and warring party activity. There are also: reports of reconnaissance activity for deployment undertaken by UNMO in parts of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) from 28 December 1992 to 1 January 1993; weekly information summaries, which note developments in the military, political and civil situation in FYROM; flight requests; and personnel and duty rosters.
United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), Bosnia and Herzegovina Command
UNMO Bosnia and Herzegovina Command was headquartered in the municipality of Kiseljak. Records consist of daily situation reports, which detail: patrol and investigation activities of UNMO teams stationed in Bosnia and Herzegovina; restrictions to freedom of movement; the status of routes and crossing points; ceasefire violations; warring party activity; humanitarian activity; and meetings held by UNMOs with representatives of warring parties. Also included are: letters exchanged between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the President of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK) Radovan Karadžic; daily personnel reports, listing UNMOs by name and their duty locations; hand drawn maps of confrontation lines, positions, and points of attack; air transport requests; property inventories; and flight requests. Records of the UNMO Liaison Office, Pale and UNMO Sector Sarajevo consist of political theater summaries received from UNMO Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, crossing requests, and memoranda. The memoranda cover such topics as: convoy operations; deployment and relocation of UNMO teams; equipment requirements; military action of the Bosnian Serb Army (BSA), and of the Army of the Republic Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Liaison Office, Belgrade, Senior Military Liaison Officer (SMLO)
The Senior Military Liaison Officer (SMLO) operated from the Liaison Office, Belgrade, an office headed by UNPROFOR, that carried out both military and civil affairs functions. Records of the Senior Military Liaison Officer (SMLO) consist of weekly reports noting the arrangement of convoy crossings into and out of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), the status of vehicles and equipment, personnel rotation, significant UNPROFOR meetings held in Belgrade, the security alert state, and relations with the military authorities and the Government Committee on Cooperation with UNPROFOR of the FRY. Other records document: crossing requests for companies and battalions, as well as for convoys of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), sent from the SMLO to the Federal Government Committee on Cooperation with UNPROFOR (FRY) noting the locations of crossings, the number and type of vehicles, their load contents, and their destinations; and meteorological bulletins sent to the SMLO from the Federal Hydrometeorological Institute in Belgrade which describe weather conditions for areas under UNPROFOR administration.
Military Liaison Office (MLO), Zagreb
Military Liaison Office operations within the UNPROFOR mission facilitated the movement of humanitarian convoys, local officials, and diplomats across: official borders established between the former Yugoslav republics; crossing points established at Ceasefire Lines (CFL); and check points established within republics, United Nations Protected Areas (UNPA), or areas of conflict.
The records of the Military Liaison Office (MLO) consist of crossing requests describing: the departure time; destination; routing course; personnel composition; and goods inventories of humanitarian convoys. There are also crossing requests for military escorts for delegates, foreign diplomats and local officials. The crossing requests were sent from the Chief Military Liaison Officer (CMLO) or from the Military Liaison and Protocol Branch in Zagreb to United Nations Military Observer (UNMO) sectors and UNPROFOR/UNPF battalions. Routes were frequently undertaken from Zagreb, Croatia to Belgrade, Serbia; and from Zagreb, Croatia to Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In addition, crossing requests describe weapons and ammunition carried. The aid groups International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Caritas, and Médecins Sans Frontière supplied the humanitarian convoys. Some reports detail: restrictions of movement (ROM) at crossing points with the date and time of the incident; the geographic grid reference of the crossing point; and a description of the incident, including action taken or proposed.
Liaison Office, Belgrade
The Liaison Office, Belgrade was administered by UNPROFOR and carried out both military and civil affairs functions. Faxes consist of: weekly reports of the Senior Administration Officer (SAO) noting administrative, transport, and information technology developments, as well as military activities and engineering services; Press Briefing Notes and summaries of weekly press briefings given by the Spokesman and the Head of the Media and Information Section of the Liaison Office, Belgrade; letters exchanged between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the President of the Republic of Serbia Slobodan Miloševic; and briefs on relations between warring parties which were forwarded to the SRSG from the Delegate of the SRSG at the Liaison Office, Belgrade. Additionally, there are: Movement of Personnel (MOP) forms; purchase orders; weekly vehicle reports; administrative briefs on maintenance, supply orders, utilities, and contracting; and weekly reports of the Building Management Section of the Liaison Office, Belgrade.
Liaison Office, Ljubljana
The Liaison Office, Ljubljana was located in Slovenia. The records of the liaison office concern border crossing requests from UNPF staff through Slovenia. Policy and procedure memoranda are also included, and document policy on dangerous cargo crossings. Border crossing restriction notifications are also included.
Liaison Office, Slovakia
There is one file of documents for the Liaison Office, Slovakia, located in Lešt Camp. The documents concern vehicle-related technical training for the Pakistani (PAKBAT) and Bangladeshi (BANGBAT) battalions, with information about night driving and signal recognition. Incident reports detail steps taken by driver trainees to repair vehicles.
Records originating from Sector Sarajevo consist primarily of situation reports and memoranda that were sent to Bosnia and Herzegovina Command in Kiseljak. The weekly situation reports cover: engineering, fuel, vehicle, and accommodation matters. Other record types include: letters of protest and memoranda concerning the assassination by Serbian forces of Deputy Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina Hakija Turajlic on 8 January 1993; memoranda concerning the shelling of Kosovo Hospital in 1993; mine incident reports; shooting reports and incident reports (SHOOTREP and INCREP); crossing requests and movement of personnel forms; outlines of infrastructure restorations projects; engineering work request forms; personnel service agreements, particularly for translators; and notifications of casualties (NOTICAS).
Records of Sector Split were generated by the Forward Logistics Base Split (FLB SPLIT) and the Support Region Split (SRS), which were located in the port city of Split, Croatia. Records of the Forward Logistics Base consist primarily of memoranda on a variety of topics, including: battalion deployment; military-civil relations at the Split airport; mine clearance within the Split area; payment of leases and contractors; troop accommodation; the administration of utilities; and job descriptions. Records of the Support Region Split consist of: summaries of meetings about engineering projects held by Support Region Split; memoranda on operations in the Divulje Barracks; briefs on accommodation and use of premises in Split; and personnel lists. There are also agendas and summaries of visits of military officers to the Forward Logistics Base Split and the Support Region Split (SRS).
Records consist primarily of memoranda sent from Sector Bihac headquarters in Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to UNPROFOR and, later, to UNPF headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia. Memoranda topics include: deployment of UNPROFOR personnel; supply orders; food orders; mine incidents; payment of leases and contractors; troop accommodation; the administration of utilities; and job descriptions. Also included in the records are: engineering work request forms (ENGQUEST); engineering status reports; and crossing requests, describing the departure time, destination, routing information, and composition of UNPROFOR supply convoys.
The records of Sector North, headquartered in Topusko, Croatia, consist primarily of: military information summaries reporting on actions of warring parties in Sector North; situation reports on supplies and vehicles; monthly forecasts of events; weekly reports prepared by the Sector North Senior Administration Officer (SAO); weekly strength reports; and engineering work requests.
Also included are summaries of meetings between Sector North officials and the Banija Corps of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK), and between Sector North officials and local police authorities. Additionally there are summaries of Sector Joint Commission meetings between Sector North officials and warring factions regarding boundaries of the Zone of Separation (ZOS) and ceasefire violations.
There are also: reports on the status of refugees in Sector North; special reports on the investigation of the murder of seven Serb civilians in Glina, Croatia, in May 1993; briefs on a variety of engineering and humanitarian assistance issues; summaries of mine incidents and mine clearance reports; and hand-drawn diagrams of military activity.
The records of Sector South consist primarily of periodic situation reports, as well as: military information summaries reporting on the actions of warring parties in Sector South; weekly reports of the Camp Services Supervisor (CSS), describing activities associated with battalion accommodations; reports on the implementation of the ceasefire agreement; weekly reports of Engineering Operations Section of Sector South; monthly morbidity reports; situation reports on supplies and vehicles; weekly strength reports; and engineering work requests.
Sector South records also include briefs sent by the Sector South Commander, Colonel George Oehring, documenting: freedom of movement violations; the monitoring of Udbina Airfield; weapon storage facilities; and occupation of the Trlo Ridge in Croatia by Croatian forces. Also included are briefs concerning: warring activities around Peruca Dam, Croatia; the status of recognition of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK) by the United Nations and its affect on the peace process; meetings between Sector South officials and “RSK” officials as well as Croat military and political officials; summaries of mine incidents and mine clearance reports; and hand-drawn sketches of military activity.
Records originate from the headquarters of Sector West located in the town of Daruvar, Croatia. Periodic reports include: daily situation reports from Sector West; daily situation reports from the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) stationed in Sector West; weekly forecasts of activities for Sector West; weekly fuel situation reports; weekly accommodation reports; monthly morbidity reports; reports of weather in the Daruvar area; monthly attendance sheets; and reports by the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC) about visits to villages and prisons, and meetings with local authorities.
Also included are memoranda on a variety of subjects, including: the security of Sector West headquarters; occupation of premises throughout Sector West by UNPROFOR; the destruction of confiscated weapons; threats and intimidation of UN personnel; refugee movements; implementation of the ceasefire agreement; engineering projects throughout Sector West; winterisation; battalion rotation; and the employment of language assistants. There are also briefs on the 18 February 1994 attack of the UN checkpoint at Sava Bridge in Croatia by Serbian militia forces.
Sector East was located in Erdut, Croatia (Western Slavonia). Its records consist primarily of periodic reports, including: daily situation reports; daily reports of the Senior Administration Officer (SAO); daily military information summaries; weekly strength reports; daily weather and aviation reports; status reports on the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994; monthly morbidity reports; weekly communications situation reports; and weekly fuel situation reports.
Other records include: monthly law and order reports prepared by Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL), featuring crime figures and information about relations between UNPROFOR and local militia; evacuation plans for UNPROFOR civilian staff in Sector East; summaries of meetings between UNPROFOR and local authorities; protest letters between UNPROFOR and warring factions; traffic accident reports; engineering works requests; and helicopter flight requests.
Also present are briefs and reports on various subjects, including: the exploitation of oil fields in Sector East; UNPROFOR occupation of premises in Sector East; blockades of roads and crossings carried out by Croats; and the political program of the Serbian Radical Party.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector South West
Sector South West was located in the municipality of Gorjni Vakuf, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and reported to Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, which was headquartered in Kiseljak. The records primarily consist of periodic reports and memoranda. Periodic reports include: daily situation reports from the sector; weekly communications situation reports; daily situation reports on the status of roads and bridges in Sector South West, noting code names for routes, access status, and passing conditions; reports of the Camp Services Supervisor on accommodations of UNPROFOR military personnel; and radio frequency requests prepared by the Sector Signals Officer.
Military Information Summaries from Sector South West report on: battalion activities, particularly the British Battalion (BRITBAT), the British Cavalry Battalion (BRITCAVBAT), the Canadian Battalion (CANBAT), and the Turkish Battalion (TURKBAT); firing incidents; movements of warring factions; warring activity in the Maglaj Finger region; high-level military meetings; and convoy activities. Attached to Military Information Summaries are hand drawn maps of military activities.
There are also weekly “Good News” reports about the activities of G5 Cell, which coordinated civil and military operations. The reports detail battalion activities in the area of responsibility (AOR), specifically: the restoration of water, sewage and electricity services; the delivery of community medical service; and construction projects in local schools. Weekly “Good News” reports also note liaising activities between Sector South West officials and representatives of schools and civil institutions.
Additionally, there are summaries of meetings of the Joint Commission Policy Committee (JCPC), which implemented the administrative structure of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Meetings were attended by UNPROFOR representatives, the Bosnian delegation, and the Croatian delegation. Meeting topics include: political updates; the return of displaced persons; separation of forces; the dismantling of active sites and weapons collection points; freedom of convoy movement; and hostage taking. There are also summaries of meetings of the Regional Joint Commission.
Briefs are included on a variety of topics including: the future prospects of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; legal opinions of the arbitrator of the Federation; the implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (COHA), signed 31 December 1994; mujahidin activities in Sector South West; security plans for Sector South West; and the recruitment of language assistants. Also included is the concept of operations for Sector South West, dating from 23 January 1995.
Records related to engineering activities in Sector South West include: mine incident reports; weekly engineering situation reports; briefs and outlines for construction and infrastructure restoration projects; and minutes of meetings of the Sector South West Engineer Conference, attended by Sector South West and battalion engineer personnel.
Also present are records of the Senior Medical Liaison Officer (SMEDLO). They include: memoranda describing the duties of the SMEDLO; weekly morbidity reports; reports describing activities of the Medical Unit; reports on environmental health visits to battalions; and a paper dated 26 June 1995 on the medical situation in Sector South West and in the Split region of Croatia.
Other records of Sector South West include: personnel attendance sheets; travel requests; supply order forms; and correspondence related to financial disbursements to personnel.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector North East
Sector North East was located in the municipality of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and reported to Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, which was headquartered in Kiseljak. The records primarily consist of periodic reports and memoranda. Periodic reports include: military information summaries documenting ceasefire violations along the confrontation line in municipalities in Sector North East, such as Olovo, Vareš, Kladanj, Srebrenica, and the Sapna Thumb region; engineering situation reports; reports by Camp Services Supervisor about accommodations for UNPROFOR military personnel; weekly communications situation reports; and vehicle situation reports.
There are also weekly reports about the activities of the G5 Civil Military Operations, detailing the following battalion activities in the area of responsibility (AOR): restrictions of movement (ROM); the restoration of water, sewage and electricity services; the delivery of community medical services; construction projects in local schools; and movements of refugees and prisoners of war. Also detailed are meetings between Sector North East and local authorities.
Also present in the records of Sector North East are: briefs on the activities of the Jordanian Radar Battery (JORRADBTY); monthly attendance reports; contracts with language assistants; press releases issued by the Press and Information Officer of Sector North East, particularly on the refugee situation in Srebrenica; invoices and receipts for services; notifications of convoy movements; and issues of “Sector News”, the internal newsletter of Sector North East. There are also briefs pertaining to operations at Tuzla Airbase, located in Sector North East, covering: the organization and functions of the air base; operational capabilities; and the re-opening of the air base.
Bosnia and Herzegovina Command
Bosnia and Herzegovina Command (BH Command) was headquartered in Kiseljak, Croatia. BH Command was organized into Sector South West, Sector North East, and Sector Sarajevo, as well as into a Forward base in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and a Rear base in Split, Croatia. The Commander of BH Command was stationed at Kiseljak.
Periodic reports consist of: daily situation reports sent to UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia; tables noting violations of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement put into effect on 10 June 1994; engineer situation reports; medical evacuation reports detailing the names of evacuees and their medical state; notifications of casualties (NOTICAS); notifications of border crossings between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina; and flight requests documenting the air transport of high-level officials.
There are also weekly assessments of warring activity prepared by the Chief of Staff (COS), which include information about high-level meetings and analysis of the future intentions of warring parties and the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Military information summaries were sent to UNPROFOR headquarters and BH Command locations throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina. These document: warring party activities, including firing incidents (FI); changes of command of military leaders; and short-term 24-hour and long-term 72-hour assessments of the military situation, including speculation about warring party strategy.
Bosnia and Herzegovina radio news summaries were prepared by the Civil Affairs section of BH Command, and cover: UNPROFOR activities; political developments; international negotiations for peace in the region; humanitarian aid; and media interviews with high-profile political figures.
Also present in the records are letters of protest exchanged between the Commander or the Chief of Staff of BH Command and military leaders and political officials of the warring parties. Topics of these protest letters include: the assassination of Hakija Turajlic, the President of Bosnia and Herzegovina in January 1993; attacks and restrictions of movement (ROM) by warring factions on UNPROFOR aircraft and convoys; and violations of the use of air space.
The records also include summaries of meetings between high-level BH Command officials and military and political authorities. UNPROFOR officials leading the meetings included: Lieutenant General Phillippe Marillon; Lieutenant General Sir Michael Rose; General Rupert Smith; Yasushi Akashi, Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG); and Victor Andreev, Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General (DSRSG); and Sergio Vieira de Mello, Head of Civil Affairs (HCA). Meeting attendees included: Fikret Abdic; Mate Boban; General Janko Bobetko; General Božidar Delic; General Atif Dudakovic; Dr. Ejup Ganic; General Milan Gvero; General Sefer Halilovic; the President of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegovic; President Dr. Radovan Karadžic; Vice President Dr. Nikola Koljevic; Major General Manojlo Milovanovic; the President of Serbia, Slobodan Miloševic; General Ratko Mladic; the Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hasan Muratovic; General Milivoj Petkovic; General A. Roso; and Zdravko Tolimir.
Meeting summaries documenting the internal affairs of BH Command are also present. These include daily meetings led by the Chief of Staff and Commander’s daily briefings.
Also included are Operation Orders on such topics as the: principles for use of airstrikes in Bosnia and Herzegovina; authorization of Operation Blue Sword, a NATO-executed airstrike on Bosnian Serb forces (BSA) in Gorazde; establishment of Joint Commission meetings; implementation and monitoring of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement of 10 June 1994; delivery of humanitarian aid to central BH; medical support to Sector Sarajevo; Operation Lifeline; and the operation of Sarajevo Airport.
The records also include code cables between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Kofi Annan and Co-Chairs of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia (ICFY) Thorvald Stoltenberg and Lord David Owen, as well as Cyrus Vance, regarding: implementation of Security Council Resolution 836 (1993); deployment of UN Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) in BH; a Croatian-run detention centre in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; and agenda for a meeting with military leaders regarding the detention of UNMO personnel in 1992.
Notable records include: outlines describing the operational concepts of BH Command dating from September 1992; a memorandum on photograph development and evidence turn-over for war crimes investigations, dating from February 1994; Order of Battle (ORBAT) describing the command structure of warring factions, dating from September 1994; an analysis on the Carter Agreement and its implications on BH Command, 21 December 1994; a defence debriefing team tunnels information summary; and a proposal for the rights of movement and the management of displaced persons by UNPROFOR within Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Other records include: memoranda on the establishment of Safe Areas (SA) around Bihac, Tešanj, Tuzla, Gorazde, Žepa, and Srebrenica in 1993; analyses of BSA violations of the exclusion zone around Sarajevo; proposal for UNMO deployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and an inventory of medical assets of battalions and companies throughout BH Command.
United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) Headquarters, Zagreb
The records consist of a chronological arrangement of situation reports dating from April 1992 to October 1995 and generated by the UNPROFOR military component. The situation reports originate from: headquarters of sectors; Civilian Police (CIVPOL) headquarters in sectors; headquarters of United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) in sectors, as well as headquarters of local UNMO teams; battalions; Force Engineers stationed at sector headquarters; and Senior Military Observers (SMO) stationed at various locations. The situation reports primarily detail: violations of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994; restrictions to freedom of movement; firing incidents (FI), including small arms firing and shelling, and mortar and artillery rounds; and battalion operations. Some situation reports contain: Commanders’ assessments; graphs and tables on incidents and ceasefire violations; and hand drawn maps of military activity. The situation reports also note: deployment; status of crossing points; restrictions of movement on roads and bridges throughout sectors; movement of humanitarian convoys; refugee movements; hostile incidents against UNPROFOR personnel; exchanges of prisoners of war; mine clearance; and other topics. Additionally, there are: summaries of sector Joint Commission meetings on the implementation of the ceasefire agreement; summaries of meetings between UNPROFOR military officials and military officials of warring factions, and local political and police authorities; protest letters; flight lists; movement control forms; and daily personnel reports. Many situation reports were sent to UNPROFOR Headquarters in Zagreb; Croatia Command in Zagreb; and Bosnia and Herzegovina Command in Kiseljak.
UNPROFOR battalions were active in:
Argentine Battalion (ARGBAT): Camp Polom, Daruvar, Croatia, and Grubisno Polje, Croatia
Bangladeshi Battalion (BANGBAT): Camp Coralici, Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bataillion du Genie (BATGEN): Kakanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Belgian Battalion (BELBAT): Beli Manastir, Croatia
British Battalion (BRITBAT): Vitez, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Split, Croatia
Canadian Battalion (CANBAT): Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Czech Battalion (CZECHBAT): Korenica, Croatia
Danish Battalion (DANBAT): Kostajnica, Croatia
Dutch Battalion (DUTCHBAT): Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Egyptian Battalion (EGYBAT): Bistrik Settlement, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
French Battalion (FREBAT): Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Camp Pleso, Zagreb, Croatia
Indonesian Medical Battalion (INDOMEDBAT): Daruvar, Croatia
Jordanian Battalion (JORBAT): Novska, Croatia, Glina, Croatia, and Gracac, Croatia
Kenyan Battalion (KENBAT): Bribirske Mostine, Croatia
Malaysian Battalion (MALBAT): Konjic, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Nepalese Battalion (NEPBAT): Pustara, Croatia, and Bosanksa Gradiška, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Nordic Battalion (NORDBAT): Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Pakistani Battalion (PAKBAT): Vareš, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Split, Croatia
Polish Battalion (POLBAT): Slunj, Croatia
Russian Battalion (RUSBAT): Klisa, Croatia
Slovenian Engineer Battalion (SLOVENGBAT): Daruvar, Croatia
Spanish Battalion (SPABAT): Medjugorje, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Swedish Battalion (SWEBAT): Camp Pleso, Zagreb, Croatia
Turkish Battalion (TURKBAT): Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ukrainian Battalion (UKRBAT): Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
United States Contingent (USCON): Skopje, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
The battalion records were forwarded to sector headquarters and then sent to UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia. The records primarily consist of periodic reports, including: reports detailing the battalion’s weekly requirements for food, vehicles, and medical supplies; weekly strength reports; weekly logistic reports; reports relating to repatriation and the disbursement of payment; monthly morbidity reports; notifications of border crossings and air and ground transport requests; and engineering work requests. There are also: memoranda describing battalion activities such as medal parades and visits of VIPs; operation orders; and profiles of battalion leaders. Some memoranda were exchanged between national contingents in the field and military forces of countries contributing troops.
Additionally, the battalion records consist of: traffic accident reports; notification of casualties (NOTICAS); letters of assist (LOA) for the ordering of spare parts; letters of protest; Board of Inquiry reports; and reports detailing equipment seized by warring factions.
Records of note in the battalion records include: the British Battalion (BRITBAT) Operation Order 13/95, Operation Exodus, providing humanitarian assistance to Srebrenica refugees; a report titled “Medak Pocket Confrontation Line,” dated 21 March 1994, about Canadian Battalion (CANBAT) activities in the Medak Pocket in September 1993; humanitarian condition reports compiled by United Nations Military Observers (UNMOs) in Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina; memoranda authored by the Danish Battalion (DANBAT) regarding atrocities in Dvor, Croatia, dating from August 1995; memoranda authored by the Danish Battalion (DANBAT) regarding its coordination with humanitarian organizations; a memorandum written by the Commander of the Dutch Battalion (DUTCHBAT), Thomas Kerremans, dated 9 July 1995 and sent to Ratko Mladic about the Battalion’s retreat from Potocari, Bosnia and Herzegovina, immediately preceding the Srebrenica Massacre of July 1995; weekly regional political assessments of Western Bosnia authored by the French Battalion (FREBAT), which include analysis of UNPROFOR’s role in the region and maps of the confrontation lines; patrol reports of Sector West authored by the Nepalese Battalion (NEPBAT), which monitored conditions following Operation Flash; monthly facility hygiene inspection reports of various battalions completed by the Nordic Battalion (NORDBAT); memoranda detailing engineering activities by the Pakistani Battalion (PAKBAT) for the construction of hospitals in Vareš and Solun, Bosnia and Herzegovina; memoranda authored by the Polish Battalion (POLBAT) regarding refugee camps administered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Batnoga, Croatia, and Turanj, Karlovac, Croatia; memoranda, situation reports, crossing statistics, and information concerning the maintenance of a pontoon bridge which was constructed over the Neretva River by the Slovenian Engineer Battalion (SLOVENGBAT) as part of Operation Lifeline; memoranda concerning the mine clearance activities of the Slovenian Engineer Battalion (SLOVENGBAT); and a report titled “Operation Winter 93/94,” dated 10 December 1993, describing operation objectives of the Spanish Battalion (SPABAT) in Operation Lifeline.