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Military Support

Geographic Branch (G2 Geo)
Included are records of the Geographic Branch based at UNPROFOR HQ in Zagreb, Croatia, whose mission was to ensure that all land, amphibious, maritime and air forces committed to UNPROFOR were provided with the geographic information (mapping & data) essential to the planning, preparation and execution of operations in support of the Force mandate. Records of the Geographic Branch consist of: Faxes about the supply and distribution of maps to field battalions; administrative memoranda concerning Geographic Branch staffing and efforts to maintain appropriate stocks of maps; reports concerning the evolving mission of the Geographic Branch in relation to activities in the field; and order forms from international map and Geographic Information System (GIS) data suppliers.

Other records reflect: the maintenance of a $3.5 million store of topographic maps; the investigation, research, and documentation of changes pertaining to physical and cultural geographic features in the field; representation of battle lines and peace plan maps referencing on-going international negotiations (S-1838 Box 2 Folder 2); and the assessment of geographic information requirements in relation to the planning of future military operations and the development of policies.

Military Information Branch (MILINFO)
The office of the Military Information Branch was located in Zagreb, Croatia, and was tasked with managing the on-going flow of intelligence about warring factions between field battalions and UNPROFOR Headquarters. Records of the Military Information Branch include: minutes of meetings held between the Sector North (SN) Commander and Commanders of the Kordun Corps and the Banja Corps, units of the Serbian Army of Krajina (SVK) of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK); and minutes of meetings held between the Sector North (SN) Commander and military leaders of Operation Zone Zagreb (OZ Zagreb) and Operation Zone Karlovac (OZ Karlovac) of the Croatian Army (HV). There are also letters of protest written by UNPROFOR Sector Commanders to military and political leaders of warring factions, and letters of protest written by military leaders of warring factions to UNPROFOR. The letters of protest concern such actions as: the unauthorized removal and theft of United Nations property; small arms fire; looting of UNPROFOR military camps; seizure of weapons; obstructions to freedom of movement; and the hijacking of vehicles.

Records of the Military Information Branch also include: biographical information about military and political leaders of warring factions compiled by UNPROFOR for intelligence purposes; memoranda about border crossings circulated by UNPROFOR Croatia Command; weapons storage and inspection reports; operation orders for the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994; and mission-wide reports of violations of the cease-fire agreement.

Also present are daily and weekly military information summaries compiled by Sector North, Sector South, Sector South West, sector battalions, Croatia Command, Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, and the Bihac Area Command. These cover: troop movements and positions in sector areas of responsibility (AOS); activities inside the Zone of Separation (ZOS); troop movements of warring factions; aggressive military actions; violations of the ceasefire agreement; the attitude towards UNPROFOR and the United Nations; and weather conditions.

Land Operations Branch (G3 Land)
The Land Operations Branch was located at UNPROFOR HQ in Zagreb, Croatia and was responsible for the tactical coordination of operations between commands and sectors, and for the passage of tactical information affecting the functions and tasks of other branches and UNPROFOR organizations. Records include: weekly summaries of incoming UNPROFOR troops, which provide numbers on troop strength and note ranks and geographic positions; summaries of meetings of the Troop Reinforcement Coordination Sub-Committee (TRCSC); operational instructions and briefs on battalion deployment; executive summaries on battalion reinforcement and withdrawal, noting geographic limitations, assumptions, movement options, and recommended courses of action; and chronologies of incidents resulting in the restriction of UNPROFOR’s freedom of movement.

Also included are analytical summaries to the Chief of Staff (COS) written by G3 Land Operations officers on topics such as: activity in United Nations-designated safe areas; UNPROFOR’s confiscation and destruction of ordnance; the use of tactical information; nuclear, biological, and chemical threat to UNPROFOR troops; and sector boundaries.

Additionally, records include reports on: the status of vital supply lines throughout the mission area; warring factions’ activity levels; attacks on UNPROFOR by members of warring factions; minefield activity and threat; and medical treatment policies for civilians and soldiers of warring factions. Casualty reports are also present. There are also records of the Vehicle Establishment Working Group, which governed vehicle distribution within UNPROFOR, as well as memoranda on requirements and requests for vehicles, armoured personnel carriers (APC), and snow vehicles.

Air Operations Branch (G3 Air)
The Air Operations Branch was located at UNPROFOR HQ in Zagreb, Croatia, and their records include: Civilian Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) and Casualty Evacuation (CASEVAC) flight requests, as well as Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) and Casualty Evacuation (CASEVAC) flight checklists that monitor the conditions and personnel of such flights. These flights typically operated between UNPROFOR’s base in Pale (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Belgrade (Serbia), utilizing the route: Pale – Sokolac (Bosnia and Herzegovina) – Belgrade – Sokolac – Pale.

Additionally, the records of the Air Operations Branch include reports of observations of warring faction aircraft suspected of violating the UN No Fly Zone (NFZ).

Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS)
The Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS) was the administrative and planning staff of the Rapid Reaction Force, established by UN Security Council Resolution 998 (1995) to respond quickly to attacks on UNPROFOR in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS) enabled the Rapid Reaction Force to carry out its orders and liaise with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), including land, naval, and air power.

The United Kingdom, as the lead nation for the Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS), provided the commander (Major General Pennefather, Royal Marines), two thirds of the staff officers, and the communications and support personnel. France provided the remaining staff officers. The Rapid Reaction Operations Staff (RRFOS) was based at Kiseljak, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Rapid Response Force Operations Staff (RRFOS) officers were also placed within G3 Plans, G3 Operations (OPS), G3 Air Operations, Engineering (ENGR), Medical (MED) branches in order to facilitate quick action.

The records of the Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS) include: key issues memoranda reflecting on freedom of movement into Bosnia and Herzegovina from training facilities in Croatia; briefs on Bihac (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina) operations; situation reports of the British Force (BRITFOR) within the RRFOS; Operations Security (OPSEC) reports; memoranda reflecting how the RRFOS should implement its mandate based on lessons learned; intelligence reports; situation reports and briefs on matters related to engineering exchanged with UNPROFOR and UNPF headquarters; reports on the winterisation of facilities and vehicles; and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), directives, and orders defining the functions and responsibilities of the RRFOS.

Additional records of the Rapid Reaction Force Operations Staff (RRFOS) consist of: received the following records from other branches of the United Nations Peace Force (UNPF): Military Police guidelines; policies and procedures for the handling of prisoners; situation reports detailing the activities of the Air, Land, and Operations Branches; medical policies; reports and outlines on United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) restructuring; and a psychological operations study of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia.

Plans and Policy
Plans and Policy of the United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF) was tasked with planning for and tracking of UN military activities in the former Yugoslavia, particularly of troop levels and equipment the troops would require. Plans and Policy analyzed relationships between authorized strength, present strength, requirements on the ground, and incoming troops. Plans and Policy existed under UNPROFOR as G3 Plans. After UNPROFOR’s transition to UNPF administration in the former Yugoslavia on 31 March 1995, G3 Plans was renamed Plans and Policy (P and P). Included are records originating from UNPROFOR G3 Plans, as well as from UNPF Plans and Policy.

The records consist of: a “Baseline Study into UNPROFOR Force Levels” (29 April 1994) which analysed Force levels and made recommendations for the future; reports concerning the organization and equipment of battalions; weekly summaries of incoming troop levels in the sectors; operational security plans for the sectors that detail plans for emergency situations; lists of branches, offices, and units coming under the scope of UNPROFOR responsibility; and withdrawal plans to implement in the event that UNPROFOR was unable to carry out its mandate due to severe deterioration of conditions in the former Yugoslavia. Additionally, Plans and Policy records include: memoranda on the establishment of Croatia Command; protest letters to and from warring factions; and memoranda sent from the UNPROFOR Force Engineer on issues related to land mine clearance.

Memoranda issued by the Chief of Plans and Policy concern such topics as: troop reinforcements and movement; arms and vehicle supplies in the battalions; UNPF command and control; conversion training for battalions; and contingency planning for UNPROFOR withdrawal.

United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), Croatia Command
Croatia Command was established on 1 February 1994, pursuant to Security Council Resolution 871 (1994), during the tenure of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). Based at Ilica Barracks in Zagreb, Croatia, Croatia Command was responsible for coordinating and supervising the implementation of military and joint military, civil affairs, and humanitarian orders within the Croatian theatre. During the UNPROFOR mission Croatia Command’s objective was to: coordinate and conduct all operations in the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) and provide advice to the Force Commander on all related operational matters; represent the Force Commander in operational negotiations with Croatian and “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK) military authorities; ensure that the Force Commander’s directives, guidelines, and policies were clearly understood by sector commanders; conduct studies and analyses in order to improve operations in the United Nations Protected Area (UNPA’s); ensure a common standard of proficiency and procedures in mission-specific tasks; and coordinate an active visits programme within the Command. Croatia Command came under the purview of the United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), following UNCRO’s replacement of UNPROFOR, effective 31 March 1995.

Records reflect Croatia Command operations during both UNPROFOR and UNCRO. They include: reports on the Zagreb–Belgrade highway’s operability and safety; memoranda on the withdrawal of UN troops and the dismantling of bases in accordance with the exit strategy; reports of Croatian forces’ burning and looting private property; letters of protest regarding restrictions of UN troop movements; and lists of deployments of additional troops for enhanced sector security. Also included in the records of the Croatia Command are administrative and logistic operations instructions covering: battalion repatriation timelines; information technology services; sector withdrawal plans; UN protest letters to Croatian generals; and medical support planning documents.

There are also Operations Orders and Warning Orders issued by the Croatia Command. These concern: close air support for battalion withdrawal; observations of military vehicle movement in and out of Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, near the Croatian border; observations of the air field in Udbina, Croatia; bridges over rivers in Croatia; and command visits to battalion camps in the sectors.

United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), Sector South
Sector South was a United Nations Protected Area (UNPA) of the UNPROFOR mission and later UNCRO mission in the former Yugoslavia. Pursuant to the Vance Plan put forth in 1991 by Cyrus Vance, the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General, the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPA) were to be demilitarised and all armed forces other than UNPROFOR would be withdrawn or demobilised. These were areas where special measures were required and where a long-term cease-fire would have to be imposed. They were areas where Serbs constituted a majority or a sizeable minority of the population, and where tension between the ethnic communities had led to conflict.

Sector South had its headquarters at Knin, Croatia, and covered the geographic regions within Croatia of East Lika and North Dalmatia, including the municipalities of Donji Lapac, Titova Korenica, and Gracac in the eastern part of Lika, and the municipalities of Obrovac, Benkovac and Knin in northern Dalmatia. According to the 1991 Croatian census, the proportion of Serbs in Sector South was 75.7% and of Croats 21.2%. The situation on the ground made it necessary for UNPROFOR to take control of certain Serb-controlled counties or municipalities outside the UNPAs, called Pink Zones. The most extensive Pink Zones were established around Sector South. They included the Serbian-occupied parts of the municipalities within Croatia of Sinj, Drniš, Šibenik, Zadar, Gospic and Otocac. All of these municipalities contained an ethnic mix of Serbs and Croats. Pink Zones were also designated in occupied parts of the municipalities of Ogulin, Duga Resa, Karlovac and Sisak. At varying times, UNPROFOR and UNCRO battalions deployed to Sector South included: the Canadian Battalion (CANBAT); the Czech Battalion (CZEBAT); the Jordanian Battalion (JORBAT); the Kenyan Battalion (KENBAT); the Nepalese Battalion (NEPBAT) and the Danish Battalion (DANBAT).

The records of Sector South originate from both the UNPROFOR and UNCRO missions. These records include: reports on routine sector patrols; reports on civilian fatalities; briefs on battalion movements; vehicle accident reports; meeting minutes of the working group tasked with strategic planning for Sector South, the Joint Commission on Sector South; and daily situation reports (SITREP) reflecting the security conditions in the sector.

In addition, the records of Sector South contain: memoranda on the movement of displaced persons from Sector South; Displaced Persons Briefs documenting the 700-800 displaced persons present in Sector South Headquarters Camp at Knin, Croatia, including lists of all individuals present and lists of refugee medical patients; an After Action Report on Operation Safe Passage, an operation to transfer internally displaced persons (IDPs) from Knin to Lipovac; and Incident Reports (NOTICAS) on vehicle accidents, anti-personnel mines, and anti-tank mines.

United Nation Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), Sector West
Sector West was United Nations Protected Area (UNPA) of the UNPROFOR mission and later UNCRO mission in the former Yugoslavia. Pursuant to the Vance Plan put forth in 1991 by Cyrus Vance, the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General, the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) were to be demilitarised and all armed forces other than UNPROFOR would be withdrawn or demobilised. These were areas where special measures were required and where a long-term cease-fire would have to be imposed. They were areas where Serbs constituted a majority or a sizeable minority of the population, and where tension between the ethnic communities had led to conflict.

UNPA Sector West was comprised of the Western Slavonia region of Croatia. It included Serb-occupied parts of the municipalities of Novska, Nova Gradiska, and Pakrac, where, in 1991, Serbs formed the largest ethnic group. The larger, northern part of this sector included the municipalities of Daruvar and Grubisno Polje, areas in which Croats were in a majority. Sector West as a whole showed Serbs and Croats as evenly balanced. At varying times, battalions deployed to Sector West included: the Argentine Battalion (ARGBAT); the Jordanian Battalion (JORBAT); and the Nepalese Battalion (NEPBAT).

The records of Sector West originate from both the UNPROFOR and UNCRO missions. These records include: traffic accident reports; Serious Incident Reports (SINCREP) regarding the actions of Croatian police forces within Sector West; mine clearance requests sent to the headquarters of UNPROFOR in Zagreb; reports on routine sector patrols; and daily situation reports (SITREP) reflecting the security conditions in the sector.

Additionally, Sector West was copied for information purposes on the following records: UNPROFOR monthly morbidity reports reflecting the causes of death for fatalities; incident reports from United Nations Military Police Platoon West and the other UNPA Sectors.

Operations Branch (G3 Ops)
The Operations Branch was located at UNPROFOR HQ and HQ UNPF in Zagreb, Croatia and was responsible for maintaining the flow of routine operational and logistical information between Headquarters and individual sectors. Included are records generated by the Operations Branch, the Operations Planning Branch, and the Operations Centre. The Operations Branch coordinated closely with the Land Operations Branch (G3 Land).

Records consist of: lists of Operations (OPS) as of 8 March 1994; mortar shelling reports; reinforcement and replacement of UNPROFOR memoranda; reports concerning the movement and reinforcement of battalions; reports on visits to United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) by high ranking military officers; daily situation reports generated by the Operations Centre and G3 Operations Branch; and memoranda concerning security status in sectors; and weekly incoming troop summaries.

Also included are: reports on the military operation of Tuzla Airport; the Alert Measures Catalogue defining UNPROFOR Alert States of Readiness as Green, Yellow and Red Measures; and reports concerning the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994. There is also a set of Standard Operating Procedures authored by the Operations Planning Branch (G3) for incoming troops upon their arrival to the area of operations. Additionally, there is a guide to the battalion symbols featured on deployment maps. It was authored by G3 Geographic Branch and forwarded to the Operations Planning Branch (G3).

United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), Zagreb

Acronyms of warring factions:

HVO – Croatian Defence Council, the official armed forces of the Croatia Republic of Herceg-Bosnia, an unrecognized entity in Bosnia and Herzegovina that existed between 1991 and 1994 during the Bosnian war.

HV – Croatian Armed Forces

BSA aka VRS – Bosnian Serb Army, aka Army of Republika Srpska (RS). The VRS was made up almost entirely of Serb Orthodox officers and recruits from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The formations that fought for the Bosnian Serb Army also included various Serbian paramilitary units, as well as Russian, and other volunteers.

(A)BiH – Army of Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, aka Bosnian Croat Forces, aka Muslim forces

“(A)RSK” – Army of “Republic of Serbian Krajina,” an unrecognized, separatist entity in Croatia that existed between 1991 and 1995, comprised of an ethnic Serbian population.

JNA – Yugoslav People’s Army

Organization charts of the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) and Bosnia and Herzegovina Command (BH Command), dating from February 1994 are attached to this series.

Records of the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) primarily consist of daily situation reports generated at the headquarters of UNMO regional sectors, sent to UNMO HQ Zagreb, and copied to other UNMO regional sectors. The daily situation reports describe the general situation in the sector with sector highlights, and include descriptions of: warring party activity, such as restriction of movement (ROM) with date of incident, the geographical grid reference, and the party responsible for the obstruction; firing incidents (FI) and ceasefire violations (CFV), reporting type and from which faction; meetings with warring factions; the status of routes and crossing points; air activity; UNMO patrol activities; and military information, derived from UNMO observations and investigations. Some daily situation reports include data on injuries and casualties, both civilian and military.

Daily situation reports are present for: Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, documenting warring activities of the Army of Republika Srpkska (BSA) and the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH); Sector North, Sector South, Sector East, and Sector West, documenting warring activities of the Croatian Armed Forces (HV) and the Army of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK); Sector Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH), Sector Sarajevo, Sector Gorazde and Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector North East, documenting warring activities of BiH and BSA; Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector South-West, documenting warring activities of BiH and the Croatian Republic of Herceg-Bosna (HVO); Sector Bihac, documenting warring activities of BiH, “RSK,” BSA and the Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA); Sector Dubrovnik, documenting warring activities of BSA, JNA, HV, and HVO; the Airfield Monitoring Branch, documenting flight activities of the Croatian Air Force (CA) and BSA; and UNMO Headquarters in Zagreb, summarizing warring activities of all factions which were then forwarded to HQ UNPROFOR or UNPF HQ.

Significant events recorded in the daily situation reports include: the January 1993 Croatian offensive, Operation Maslenica (Sector South); the July 1993 Erdut Agreement and its implementation (Sector South); the 1993 Croatian offensive, Operation Medak Pocket (Sector South); shelling in Bihac city (Sector Bihac); and the May 1995 Croatian offensive, Operation Flash (Sector West). Events before and after the July 1995 Srebrenica Massacre are described in detail in the daily situation reports from Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector North-East.

Also present in the records of UNMO Zagreb are weekly military information summaries that report: an overall summary of areas being described; changes in the confrontation line; capabilities and intentions of warring parties; military assessments; attacks on and restrictions of movement (ROM) of UN personnel; and training exercises. Significant events recorded in the military information summaries include: investigations into war crimes at the village of Mirlovic Polje, Croatia (Sector South); trials of Serbs taken into custody during and after the Croatian offensive of 4-8 August 1995, Operation Storm (Sector South); the worsening situation in the Žepa Pocket, Bosnia and Herzegovina, with regard to hostilities against UNMO (Sector South); and analysis of minefield locations (Sector North).

Also included in the records are Special Reports, generated by UNMO and UNPROFOR/UNPF. These include:
Assessment: Situation in Srebrenica Enclave
Postscript to Srebrenica
Srebrenica: the Aftermath
Special Report on the Current Situation in the Žepa Pocket
Report on the Medak Operation and assessment of Human Casualties and Material Damages

Other reports from UNMO and UNPROFOR/UNPF included in the records are: daily Srebrenica Updates sent from Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector North East to BH Command and UNMO Headquarters, Zagreb; reports from the Jordanian Battalion, the Danish Battalion and from UNMO Sector North, which provide an overview and timetable of Operation Storm; survey reports on the humanitarian situation in Sector South following Operation Storm; an interim progress report regarding the implementation of an UNMO mission on the borders of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); and reports on the system of humanitarian aid distribution in the Žepa Pocket.

UNMO Patrol Reports document observations made by by UNMO teams during routine patrols. Their contents include: details of the Bosnian authorities’ prison in Šilo, Croatia, with Serb and HVO detainees listed; mujahidin activities in Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector South West, their alliance with ABiH, and confrontations with UNPROFOR; observations of the situation in Sarajevo directly following the signing of the Dayton Accord 15 December 1995, reporting on Serbs’ sentiments of betrayal and stated refusals to vacate historically Serbian sections of Sarajevo, as well as refusals to live under the Bosnian government.

The records include the Order of Battle (ORBAT) for the warring factions, which provide information about a faction’s strength and organization, and assess the faction’s objectives. The Order of Battle sometimes includes a Who’s Who guide to the warring faction with the name rank, age, location, and character profiles of prominent figures.

Weapons storage site reports (WSS) were completed by UNMO on the weapons holdings of warring factions, and list: weapon types held and weapon deployment by location with geographic grid reference.

Protest letters were the standard means for communication of grievances among UNMO and warring factions. Significant events recorded in protest letters include: BiH authorities’ protest of attempted sexual assault of civilians by soldiers of the Pakistani Battalion (PAKBAT); protest from the Croatian Council of Defence against PAKBAT’s actions during a school closing; and attacks on UNMO personnel, equipment, and presence sent to the warring factions involved in specific incidents.

The records of UNMO Zagreb include operational memoranda concerning directives and the organization, deployment, and relocation of UNMO. Other memoranda regard: the Markale Massacres (Sector Sarajevo); the 1995 ceasefire agreement for Bosnia and Herzegovina; and UNMO assessments of Operation Storm.

UNMO operated in concert with UNPROFOR and with UNPF following the reorganization of UNPROFOR, effective 31 March 1995.

United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), Belgrade Airfield Monitoring Coordination Center (BAMCC)
Records of the Belgrade Airfield Monitoring Coordination Center (BAMCC) primarily consist of daily situation reports sent to the Airfield Monitoring Branch in Pleso, Croatia and the Monitoring and Close Air Support Coordination Centre in Zagreb (MCCC Zagreb). They note: restrictions to UNMO freedom of movement, flight details, humanitarian activities, warring party conflict activity, and logistics. Also included are: airspace violation target reports which document fighter patrols carried out by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and detail flight coordinates and incidents; faxes describing medical evacuation flight paths, and listing the names of evacuees; inventories of vehicles and computer and communication equipment held by UNMO teams; memoranda on security and administrative matters; personnel and duty rosters, documenting name, rank, and nationality; and UNMO traffic accident reports and incident reports in the BAMCC area of operations.

United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
Records primarily consist of daily and weekly situation reports sent from UNMO FYROM headquarters in Skopje to UNMO headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia. Situation reports provide the Commander’s assessment, and note: patrol and investigation activities of UNMO teams; restrictions to freedom of movement; the status of routes and crossing points; operational changes and communications; UNMO interactions with UNPFORO Civil Affairs and Civilian Police officers, as well as with the local authorities and the local population; and warring party activity. There are also: reports of reconnaissance activity for deployment undertaken by UNMO in parts of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) from 28 December 1992 to 1 January 1993; weekly information summaries, which note developments in the military, political and civil situation in FYROM; flight requests; and personnel and duty rosters.

United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), Bosnia and Herzegovina Command
UNMO Bosnia and Herzegovina Command was headquartered in the municipality of Kiseljak. Records consist of daily situation reports, which detail: patrol and investigation activities of UNMO teams stationed in Bosnia and Herzegovina; restrictions to freedom of movement; the status of routes and crossing points; ceasefire violations; warring party activity; humanitarian activity; and meetings held by UNMOs with representatives of warring parties. Also included are: letters exchanged between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the President of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK) Radovan Karadžic; daily personnel reports, listing UNMOs by name and their duty locations; hand drawn maps of confrontation lines, positions, and points of attack; air transport requests; property inventories; and flight requests. Records of the UNMO Liaison Office, Pale and UNMO Sector Sarajevo consist of political theater summaries received from UNMO Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, crossing requests, and memoranda. The memoranda cover such topics as: convoy operations; deployment and relocation of UNMO teams; equipment requirements; military action of the Bosnian Serb Army (BSA), and of the Army of the Republic Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Liaison Office, Belgrade, Senior Military Liaison Officer (SMLO)
The Senior Military Liaison Officer (SMLO) operated from the Liaison Office, Belgrade, an office headed by UNPROFOR, that carried out both military and civil affairs functions. Records of the Senior Military Liaison Officer (SMLO) consist of weekly reports noting the arrangement of convoy crossings into and out of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), the status of vehicles and equipment, personnel rotation, significant UNPROFOR meetings held in Belgrade, the security alert state, and relations with the military authorities and the Government Committee on Cooperation with UNPROFOR of the FRY. Other records document: crossing requests for companies and battalions, as well as for convoys of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), sent from the SMLO to the Federal Government Committee on Cooperation with UNPROFOR (FRY) noting the locations of crossings, the number and type of vehicles, their load contents, and their destinations; and meteorological bulletins sent to the SMLO from the Federal Hydrometeorological Institute in Belgrade which describe weather conditions for areas under UNPROFOR administration.

Military Liaison Office (MLO), Zagreb
Military Liaison Office operations within the UNPROFOR mission facilitated the movement of humanitarian convoys, local officials, and diplomats across: official borders established between the former Yugoslav republics; crossing points established at Ceasefire Lines (CFL); and check points established within republics, United Nations Protected Areas (UNPA), or areas of conflict.

The records of the Military Liaison Office (MLO) consist of crossing requests describing: the departure time; destination; routing course; personnel composition; and goods inventories of humanitarian convoys. There are also crossing requests for military escorts for delegates, foreign diplomats and local officials. The crossing requests were sent from the Chief Military Liaison Officer (CMLO) or from the Military Liaison and Protocol Branch in Zagreb to United Nations Military Observer (UNMO) sectors and UNPROFOR/UNPF battalions. Routes were frequently undertaken from Zagreb, Croatia to Belgrade, Serbia; and from Zagreb, Croatia to Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

In addition, crossing requests describe weapons and ammunition carried. The aid groups International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Caritas, and Médecins Sans Frontière supplied the humanitarian convoys. Some reports detail: restrictions of movement (ROM) at crossing points with the date and time of the incident; the geographic grid reference of the crossing point; and a description of the incident, including action taken or proposed.

Liaison Office, Belgrade
The Liaison Office, Belgrade was administered by UNPROFOR and carried out both military and civil affairs functions. Faxes consist of: weekly reports of the Senior Administration Officer (SAO) noting administrative, transport, and information technology developments, as well as military activities and engineering services; Press Briefing Notes and summaries of weekly press briefings given by the Spokesman and the Head of the Media and Information Section of the Liaison Office, Belgrade; letters exchanged between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the President of the Republic of Serbia Slobodan Miloševic; and briefs on relations between warring parties which were forwarded to the SRSG from the Delegate of the SRSG at the Liaison Office, Belgrade. Additionally, there are: Movement of Personnel (MOP) forms; purchase orders; weekly vehicle reports; administrative briefs on maintenance, supply orders, utilities, and contracting; and weekly reports of the Building Management Section of the Liaison Office, Belgrade.

Liaison Office, Ljubljana
The Liaison Office, Ljubljana was located in Slovenia. The records of the liaison office concern border crossing requests from UNPF staff through Slovenia. Policy and procedure memoranda are also included, and document policy on dangerous cargo crossings. Border crossing restriction notifications are also included.

Liaison Office, Slovakia
There is one file of documents for the Liaison Office, Slovakia, located in Lešt Camp. The documents concern vehicle-related technical training for the Pakistani (PAKBAT) and Bangladeshi (BANGBAT) battalions, with information about night driving and signal recognition. Incident reports detail steps taken by driver trainees to repair vehicles.

Sector Sarajevo
Records originating from Sector Sarajevo consist primarily of situation reports and memoranda that were sent to Bosnia and Herzegovina Command in Kiseljak. The weekly situation reports cover: engineering, fuel, vehicle, and accommodation matters. Other record types include: letters of protest and memoranda concerning the assassination by Serbian forces of Deputy Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina Hakija Turajlic on 8 January 1993; memoranda concerning the shelling of Kosovo Hospital in 1993; mine incident reports; shooting reports and incident reports (SHOOTREP and INCREP); crossing requests and movement of personnel forms; outlines of infrastructure restorations projects; engineering work request forms; personnel service agreements, particularly for translators; and notifications of casualties (NOTICAS).

Sector Split
Records of Sector Split were generated by the Forward Logistics Base Split (FLB SPLIT) and the Support Region Split (SRS), which were located in the port city of Split, Croatia. Records of the Forward Logistics Base consist primarily of memoranda on a variety of topics, including: battalion deployment; military-civil relations at the Split airport; mine clearance within the Split area; payment of leases and contractors; troop accommodation; the administration of utilities; and job descriptions. Records of the Support Region Split consist of: summaries of meetings about engineering projects held by Support Region Split; memoranda on operations in the Divulje Barracks; briefs on accommodation and use of premises in Split; and personnel lists. There are also agendas and summaries of visits of military officers to the Forward Logistics Base Split and the Support Region Split (SRS).

Sector Bihac
Records consist primarily of memoranda sent from Sector Bihac headquarters in Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, to UNPROFOR and, later, to UNPF headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia. Memoranda topics include: deployment of UNPROFOR personnel; supply orders; food orders; mine incidents; payment of leases and contractors; troop accommodation; the administration of utilities; and job descriptions. Also included in the records are: engineering work request forms (ENGQUEST); engineering status reports; and crossing requests, describing the departure time, destination, routing information, and composition of UNPROFOR supply convoys.

Sector North
The records of Sector North, headquartered in Topusko, Croatia, consist primarily of: military information summaries reporting on actions of warring parties in Sector North; situation reports on supplies and vehicles; monthly forecasts of events; weekly reports prepared by the Sector North Senior Administration Officer (SAO); weekly strength reports; and engineering work requests.

Also included are summaries of meetings between Sector North officials and the Banija Corps of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK), and between Sector North officials and local police authorities. Additionally there are summaries of Sector Joint Commission meetings between Sector North officials and warring factions regarding boundaries of the Zone of Separation (ZOS) and ceasefire violations.

There are also: reports on the status of refugees in Sector North; special reports on the investigation of the murder of seven Serb civilians in Glina, Croatia, in May 1993; briefs on a variety of engineering and humanitarian assistance issues; summaries of mine incidents and mine clearance reports; and hand-drawn diagrams of military activity.

Sector South
The records of Sector South consist primarily of periodic situation reports, as well as: military information summaries reporting on the actions of warring parties in Sector South; weekly reports of the Camp Services Supervisor (CSS), describing activities associated with battalion accommodations; reports on the implementation of the ceasefire agreement; weekly reports of Engineering Operations Section of Sector South; monthly morbidity reports; situation reports on supplies and vehicles; weekly strength reports; and engineering work requests.

Sector South records also include briefs sent by the Sector South Commander, Colonel George Oehring, documenting: freedom of movement violations; the monitoring of Udbina Airfield; weapon storage facilities; and occupation of the Trlo Ridge in Croatia by Croatian forces. Also included are briefs concerning: warring activities around Peruca Dam, Croatia; the status of recognition of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK) by the United Nations and its affect on the peace process; meetings between Sector South officials and “RSK” officials as well as Croat military and political officials; summaries of mine incidents and mine clearance reports; and hand-drawn sketches of military activity.

Sector West
Records originate from the headquarters of Sector West located in the town of Daruvar, Croatia. Periodic reports include: daily situation reports from Sector West; daily situation reports from the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) stationed in Sector West; weekly forecasts of activities for Sector West; weekly fuel situation reports; weekly accommodation reports; monthly morbidity reports; reports of weather in the Daruvar area; monthly attendance sheets; and reports by the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC) about visits to villages and prisons, and meetings with local authorities.

Also included are memoranda on a variety of subjects, including: the security of Sector West headquarters; occupation of premises throughout Sector West by UNPROFOR; the destruction of confiscated weapons; threats and intimidation of UN personnel; refugee movements; implementation of the ceasefire agreement; engineering projects throughout Sector West; winterisation; battalion rotation; and the employment of language assistants. There are also briefs on the 18 February 1994 attack of the UN checkpoint at Sava Bridge in Croatia by Serbian militia forces.

Sector East
Sector East was located in Erdut, Croatia (Western Slavonia). Its records consist primarily of periodic reports, including: daily situation reports; daily reports of the Senior Administration Officer (SAO); daily military information summaries; weekly strength reports; daily weather and aviation reports; status reports on the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994; monthly morbidity reports; weekly communications situation reports; and weekly fuel situation reports.

Other records include: monthly law and order reports prepared by Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL), featuring crime figures and information about relations between UNPROFOR and local militia; evacuation plans for UNPROFOR civilian staff in Sector East; summaries of meetings between UNPROFOR and local authorities; protest letters between UNPROFOR and warring factions; traffic accident reports; engineering works requests; and helicopter flight requests.

Also present are briefs and reports on various subjects, including: the exploitation of oil fields in Sector East; UNPROFOR occupation of premises in Sector East; blockades of roads and crossings carried out by Croats; and the political program of the Serbian Radical Party.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector South West
Sector South West was located in the municipality of Gorjni Vakuf, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and reported to Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, which was headquartered in Kiseljak. The records primarily consist of periodic reports and memoranda. Periodic reports include: daily situation reports from the sector; weekly communications situation reports; daily situation reports on the status of roads and bridges in Sector South West, noting code names for routes, access status, and passing conditions; reports of the Camp Services Supervisor on accommodations of UNPROFOR military personnel; and radio frequency requests prepared by the Sector Signals Officer.

Military Information Summaries from Sector South West report on: battalion activities, particularly the British Battalion (BRITBAT), the British Cavalry Battalion (BRITCAVBAT), the Canadian Battalion (CANBAT), and the Turkish Battalion (TURKBAT); firing incidents; movements of warring factions; warring activity in the Maglaj Finger region; high-level military meetings; and convoy activities. Attached to Military Information Summaries are hand drawn maps of military activities.

There are also weekly “Good News” reports about the activities of G5 Cell, which coordinated civil and military operations. The reports detail battalion activities in the area of responsibility (AOR), specifically: the restoration of water, sewage and electricity services; the delivery of community medical service; and construction projects in local schools. Weekly “Good News” reports also note liaising activities between Sector South West officials and representatives of schools and civil institutions.

Additionally, there are summaries of meetings of the Joint Commission Policy Committee (JCPC), which implemented the administrative structure of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Meetings were attended by UNPROFOR representatives, the Bosnian delegation, and the Croatian delegation. Meeting topics include: political updates; the return of displaced persons; separation of forces; the dismantling of active sites and weapons collection points; freedom of convoy movement; and hostage taking. There are also summaries of meetings of the Regional Joint Commission.

Briefs are included on a variety of topics including: the future prospects of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina; legal opinions of the arbitrator of the Federation; the implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (COHA), signed 31 December 1994; mujahidin activities in Sector South West; security plans for Sector South West; and the recruitment of language assistants. Also included is the concept of operations for Sector South West, dating from 23 January 1995.

Records related to engineering activities in Sector South West include: mine incident reports; weekly engineering situation reports; briefs and outlines for construction and infrastructure restoration projects; and minutes of meetings of the Sector South West Engineer Conference, attended by Sector South West and battalion engineer personnel.

Also present are records of the Senior Medical Liaison Officer (SMEDLO). They include: memoranda describing the duties of the SMEDLO; weekly morbidity reports; reports describing activities of the Medical Unit; reports on environmental health visits to battalions; and a paper dated 26 June 1995 on the medical situation in Sector South West and in the Split region of Croatia.

Other records of Sector South West include: personnel attendance sheets; travel requests; supply order forms; and correspondence related to financial disbursements to personnel.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Sector North East
Sector North East was located in the municipality of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and reported to Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, which was headquartered in Kiseljak. The records primarily consist of periodic reports and memoranda. Periodic reports include: military information summaries documenting ceasefire violations along the confrontation line in municipalities in Sector North East, such as Olovo, Vareš, Kladanj, Srebrenica, and the Sapna Thumb region; engineering situation reports; reports by Camp Services Supervisor about accommodations for UNPROFOR military personnel; weekly communications situation reports; and vehicle situation reports.

There are also weekly reports about the activities of the G5 Civil Military Operations, detailing the following battalion activities in the area of responsibility (AOR): restrictions of movement (ROM); the restoration of water, sewage and electricity services; the delivery of community medical services; construction projects in local schools; and movements of refugees and prisoners of war. Also detailed are meetings between Sector North East and local authorities.

Also present in the records of Sector North East are: briefs on the activities of the Jordanian Radar Battery (JORRADBTY); monthly attendance reports; contracts with language assistants; press releases issued by the Press and Information Officer of Sector North East, particularly on the refugee situation in Srebrenica; invoices and receipts for services; notifications of convoy movements; and issues of “Sector News”, the internal newsletter of Sector North East. There are also briefs pertaining to operations at Tuzla Airbase, located in Sector North East, covering: the organization and functions of the air base; operational capabilities; and the re-opening of the air base.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Command
Bosnia and Herzegovina Command (BH Command) was headquartered in Kiseljak, Croatia. BH Command was organized into Sector South West, Sector North East, and Sector Sarajevo, as well as into a Forward base in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and a Rear base in Split, Croatia. The Commander of BH Command was stationed at Kiseljak.

Periodic reports consist of: daily situation reports sent to UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia; tables noting violations of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement put into effect on 10 June 1994; engineer situation reports; medical evacuation reports detailing the names of evacuees and their medical state; notifications of casualties (NOTICAS); notifications of border crossings between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina; and flight requests documenting the air transport of high-level officials.

There are also weekly assessments of warring activity prepared by the Chief of Staff (COS), which include information about high-level meetings and analysis of the future intentions of warring parties and the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Military information summaries were sent to UNPROFOR headquarters and BH Command locations throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina. These document: warring party activities, including firing incidents (FI); changes of command of military leaders; and short-term 24-hour and long-term 72-hour assessments of the military situation, including speculation about warring party strategy.

Bosnia and Herzegovina radio news summaries were prepared by the Civil Affairs section of BH Command, and cover: UNPROFOR activities; political developments; international negotiations for peace in the region; humanitarian aid; and media interviews with high-profile political figures.

Also present in the records are letters of protest exchanged between the Commander or the Chief of Staff of BH Command and military leaders and political officials of the warring parties. Topics of these protest letters include: the assassination of Hakija Turajlic, the President of Bosnia and Herzegovina in January 1993; attacks and restrictions of movement (ROM) by warring factions on UNPROFOR aircraft and convoys; and violations of the use of air space.

The records also include summaries of meetings between high-level BH Command officials and military and political authorities. UNPROFOR officials leading the meetings included: Lieutenant General Phillippe Marillon; Lieutenant General Sir Michael Rose; General Rupert Smith; Yasushi Akashi, Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG); and Victor Andreev, Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary General (DSRSG); and Sergio Vieira de Mello, Head of Civil Affairs (HCA). Meeting attendees included: Fikret Abdic; Mate Boban; General Janko Bobetko; General Božidar Delic; General Atif Dudakovic; Dr. Ejup Ganic; General Milan Gvero; General Sefer Halilovic; the President of Bosnia and Herzegovina Alija Izetbegovic; President Dr. Radovan Karadžic; Vice President Dr. Nikola Koljevic; Major General Manojlo Milovanovic; the President of Serbia, Slobodan Miloševic; General Ratko Mladic; the Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hasan Muratovic; General Milivoj Petkovic; General A. Roso; and Zdravko Tolimir.

Meeting summaries documenting the internal affairs of BH Command are also present. These include daily meetings led by the Chief of Staff and Commander’s daily briefings.

Also included are Operation Orders on such topics as the: principles for use of airstrikes in Bosnia and Herzegovina; authorization of Operation Blue Sword, a NATO-executed airstrike on Bosnian Serb forces (BSA) in Gorazde; establishment of Joint Commission meetings; implementation and monitoring of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement of 10 June 1994; delivery of humanitarian aid to central BH; medical support to Sector Sarajevo; Operation Lifeline; and the operation of Sarajevo Airport.

The records also include code cables between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Kofi Annan and Co-Chairs of the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia (ICFY) Thorvald Stoltenberg and Lord David Owen, as well as Cyrus Vance, regarding: implementation of Security Council Resolution 836 (1993); deployment of UN Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) in BH; a Croatian-run detention centre in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; and agenda for a meeting with military leaders regarding the detention of UNMO personnel in 1992.

Notable records include: outlines describing the operational concepts of BH Command dating from September 1992; a memorandum on photograph development and evidence turn-over for war crimes investigations, dating from February 1994; Order of Battle (ORBAT) describing the command structure of warring factions, dating from September 1994; an analysis on the Carter Agreement and its implications on BH Command, 21 December 1994; a defence debriefing team tunnels information summary; and a proposal for the rights of movement and the management of displaced persons by UNPROFOR within Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Other records include: memoranda on the establishment of Safe Areas (SA) around Bihac, Tešanj, Tuzla, Gorazde, Žepa, and Srebrenica in 1993; analyses of BSA violations of the exclusion zone around Sarajevo; proposal for UNMO deployment in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and an inventory of medical assets of battalions and companies throughout BH Command.

United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) Headquarters, Zagreb
The records consist of a chronological arrangement of situation reports dating from April 1992 to October 1995 and generated by the UNPROFOR military component. The situation reports originate from: headquarters of sectors; Civilian Police (CIVPOL) headquarters in sectors; headquarters of United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) in sectors, as well as headquarters of local UNMO teams; battalions; Force Engineers stationed at sector headquarters; and Senior Military Observers (SMO) stationed at various locations. The situation reports primarily detail: violations of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994; restrictions to freedom of movement; firing incidents (FI), including small arms firing and shelling, and mortar and artillery rounds; and battalion operations. Some situation reports contain: Commanders’ assessments; graphs and tables on incidents and ceasefire violations; and hand drawn maps of military activity. The situation reports also note: deployment; status of crossing points; restrictions of movement on roads and bridges throughout sectors; movement of humanitarian convoys; refugee movements; hostile incidents against UNPROFOR personnel; exchanges of prisoners of war; mine clearance; and other topics. Additionally, there are: summaries of sector Joint Commission meetings on the implementation of the ceasefire agreement; summaries of meetings between UNPROFOR military officials and military officials of warring factions, and local political and police authorities; protest letters; flight lists; movement control forms; and daily personnel reports. Many situation reports were sent to UNPROFOR Headquarters in Zagreb; Croatia Command in Zagreb; and Bosnia and Herzegovina Command in Kiseljak.

UNPROFOR battalions were active in:

Argentine Battalion (ARGBAT): Camp Polom, Daruvar, Croatia, and Grubisno Polje, Croatia
Bangladeshi Battalion (BANGBAT): Camp Coralici, Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bataillion du Genie (BATGEN): Kakanj, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Belgian Battalion (BELBAT): Beli Manastir, Croatia
British Battalion (BRITBAT): Vitez, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Split, Croatia
Canadian Battalion (CANBAT): Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Czech Battalion (CZECHBAT): Korenica, Croatia
Danish Battalion (DANBAT): Kostajnica, Croatia
Dutch Battalion (DUTCHBAT): Srebrenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Egyptian Battalion (EGYBAT): Bistrik Settlement, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
French Battalion (FREBAT): Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bihac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Camp Pleso, Zagreb, Croatia
Indonesian Medical Battalion (INDOMEDBAT): Daruvar, Croatia
Jordanian Battalion (JORBAT): Novska, Croatia, Glina, Croatia, and Gracac, Croatia
Kenyan Battalion (KENBAT): Bribirske Mostine, Croatia
Malaysian Battalion (MALBAT): Konjic, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Nepalese Battalion (NEPBAT): Pustara, Croatia, and Bosanksa Gradiška, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Nordic Battalion (NORDBAT): Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Pakistani Battalion (PAKBAT): Vareš, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Split, Croatia
Polish Battalion (POLBAT): Slunj, Croatia
Russian Battalion (RUSBAT): Klisa, Croatia
Slovenian Engineer Battalion (SLOVENGBAT): Daruvar, Croatia
Spanish Battalion (SPABAT): Medjugorje, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Swedish Battalion (SWEBAT): Camp Pleso, Zagreb, Croatia
Turkish Battalion (TURKBAT): Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Ukrainian Battalion (UKRBAT): Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
United States Contingent (USCON): Skopje, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)

The battalion records were forwarded to sector headquarters and then sent to UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia. The records primarily consist of periodic reports, including: reports detailing the battalion’s weekly requirements for food, vehicles, and medical supplies; weekly strength reports; weekly logistic reports; reports relating to repatriation and the disbursement of payment; monthly morbidity reports; notifications of border crossings and air and ground transport requests; and engineering work requests. There are also: memoranda describing battalion activities such as medal parades and visits of VIPs; operation orders; and profiles of battalion leaders. Some memoranda were exchanged between national contingents in the field and military forces of countries contributing troops.

Additionally, the battalion records consist of: traffic accident reports; notification of casualties (NOTICAS); letters of assist (LOA) for the ordering of spare parts; letters of protest; Board of Inquiry reports; and reports detailing equipment seized by warring factions.

Records of note in the battalion records include: the British Battalion (BRITBAT) Operation Order 13/95, Operation Exodus, providing humanitarian assistance to Srebrenica refugees; a report titled “Medak Pocket Confrontation Line,” dated 21 March 1994, about Canadian Battalion (CANBAT) activities in the Medak Pocket in September 1993; humanitarian condition reports compiled by United Nations Military Observers (UNMOs) in Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina; memoranda authored by the Danish Battalion (DANBAT) regarding atrocities in Dvor, Croatia, dating from August 1995; memoranda authored by the Danish Battalion (DANBAT) regarding its coordination with humanitarian organizations; a memorandum written by the Commander of the Dutch Battalion (DUTCHBAT), Thomas Kerremans, dated 9 July 1995 and sent to Ratko Mladic about the Battalion’s retreat from Potocari, Bosnia and Herzegovina, immediately preceding the Srebrenica Massacre of July 1995; weekly regional political assessments of Western Bosnia authored by the French Battalion (FREBAT), which include analysis of UNPROFOR’s role in the region and maps of the confrontation lines; patrol reports of Sector West authored by the Nepalese Battalion (NEPBAT), which monitored conditions following Operation Flash; monthly facility hygiene inspection reports of various battalions completed by the Nordic Battalion (NORDBAT); memoranda detailing engineering activities by the Pakistani Battalion (PAKBAT) for the construction of hospitals in Vareš and Solun, Bosnia and Herzegovina; memoranda authored by the Polish Battalion (POLBAT) regarding refugee camps administered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Batnoga, Croatia, and Turanj, Karlovac, Croatia; memoranda, situation reports, crossing statistics, and information concerning the maintenance of a pontoon bridge which was constructed over the Neretva River by the Slovenian Engineer Battalion (SLOVENGBAT) as part of Operation Lifeline; memoranda concerning the mine clearance activities of the Slovenian Engineer Battalion (SLOVENGBAT); and a report titled “Operation Winter 93/94,” dated 10 December 1993, describing operation objectives of the Spanish Battalion (SPABAT) in Operation Lifeline.

Governance and Civil Administration Support

S-1837 contains records concerning governance and civil administration support provided to the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR).

Director of Civil Affairs (DCA)
S-1837 contains the records of senior-level civilian staff serving in the Civil Affairs component of the UNPROFOR mission, from 21 March 1992 until its restructuring on 31 March 1995; these civilian staff members include the Director of Civil Affairs (DCA), the Deputy Chief of Mission, and the Head of Civil Affairs.

Cedric Thornberry served as the Director of Civil Affairs from March 1992 to September 1993. When the UNPROFOR mandate was extended in 1993, Thornberry’s title became Deputy Chief of Mission, reporting to Force Commander Satish Nambiar. Upon the appointment of a Special Representative to the Secretary General in 1994, the Deputy Chief of Mission became the Head of Civil Affairs. The role of Head of Civil Affairs was administered in succession by Michel Moussalli, Vladislav Guerassev, and by Sergio Viera de Mello. The office of the Director of Civil Affairs was initially located at UNPROFOR HQ in Sarajevo; and later, in 1992, in Zagreb when mission HQ was relocated.

The Director’s files contain a wide variety of incoming and outgoing faxes. They consist of: outlines describing the functions of the Civil Affairs Officer (CAO); draft agreements on interim ceasefires; program notes for Special Envoy Cyrus Vance; letters to the DCA from representatives of, for example, the Serbs of Gorski Kotar; letters of protest from warring factions addressed to the Secretary-General via office of the DCA. There are also requests for logistics support for a variety of matters, such as the exhumation of a mass grave near Vukovar; paperwork documenting ethnic cleansing and the demolition of the homes of displaced persons.

The files also contain faxed reports which detail: crimes committed against civilians in Western Slovenia; prisoner exchanges; casualties and damage to buildings; and investigation reports about shootings of civilian elderly. Files also contain memoranda about: crossing points in United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) which impacted internally displaced persons; requests for humanitarian aid; prisoners of war; detained civilians; the forced eviction of civilians from their homes; freedom of movement for UNPROFOR and for civilians; and the special use of airspace by the United Nations.

Also included among incoming and outgoing faxes are daily situation reports to the DCA. The situation reports cover such topics as: Pink Zones; humanitarian concerns; coordination with international agencies; property disputes resulting from the occupation of internally displaced persons’ homes by others; and the return of displaced persons.

There are also: faxes from the UNPROFOR Force Commander and Head of Mission General Satish Nambiar to the Under-Secretary-General of Political Affairs Marrack Goulding; correspondence between Milan Panic, Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), and the DCA; and DCA correspondence about the political and technical aspects of the demining of the Peruca Dam, in Croatia.

Additional records held by the office of the DCA include: reports issued by the Special Representative for the Secretary-General Yasushi Akashi to Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Kofi Annan regarding Joint Commissions on the Economic Agreement; lists of attendees of Joint Commission Meetings, including representatives of UNPROFOR, Serbia, Croatia, and the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM); meeting agenda for visits by Cyrus Vance and European Community representative Lord David Owen; incoming and outgoing faxes of the Deputy Director of Civil Affairs (DDCA); and a safety plan prepared by ESB International; and UNPROFOR-generated radio broadcast scripts.

Division of Civil Affairs
The Division of Civil Affairs was located in Zagreb, Croatia and was managed by the Director of Civil Affairs, whose title changed throughout the mission. The Division’s focus was humanitarian and political affairs. The work involved liaison coordination with national and local governments, mission sectors, Civilian Police, Military Observers, and military battalions. Letters of protest written by UNPROFOR officials and government representatives comprise a significant portion of the Division’s records. These concern internally displaced persons, prisoners of war, military operations, and ethnic cleansing. Other records relate to the internal administrative duties of the mission.

A large number of records concern humanitarian affairs. Correspondence between UNPROFOR and political officials of Bosnia and Herzegovina, including Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžic, concerns humanitarian flights and freedom of movement for refugees. Other correspondence documents collaboration with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHR) and other United Nations agencies, such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (UNHCHR), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and international NGOs such as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Doctors Without Borders (MSF). There are appeals to the United Nations from non-governmental organizations and ethnic groups. In addition, there is correspondence with NGOs regarding mine clearance within UNPAs.

Other files contain analyses on the United Nations’ mechanism for human rights protection in the former Yugoslavia. There are also agenda and meeting summaries of the Working Group on Human Rights, established on 13 January 1995 under the Chairmanship of the Director of Civil Affairs. Meetings of the Working Group were attended by representatives of: Civil Affairs; Civilian Police; United Nations agencies (UNHCR, WHO); the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE); and the Centre for Human Rights. In addition, there are program outlines for a Human Rights Training Course and held 8-15 July 1995 in Zagreb. The course was organized by the United Nations Centre for Human Rights for UNPF Civil Affairs monitors and Civilian Police officers.

Some of the files contain memoranda addressed to the Force Commander about rules for construction of humanitarian convoy routes and requests from ICRC regarding the security of humanitarian convoys. There also are weekly reports from the Office of World Health Organization’s (WHO) Special Representative regarding the food supply in Sarajevo as well as military situation reports. The military situation reports detail convoy movements and quality of housing for refugees.

The DCA assisted the Force Commander with the political aspects of his duties. The files contain correspondence with government officials about ceasefire agreements and their enforcement. There are also memoranda prepared by the FC about mission operations and its mandate, and policy directives. Some memoranda detail allegations of crimes committed by UNPROFOR military personnel.

Records of the Special Representative to the Secretary General (SRSG) appear throughout. Files of the Division include correspondence with DPKO Under-Secretary General Kofi Annan, as well as with the United Nations Office in Vienna. There are agenda for meetings about the UNPROFOR mandate and weekly reports. Sent from sector headquarters, the weekly reports contain information about the diplomatic negotiation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994 agreement in addition to the humanitarian transfer of displaced persons across lines of conflict. There are also records which pertain to UNPROFOR’s work with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Other records pertain to CIVPOL, including: daily situation reports generated by sectors North, South, East and West. The situation reports contain information about refugees and prisoner exchanges between warring factions, and criminal and non-criminal offenses against civilians. There are also reports about the exhumation of bodies by CIVPOL at, for example, Miljevci Plateau in Sector South. Also included are copies of daily situation reports sent by the CIVPOL Commissioner to the Director of Civil Affairs. These contain information about the CIVPOL highway patrol and CIVPOL’s role after the expiration of the UNPROFOR mandate on 31 March 1995. There also is data and graphs about casualties by sector and type.

The Division established liaison offices in: Zagreb, Croatia; Belgrade, Serbia; and Ljubljana, Slovenia. The majority of the records for the liaison offices document the activities of the Senior Liaison Officer, Civil Affairs (SLOCA), the Acting Civil Affairs Coordinator (A-CAC), and Civil Affairs Officers (CvAO). They consist of briefs sent to the Civil Affairs headquarters in Zagreb on topics such as the role of UNPROFOR in filing human rights violations, visits of diplomats, and humanitarian flight paths. There also are translations of press articles, and information about the careers of government representatives. In addition, there are analyses of political developments. There is an analysis of the preliminary results of the preliminary elections in Srebrenica in December 1992. The other analyses focus on the Serbian political climate, especially as relating to public pronouncements by the President of Serbia Slobodan Miloševic. The files also contain letters from government representatives, political parties, municipal authorities, private citizens, and representatives of non-governmental organizations.

A significant volume of Division records were created by the sectors. Sector headquarters include: Sector North, Bosnia and Herzegovina Sector North East, Bosnia and Herzegovina Sector South West, Sector South, Sector East, Sector West, and Sector Sarajevo. At each sector HQ, Civil Affairs Coordinators (CACs) liaised with politicians, military officials, civilian police and NGOs. Several records document these activities. There are summaries of meetings between Civil Affairs officials and all levels of politicians. In addition, daily and weekly situation reports detail political, humanitarian, refugee and economic situations. There also are detailed investigative reports about mass graves, massacres and the destruction of civilian property.

Also included in sector records are: letters from politicians about internally displaced persons and refugee transfer requests. There also are copies of letters from UNPROFOR to politicians and governments about the treatment of UNPROFOR personnel and property, such as kidnapping of personnel and hijacking of UNPROFOR vehicles.

The Division files also contain records received from the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO) HQ, located in Zagreb, Croatia. Records pertaining to UNMO include: memoranda regarding procedures for close air support (CAS); test strike request forms; and “real world” strike request forms. In addition, there are letters written by the Force Commander Lieutenant-General Lars-Eric Wahlgren, active March to June 1993, and sent to the Under-Secretary General Kofi Annan about the Srebrenica air corridor. The Division files also contain daily reports prepared by the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM).

Civil Affairs, Sector North
Included in S-1837 are records originating from the Civil Affairs offices in the Sector North headquarters, which was located in the Croatian town of Topusko.

A large number of the files concern humanitarian assistance activities in Sector North. Records document the delivery of food, clothing, detergent, fuel, medicine and medical equipment, and agricultural materials, such as fertilizers and seeds, to towns and villages in Sector North and in the Pink Zones. Records include: letters exchanged between UNPROFOR Civil Affairs officers in Sector North and government officials of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK) and the Government of Croatia; data on quantities of humanitarian goods, medical supplies, and fuel delivered; and profiles of medical facilities in rural areas.

There are also summaries of meetings between representatives of UNPROFOR Civil Affairs and: the Civilian Police; the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; the World Health Organization (WHO); the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC); the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC); and the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM). Meetings regard the coordination of humanitarian assistance, particularly in the security of aid personnel and convoys, the storage of aid goods, and needs assessment of populations. Meeting summaries also detail the terms for operational agreements reached between UNPROFOR, United Nations agencies, and local authorities. Also included are summaries of meetings of the Joint Humanitarian Cell, which was set up in October 1993 and served as an organizational mechanism between the Civil Affairs, Civilian Police, United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), battalions, and field staff of the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

Graphs, tables, and charts contained in the files provide an overview on: population and its ethnic makeup; persons counted as missing, displaced, imprisoned or killed; abandoned or destroyed homes; village infrastructure; and commodities. The data relates to populations of municipalities in Croatia, the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK), and Bosnia and Herzegovina. There are also: lists and registers of Croatian nationals; profiles of municipalities (opštine); and maps of municipalities with hand-drawn markings.

Also included are records related to the monitoring of the economic situation in Sector North by Civil Affairs officials. These include: summaries of meetings between Civil Affairs officials and mayors of municipalities (local authorities) about the progress of infrastructure restoration projects and business re-openings; and programmes detailing the re-establishment of communication and infrastructural systems in the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPA). There are also: briefs and analyses related to the implementation of the Economic Agreement, signed on 2 December 1994 between the Republic of Croatia and local Serb authorities, which brought to terms the re-opening of the Zagreb-Belgrade Highway, and the Adriatic Oil Pipeline, and the rehabilitation of the electricity grid and water system; and briefs and analyses concerning the inspection of infrastructure restoration projects by UNPROFOR and Civil Affairs officials.

Exchanges of Croat, Serb, and Muslim prisoners are also documented. There are: summaries of meetings attended by representatives of Civil Affairs, the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM), discussing policy and logistics of the prisoner exchanges; and lists of prisoners exchanged forwarded to the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC) at Sector North. Records relate primarily to prisoners detained in the Glina District Prison and the Vojnic Prison in Croatia.

Records pertaining to refugee movements include: periodic reports on the status of refugees in Sector North; lists of refugees sent to the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC); incident reports prepared by the Civilian Police about evacuations, the plight of individual refugees, the safety of travel routes, shelter for refugees, and conditions in refugee camps; and reports on cooperation between Civil Affairs and field workers representing the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In particular, the records document the movement of Muslim refugees from municipalities in western Bosnia, their passage through Sector North, to temporary settlement in Croatia, including in the towns of Turanj and Batnoga.

Records pertaining to transfer cases include correspondence between the Government of Croatia and UNPROFOR about approval for or denial of transfer requests. There are also requests for transfers received from civilians. Transfer cases particularly pertain to the Turanj and Mošcenica crossings in Croatia. Also contained in records are lists of transfer cases handled by Civil Affairs, Sector North.

Documents relating to cultural monuments (such as churches, chapels, and historic homes and buildings) in Croatian villages damaged or destroyed by the war, include: letters exchanged between UNPROFOR personnel and Croatian government officials; and surveys compiled by the Civilian Police detailing the locations of monuments and buildings, and the extent of damage.

Civil Affairs, Sector West
Included in S-1837 are records originating from the Civil Affairs offices in the Sector West headquarters, which was located in the Croatian town of Daruvar.

The files contain summaries of weekly coordination meetings between Civil Affairs officials in Sector West and local Serbian and Croatian authorities. Also attending the meetings were Civilian Police staff, the head of the office of the United Nations High Commissioner (UNHCR) for Refugees in Sector West, and representatives of the European Union Monitoring Mission (EUMM). Local authorities consisted of: presidents of municipal executive councils, chairmen of municipal councils, chiefs of local police, town mayors, government-appointed officers tasked with liaising with UNPROFOR, as well as Duško Vitez, the President of the Regional Council of Western Slavonia. Meeting topics include: incidents in Sector West, including terrorist activities; permission granted by Serbian and Croatian authorities for civilians to cross the ceasefire line (CFL), which ran through Sector West; road, railway, and infrastructure restoration projects in Sector West; the coordination of checkpoint meetings for family members from opposite sides of the ceasefire line; the arranging of face-to-face meetings between the Serb and Croat authorities in the Sector; the return of refugees to homes in Sector West; and the harvesting of crops in the sector. There are also briefs and correspondence related to the meeting topics.

The chronological files of the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC) of Sector West contain briefs, correspondence, as well as documents concerning refugee matters. Briefs sent to the Head of Civil Affairs from the CAC pertain to topics such as the return of refugees, the Croatian Special Police Force, the renewal of the UNPROFOR mandate, the human rights situation in Sector West, and the exhumation of bodies under the auspices of UNPROFOR. There is also correspondence between the CAC and the Sector Commander. Additionally, chronological files contain transfer requests, contact requests, and referral forms concerning the crossing of civilians from opposite sides of the ceasefire line, and travel outside of Sector West. There are also weekly reports and bi-monthly briefings for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) from the Civil Affairs Coordinator of Sector West. They cover such topics as: political developments in Sector West; human rights monitoring and humanitarian activities in Sector West; the implementation of the Economic Agreement; and the reopening of the railway lines in Sector West.

The civil affairs records of Sector West records also include: briefs on the organization of Sector West headquarters; security and evacuation plans for Sector West; summaries of meetings on peace-building initiatives in Sector West led by the Civil Affairs Coordinator and attended by representatives of the United Nations Office in Vienna (UNOV); outlines of peace-building projects in Sector West, particularly in the Pakrac municipality (opština); and memoranda about the organization of the government of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK), and on the activities of the parliament and assembly of the “RSK.”

Civil Affairs, Sector South
Included are records originating from the Civil Affairs offices in the Sector South headquarters, which was located in the Croatian town of Knin.

Several files pertain to UNPROFOR operations in the Medak Pocket, an area in southern Croatia where there was intense fighting between the Croatian Army and Serbian irregular forces. Records include: summaries of interviews with civilian survivors of the atrocities; statements obtained from eye witnesses; briefs on the events in the Medak Pocket as relayed by Radio Knin and Radio Belgrade; transcripts of interviews with UNPROFOR military officials; reports of forensic investigations carried out by the Civilian Police about mass killings and property destruction; briefs on United Nations mediation on a ceasefire in the Medak Pocket; as well as ceasefire agreements signed between Serb and Croat representatives; briefs on the role of Civil Affairs in the Medak Pocket, and on UNHCR and ICRC activities in the Medak Pocket; and a political analysis of the reaction of authorities of the “Republic of Serbian Krajina” (RSK) to the political situation surrounding the Medak events. There is also a final report prepared by Civil Affairs Sector South on the events in Medak Pocket and on UNPROFOR operations with regard to the ceasefire, investigative efforts, and humanitarian assistance in the pocket in the wake of the events.

Also included are letters between Milan Martic, the President of the “RSK” and: the Secretary-General; the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); the President of the Security Council; and the Head of Civil Affairs. A sampling of topics include: violations of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994; mission developments; use of the Zagreb-Lipovac Highway; UNPROFOR freedom of movement; the protection of the Serb population from ethnic cleansing; the refugee crisis; and humanitarian assistance. There are also: summaries of meetings between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and Martic; statements delivered by Martic at “RSK” parliamentary sessions; gazettes describing decisions promulgated by the government of the “RSK;” drafts of the constitution of government of the “RSK;” and outlines of economic and infrastructure reconstruction in Sector South.

Additionally, records include: surveys of towns and villages conducted by Civil Affairs officials, as well as by teams of United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), which list Serb and Croat residents, the number of destroyed buildings and homes in municipalities; and correspondence with Croatian authorities about the protection and accompaniment of civilians during their visits to cemeteries to commemorate the dead. Finally, there is correspondence related to civilian requests made to Civil Affairs officers of Sector South to visit and report on the condition and security status of the civilian’s house;

There are summaries of meetings attended by Sector South Civil Affairs officials, the United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and Croatian and Serbian authorities related to the release and exchanges of prisoners of war, and the transfer of mortal remains. Additionally, there are lists of prisoners, and lists of people who have been captured or who have disappeared.

Also included are summaries of meetings of the Joint Commission, which was established by Security Council Resolution 762 (1992), as well as of the Sub-Commission on Ceasefire Violations and Security, and the Sub-Commission on Economic and Humanitarian Affairs. The meetings were attended by representatives of UNPROFOR, the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM), and Croatian and Serbian delegations. Topics of discussion include: ceasefire violations, freedom of movement for UNPROFOR, demining, infrastructure restoration projects, agricultural activities and harvests, water supply management, and the lack of fuel.

There are also summaries of humanitarian coordination meetings attended by Civil Affairs representatives of Sector South, the Civilian Police, representatives of the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM). Humanitarian coordination meeting topics include: distribution of educational materials to schools, distribution of food, civilian transfer requests and family reunions.

In addition, there are requests by civilians to requests to transfer out of Sector South to obtain medical treatment, to study or work, to visit with or reunite with family members, or to alleviate the difficulty of their living condition. The files related to transfer requests contain: letters written by transferees explaining the reasons for the transfer request; bio-data forms filled out by transferees; photocopies of vital records of transferees, such as national identification cards, passports, and birth certificates; records of medical examinations of transferees; correspondence between Civil Affairs Coordinator of Sector South and the Humanitarian Affairs Coordinator of Sector South granting clearance and authorization for civilians to transfer; and correspondence between the Civil Affairs officers of Sector South and the governments of Croatia as well as of the “RSK” requesting authorization for the transfer of civilians.

There are also records related to the agricultural fuel distribution programme undertaken by UNPROFOR and other humanitarian aid agencies. Records include: Memoranda of Understanding signed by municipal authorities and UNPROFOR officials; reports identifying communities receiving fuel and noting litres distributed; and reports of fuel distribution carried out by Civilian Police.

Chronological files consist of: transfer requests; summaries of radio broadcasts in Sector South; weekly reports prepared by Civil Affairs of Sector South for the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); reports on human rights monitoring in Sector South; and memoranda and reports on such topics as exchanges of prisoners and bodies, the hijacking of vehicles, the economic situation in Sector South, the situation regarding the Plitvice Lakes National Park in Croatia, and conditions experienced by minorities.

Records also include reports of the activities of the Human Rights Action Team (HRAT) stationed in Sector South. HRAT were composed of personnel from the Civilian Police, United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), the office of Political and Humanitarian Affairs of UNPF, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The reports note: villages visited by the team; findings of the teams’ investigations of massacres and isolated killings; military presence in villages and along routes; HRAT’s liaising with local authorities and interviews with displaced persons; findings of the teams upon visits to grave sites of war victims; and human rights violations observed by the teams, including the burning of village homes and buildings, and looting.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Civil Affairs, Sector North East
Included are records originating from the Civil Affairs offices in the Sector North East headquarters, which was located in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Weekly reports of Sector North East cover: reactions to the Dayton Agreement; restriction of movement; local political developments; meetings between Civil Affairs officials and leaders of warring factions; and violations of the ceasefire agreement. There are also weekly situation reports prepared by the Political and Humanitarian Affairs officers stationed in a variety of locations throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, including Mostar, Vitez, and Sarajevo.

Records also consist of: briefs detailing airdrops of humanitarian supplies over towns in Sector North East; proposals and activity summaries of non-governmental organizations active in Sector North East; program plans for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the government, infrastructure, and society of Tuzla; draft agreements related to the reopening of the Tuzla Airport for humanitarian aid delivery; a civil affairs analysis on conditions in Srebrenica dating from September 1994; reports on the views of the Serb minority in Tuzla and their movements; and correspondence and copies of vital records related to the transport and evacuation of civilians in Sector North East. Additionally, there are: reports and briefs on the Tuzla Massacre, which occurred on 25 May 1995 and resulted in the loss of over 70 lives; and memoranda on exchanges of prisoners of war and bodies.

Incoming and outgoing faxes of the Civil Affairs Officer (CvAO) consist of memoranda, briefs, and reports sent to and received from the Civil Affairs Officer (CvAO) stationed in Sector North East. Items prepared by Civil Affairs Officers throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina Command are also included. Notable documents include: summaries of meetings between Civil Affairs officials and municipal and regional authorities in Tuzla; summaries of meetings of the Joint Regional Commission held in Sector North East; and minutes of monthly meetings of Civil Affairs Officers throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina Command. Topics covered in faxes include: the implementation of the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement (COHA), signed 31 December 1994; management of refugees and displaced persons from Srebrenica; the monitoring of human rights abuses through liaison with representatives if the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and non-governmental organizations; and economic recovery and infrastructure restoration projects in the sector area of responsibility.

Records of Sector North East also include Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for Bosnia and Herzegovina Command dating from 1994.

United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), Political and Humanitarian Affairs (PHA)
The Political and Humanitarian Affairs (PHA) office operated under the United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO) mandate, and responded to and reported on the humanitarian needs of vulnerable populations in the mission area. The Head of Political and Humanitarian Affairs (HPHA) was based in Zagreb, Croatia, and Political and Humanitarian Affairs Officers (PHAO) were stationed in Sector North, Sector South, Sector East, and Sector West, among other locations. The PHA collaborated with other UNCRO agents, such as the Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) and United Nations Military Observers (UNMO), as well as humanitarian agencies, like the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM). This collaboration included the formation of Human Rights Action Teams (HRAT), which, led by the PHAO, patrolled a Sector and reported on human rights violations and the overall humanitarian situation. The records of the PHA office primarily consist of reports and memoranda relating to human rights violations which occurred during and following the August 1995 Croatian offensive, Operation Storm.

The documents include reports prepared by the Sector PHAO and sent to the HPHA in Zagreb, such as: daily and weekly human rights monitoring reports; and reports on the activities of the HRAT. These reports detail PHAO village patrols’ observations of: the looting or burning of homes; threatening of minorities; and the living condition of villagers. These reports were also used to relay details of investigations, such as: the October 1995 investigation of the massacre in the village of Varivode, Croatia; and the October and November 1995 investigations of graves and mass graves in Sector South.

Weekly reports from Sector South and from Sector East prepared by the sector PHAO for the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) are also included in the records. The reports were sent to the HPHA in Zagreb, and copied to a vast distribution list including: the Chief of Mission; the Force Commander; UNCIVPOL; and the headquarters of sectors. The informationally dense reports detail the general situation of political and humanitarian affairs in the sector.

The records include memoranda exchanged between the PHA and other UNCRO agents and humanitarian agencies regarding: the transfer of persons displaced by Operation Storm to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (September 1995); the PHAO monitoring of trials of Croatian Army detainees in Split Military Court (December 1995); the chronology of Operation Storm (25 September 1995); and the United Nations Transitional Administration for Sector East.

Also included in the records are periodic reports from the UNCIVPOL Commissioner and from UNMO. UNMO daily situation reports were sent from the headquarters of a sector to the UNMO headquarters in Zagreb and detail UNMO observations of the general situation in a sector and warring faction activity. The records also contain daily and weekly situation reports sent from the UNCIVPOL Commissioner headquartered in Camp Pleso in Zagreb, Croatia, to a vast distribution list, including the Chief of Mission, HCA, HPHA, and sector commanders. These reports assess the general situation in the sectors as well as in the peacekeeping missions UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, and UNCRO.

Deputy Director of Civil Affairs (DDCA)
Located at UNPROFOR HQ, Zagreb, the office of the Deputy Director of Civil Affairs (DDCA) reported to the Director of Civil Affairs (DCA), working closely with the Civil Affairs Coordinators (CACs) of mission sectors. The DDCAs represented in the files are, in succession, Yolanda Auger and Vladislav Guerassev.

Files of the DDCA consist, in part, of correspondence with the DCA, CACs, and government officials. Topics include the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994 and freedom of movement of UNPROFOR convoys. Also included in the records are: letters to the Government of Croatia regarding the UNPROFOR mandate; letters of protest from the DDCA regarding the unauthorized use of UNPROFOR aircraft by government officials; letters to the DDCA regarding the security of civilians in Sector South West; memoranda detailing the activities of the Working Group on Involuntary Disappearances, tracking missing persons; a schedule for fact-finding tours of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) accompanied by the UNPROFOR Force Commander (FC),visiting commissions in general to mission areas; local governmental approval for UN excavation of mass graves; weekly status reports of the UNPROFOR Military Negotiating Team (MNT); and memoranda about the evacuation of civilians from Sarajevo.

Included in the records are political analyses of elections in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), in addition to an analysis of the Muslim-Croat Agreement of March 1994. The files also contain meeting reports about: the Force Commander’s Conference of 7 October 1993; high-level meetings between the SRSG and government officials, sent to CACs; the 8 July 1994 Sanctions Liaison Group Meeting in Vienna; and the November 1994 meeting with “RSK” officials regarding UNPROFOR convoy procedures into Bihac.

Civil Affairs, Sector East
Included are chronological files originating from the Civil Affairs offices in the Sector East headquarters, which was located in Erdut, Croatia.

They consist of: tracing requests; memoranda regarding diplomatic visits, notably of the United States Ambassador to the United Nations Madeleine Albright to Sector East on 6 January 1994; weekly reports prepared by the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC) in Sector East and sent to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); briefs concerning the situation of minorities in Croatia; summaries of meetings between Civil Affairs officials and representatives of non-governmental organizations active in Sector East; memoranda on the accessibility and condition of roads and rail lines in Sector East; memorandum regarding allegations of ethnic cleansing put forth by the Government of Croatia, dated September 1994; and a summary of a meeting on the extension of the UNPROFOR mandate, held in February 1995.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Civil Affairs, Sector South West
Chronological files of Sector South West consist of reports and political analyses. There are weekly reports sent from the Senior Civil Affairs Officer (SCvAO) to the Deputy Special Representative to the Secretary General (DSRSG) and Civil Affairs Coordinators (CACs), regarding displaced persons, and military and economic developments. They provide summaries of Joint Commission Policy Committee (JCPC) meetings. There is a political analysis written in June 1994 by the SCvAO regarding the work of the International Observer Group in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Also included in the files are Reuters news agency reports compiled and distributed by the SCvAO to Sector South West battalions.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Civil Affairs, Bihac
Consisting of one folder, the records of Civil Affairs, Bihac, contain weekly situation reports and memoranda. Weekly situation reports detail the military, political and humanitarian situation of the Bihac region. Records of note include weekly situation reports and memoranda written by the UNPROFOR Political and Humanitarian Affairs Officer (PHAO), Bihac. There is also a memorandum sent to the Deputy Special Representative to the Secretary General (DSRSG) by Civil Affairs, Bihac, prepared for the Secretary-General’s report on UNPROFOR.

Civil Affairs, Chief of Staff (COS), Zagreb
The Civil Affairs Chief of Staff (COS/CA) was based at UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia, and was responsible to the Head of Civil Affairs (HCA) and DDCA (Deputy Director of Civil Affairs) for the initiation of action by Civil Affairs operational units. The COS/CA acted as the point person for Civil Affairs Coordinators (CACs). Records include reports and memoranda on such topics as: UNPROFOR involvement in medical evacuations from Bosnia and Herzegovina; conduct of local police forces in sectors; UNPROFOR relations with journalists; humanitarian assistance requirements in Gorni Vakuf, Bosnia and Herzegovina; the refugee situation in Turanj, Croatia; Bosnia and Herzegovina constitutional negotiations; and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) elections of 2 November 1994. Additionally, the COS/CA liaised with the Head of Croatia’s Office for Cooperation with UNPROFOR, to facilitate operational activities on the ground.

Also included in the records are minutes of meetings including: the Fifth Central Joint Commission Meeting, held in Novska, on 24 October 1994, and the Coordination Conference on the Action Plan for the Restoration of Essential Public Services to Sarajevo, held in Vienna in May 1994.

Civil Affairs, Senior Legal Adviser (SLA), Zagreb
The Civil Affairs Senior Legal Adviser (SLA) was based at UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia, and was responsible for the provision of legal advice to the senior management and staff of the mission, including the Force Commander, Civil Affairs Coordinators (CACs), and Senior Administrative Officers (SAOs) in the field, on all matters of a legal or political-legal nature. Included in the records are briefs concerning: legal information and advice requested by officers throughout mission; investigations and detentions of UNPROFOR personnel; prior agreements with local governments regarding UNPROFOR jurisdiction; and legal issues associated with recruiting local staff. Also included are reports on SOFAs (Status of Force Agreements) between UNPROFOR and local governments.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC), Belgrade
The Civil Affairs Coordinator, Belgrade also held the title of Deputy Special Representative to the Secretary General (DSRSG). Chronological files consist of: summaries of local press; weekly situation reports to the Director of Civil Affairs (DCA); and weekly situation reports for the Special Representative to the Secretary General (SRSG) that detailed political developments of the region. There are also meeting summaries which include: meetings with representatives of the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and a November 1994 meeting between the SRSG and the President of Serbia Slobodan Miloševic. Also included are records about the FRY Government Committee for Cooperation with UNPROFOR.

Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC), Sarajevo
Chronological files consist of: BH Radio News summaries and daily regional media summaries; tracing requests; protest letters received by Civil Affairs officials and UNPROFOR military officials from warring factions; weekly reports of human rights abuses in Bosnia and Herzegovina; weekly political assessments of Bosnia and Herzegovina; and air transportation authorizations for the CAC and high-level officials. Memoranda concern: exchanges of prisoners of war; investigations of alleged massacres; the murders two Franciscan monks on 13 November 1993 at a monastery in the town of Fojnica; refugee movements within Bosnia and Herzegovina; the role of the United Nations in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and the humanitarian crisis in Bihac in February 1995.

Also included are: memoranda regarding the Cessation of Hostilities Agreement of 31 December 1994, including communications between the President of Republika Srpska Radovan Karadžic and past United States President Jimmy Carter on the initiative; memoranda and meeting summaries regarding exchanges of prisoners of war in the town of Žepa in Republika Srpska; memoranda and briefs on the drafting of the Agreement of Freedom of Movement in the Sarajevo Area dating from March 1994; and career profiles of political figures in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

There are also summaries of meetings between the Civil Affairs officials and: the President of Republika Srpska Radovan Karadžic, the Prime Minister of Bosnia and Herzegovina Haris Silajdžic, Ratko Mladic, and others. Additionally, the chronological files contain summaries of meetings of the High-Level Committee for Cooperation, which were held at Sarajevo Airport. In attendance at HLCC meetings were officials from UNPROFOR headquarters and Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Bosnian Serb officials, Croat officials, representatives of the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

Special Coordinator for Sarajevo (SCS)
The Secretary-General appointed William Eagleton as Special Coordinator for Sarajevo on 29 March 1994. The Office of the Special Coordinator was established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 900 (1994) in April 1994 in order to mobilize and coordinate international support for the restoration of essential public services in Sarajevo. The Office of the Special Coordinator for Sarajevo administered a trust fund comprised of donations gathered from foreign countries at fund raising conventions organized by the Office. The Coordination Committee comprised of local officials, foreign diplomats stationed in Zagreb, and humanitarian agencies, met periodically to discuss and coordinate work on the 14 point Plan of Action. Seven Action Groups were formed to execute the Plan of Action.

The records of the Special Coordinator for Sarajevo (SCS) consist of incoming and outgoing faxes primarily relating to: fundraising activities; financial administration of donations and funds; the Coordination Committee; the execution of the Plan of Action; and personnel matters.

Documents relating to fundraising activities include: invitations and letters to prospective donors; reports on achievements; and plans authored by William Eagleton sent to United Nations Permanent Representatives and to diplomats. The aforementioned documents concern: the 25 May 1994 Donors’ Conference in Vienna; the 29 June 1994 Pledging Conference in New York; donor meetings in Vienna in September 1994 and June 1995; and other fundraising activities.

Memoranda sent by William Eagleton to the UNPROFOR Finance and Budget Section about administration of the Trust Fund and the Quick Impact Fund are also included in the records.

The activities of the Coordination Committee are documented by invitations and minutes of meetings.

Also included are memoranda exchanged between the Action Groups, the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) of UNPROFOR, and collaborators such as the Directorate of the Reconstruction and Development of Sarajevo and the World Health Organization (WHO). The records also include Action Plans prepared by an Action Group Manager, which describe the extent and the cost of various restoration projects.

The Office was operated by personnel seconded by contributing international organizations and governments. The records include: letters sent by William Eagleton to donor States and humanitarian organizations regarding the secondment of technical staff to the Office of the Special Coordinator; and personnel records relating to claims, dependency, and evaluations.

Humanitarian Affairs Officer
The Humanitarian Affairs Officer was headquartered in Zagreb, Croatia, and reported to the Head of Civil Affairs. Records reflect cooperation between the Humanitarian Affairs Officer and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the Government of the Republic of Croatia (primarily), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and other non-governmental organizations. Additionally, the records reflect the activities of the Humanitarian Affairs Officer within UNPROFOR.

Records consist of: transfer and evacuation requests for transfer across and out of United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs), submitted by individuals as well as the government of the Republic of Croatia to the Humanitarian Affairs Office; tracing requests from individuals as well as the Government of the Republic of Croatia (which were to be processed by the Civil Affairs Humanitarian Assistant in coordination with the Civilian Police); guarantee letters proving citizenship and allowing for travel outside Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina; and faxes received by the Humanitarian Affairs Office from the Office of Displaced Persons and Refugees of the Government of the Republic of Croatia.

Also includes records generated by the Human Rights Action Team (HRAT) of the United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO). Records primarily consist of: daily and monthly reports by HRAT officers about visits to villages in Croatia, which note living conditions of villagers and provide details regarding allegations of village massacres; reports of HRAT visits to Croatian cemeteries to inspect the grave sites of war victims, and visits to prisons; and reports describing actions taken by HRAT officers to monitor incidents and human rights violations in villages, including intimidation, looting and vandalism of houses, desecration of graves, burning of property, and theft of livestock.

Civilian Police, by Sectors

S-1836 documents police support provided by the UN Civilian Police (UNCIVPOL) to the United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF) and the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR).

The UNPROFOR Civilian Police priorities included monitoring the local police to ensure that they carried out their duties without discriminating against persons of any nationality or abusing anyone’s human rights, and assisting with humanitarian aid in the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs).

The UNPAs comprised Eastern Slavonia, Western Slavonia and Krajina. These areas were divided by the United Nations into four sectors: North, South, East, and West.

Sector North UNCIVPOL headquarters initially was stationed in Topusko, with additional stations in Slunj, Tušilovic, Vojnic, Vrginmost, Glina, Petrinja, Kostajnica, Dvor, Plaški, and Velika Kladuša. Sector sub-stations were posted in Sunja, Mošcenice, and Maja. In December of 1995, Sector North headquarters was moved from Topusko to Glina, and Topusko was no longer listed as a station.

Sector South UNCIVPOL headquarters was stationed in Knin, with additional stations in Kistanje, Benkovac, Obrovac, Gracac, Korenica, Vrlika, Drniš, Podlapaca, Medak, and Vrhovine. Sector sub-stations were posted in Donji Lapac, Malkovo, Kakma, Kašic, and Pristeg.

Sector East UNCIVPOL headquarters was stationed in Erdut, with additional stations in Beli Mastir, Batina, Darda, Dalj, Tenja, Oriolik, Ilok, and Vukovar. Sector sub-stations were posted in Jarmina and Ivanovac.

Sector West UNCIVPOL headquarters was stationed in Daruvar, with additional stations in Grubišno Polje, Pakrac, and Okucani. A sector sub-station was posted in Gavrenica.

UNPROFOR also established other UNCIVPOL sectors.

Sector Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sector BH) was alternatively referred to as Sector Sarajevo until January 1995, when Sector Sarajevo was formally renamed Sector Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its headquarters was stationed in Sarajevo, with these additional stations: Sarajevo Airport, Split Airport, Pleso Airport, Tuzla, Goražde, Srebrenica, and Mostar.

Sector Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Sector FYROM) headquarters was stationed in Skopje, with additional stations in Ohrid and Gostivar.

Sector Highway was in operation from 5 December 1994 to 7 May 1995. Its mission was to escort convoys between Sector East and Sector West during daylight hours and to monitor local police along the highway. Sector Highway headquarters was stationed in Novska.

Civilian Police, Zagreb
The UNPROFOR Civilian Police Headquarters was based in Zagreb, Croatia. There was a UNCIVPOL Commissioner at UNCIVPOL HQ, Zagreb, as well as a Deputy Commissioner, Chief of Staff, and a Chief of Operations.

The UNCIVPOL Commissioner reported to the Head of Civil Affairs (HCA) from 1992 through early 1995, and then began reporting directly to the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG).

The files contain incoming and outgoing faxes of UNCIVPOL headquarters in Zagreb consisting of: daily and monthly situation reports; incident reports; tracing requests; contingent meeting minutes; daily schedules for Croatian Police in the Separation Zone; and general operations correspondence pertaining to the rotation of UNCIVPOL monitors between sectors, deployment, inventorying and ordering of supplies, and contingent medal parades. The daily situation reports contain information compiled from situation reports issued by the various Sectors. The daily situation reports were sent from the UNCIVPOL Commissioner at HQ Zagreb to numerous individuals and agencies, such as Sector Chiefs, the Director of Civil Affairs, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and the International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia (ICFY) in Geneva. Topics covered in situation reports include: general situation, monitoring, operations, criminal and human rights incidents, humanitarian aid, movement restrictions, and the number of UNCIVPOL monitors on duty.

Civilian Police, Zagreb, Operations Office
The UNCIVPOL Operations Office was headquartered at Pleso Camp (PC). At this base there was a Deputy Commissioner (PDC), Chief of Staff (PCOS), Chief Operations Officer (PCOO), Police Executive Officer (PXO), Pleso Chief Information Officer (PCIO), Chief Logistics Officer (PCLO), Personnel Officer (PPO), Operations Officer (POO), among other officers.

Records of the Operations Office document the frequent communication between the Chief Operations Officer at Pleso Camp and the Sector Chiefs and Station Commanders regarding UNCIVPOL operations. Additionally, the documents reveal that the UNCIVPOL Commissioner (UNCIVPOL HQ, Zagreb) as well as his Deputy Commissioner, Chief of Staff, and a Chief of Operations often participated in the exchanges.

The documents of the Operations Office common to each sector (Sector North, Sector South, Sector East, Sector West, Sector BH, Sector FYROM, and Sector Highway) consist of: daily situation reports and monthly reports; risk assessments; incident reports and investigations; tracing requests; and minutes of meetings with Sector Chiefs and local authorities. These documents primarily were sent from sector headquarters to the UNCIVPOL HQ Pleso Camp and contain information compiled from reports submitted by the stations and sub-stations in a sector. Some communications were faxed to the UNCIVPOL Commissioner of Civil Affairs at UNCIVPOL HQ, Zagreb.

Topics covered in daily situation reports include: an overview of the general situation; relations with local authorities; color-coded status of alert; personnel and logistical data; operations; criminal and human rights incidents; evaluation of the level of cooperation with local authorities; and population statistics. The daily situation reports from Sector BH are notable because they document in detail: the shelling and sniper activity in the area; the repercussions of NATO airstrikes; and the challenges UNCIVPOL experienced in distributing humanitarian aid. Monthly reports typically describe the aforementioned in a more narrative format than the daily situation reports, which present the information in brief statements under subject headings.

Risk assessments are concise narrative reports that describe the general situation in the sector and “recent past” activities; present and current operations; and plans and prospects.

Incident reports often contain: personal information about victims; names of witnesses and suspects; the name of the reporting UNCIVPOL monitor; and a description of the incident. The subsequent investigations commonly include typed or handwritten statements from victims and/or witnesses and sketches of crime scenes. Some investigations feature follow up reports, which convey the progress or results of the investigation. Incident reports were faxed to the sector headquarters and forwarded by fax, to UNCIVPOL HQ, Zagreb or Pleso Camp. Among the incidents documented in the records of the Operations Office are: massacres in the Croatian villages of Gospic (Sector East), Plavno (Sector South), and Varivode (Sector South); investigations of mass graves in Grubišno Polje (Sector West), Miljevic Plateau (Sector South), Lovas (Sector East), Tordinci (Sector East), and Ovcara (Sector East); and the attempted assassination of the President of the Republic of Macedonia, Kiro Gligorov (Sector FYROM).

Tracing requests were made by family members in effort to locate their civilian and/or soldier relations. The requests were initiated by: a letter (often handwritten) from a family member, forwarded from the Civil Affairs Humanitarian Officer, Adel Zaazou, to the UNCIVPOL Commissioner or to the Sector Chief(s); or by an incident report prepared by a UNCIVPOL monitor at the station or while on patrol.

The records of the Operations Office document frequent meetings with local authorities covering topics such as; humanitarian aid; incidents; and cooperation. The minutes describe meetings held with local police, local mayors, and Croatian and/or Serbian military authorities. Some minutes of meetings in Sector North detail incidents and conditions in the Kuplensko, Batnoga and Turanj refugee camps.

Civilian Police, Sector South, Knin
At UNCIVPOL Sector South headquarters, there was a Sector Chief, a Deputy Sector Chief, an Operations Officer, a Logistics Officer, and an Information officer. The Operations Officer was assisted by a Liaison Officer, an Investigations Officer and a Duty Officer(s) among other officers and monitors. Posted to stations were a Station Commander and a Deputy Station Commander, an Administrative Officer, a Motor Transport Officer, a Humanitarian Officer, a Liaison Officer, Duty Officers, and Patrol Officers/Monitors.

The documents from Sector South describe operations and the communications between the stations in the sector and sector headquarters. The bulk of the documents are incident reports filed at a given station and sent to Sector South headquarters. Incident reports were written by a UNCIVPOL officer and describe a civilian’s, or the officer’s observation of a crime. Sometimes incident reports were used to request humanitarian aid or to initiate a tracing request. Most of the incident reports in the records document the humanitarian aid distributed by UNCIVPOL in the sector; however, some describe looting, theft, intimidation, and murder in the given station’s area of responsibility.

Also included in the records are: daily situation reports; weekly statistical reports; monthly and mid-month reports; memoranda relating to UNCIVPOL operations and deployment; and the duty roster from the sector headquarters.

Monthly reports are detailed narrative reports sent from each station to Sector South headquarters. The data from these reports was assimilated by the sector headquarters into a report forwarded to the UNCIVPOL Operations Office. Topics covered in monthly reports include: general situation; personnel and logistical data; operations; criminal and human rights incidents; an evaluation of the level of cooperation with local authorities; and population statistics. Daily situation reports were sent from Sector South headquarters to the Operations Office, and briefly review the aforementioned topics for each station.

Mid-month reports were sent from Sector South headquarters to the Operations Office, and describe personnel, logistics, and operations within the sector.

Weekly statistical reports were sent from the stations to Sector South headquarters and describe: the number and type of cases monitored; human rights violations; and quality of life. This data was sometimes displayed in chart form.

The records from Sector South also include memoranda and faxes exchanged between the UNCIVPOL Operations Office and the sector headquarters, relating to operations and deployment. Topics covered in the memoranda include: general assessments of each station; administrative information, such as staffing coverage and position appointments; and minutes of meetings between station officers and local authorities. Some memoranda convey directives regarding the operational transition from UNPROFOR to the United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF) and United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO). Also represented in the memoranda are guidelines for UNPROFOR cooperation with officials of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Several memoranda convey details of the Croatian attack on Knin in August of 1995 (Operation Storm). These include: communications sent from the Sector Chief to the UNCIVPOL Operations Office with assessment of the second, third, and fourth days of Operation Storm and an information bulletin from the Operations Office sent to all Sector Chiefs describing the aftermath of the Croatian offensive.

Civilian Police, Sector North, Topusko
At UNCIVPOL Sector North headquarters, there was a Sector Chief, a Deputy Sector Chief, an Operations Officer, a Logistics Officer, and an Information officer. The Operations Officer was assisted by a Liaison Officer, an Investigations Officer and a Duty Officer(s) among other officers and monitors. Posted to stations were a Station Commander and a Deputy Station Commander, an Administrative Officer, a Motor Transport Officer, a Humanitarian Officer (alternatively referred to as Human Rights Officer), a Liaison Officer, Duty Officers, and Patrol Officers/Monitors

The documents from Sector North describe operations and the communications between the stations in the sector and sector headquarters. UNCIVPOL activities included: monitoring the local police and observing court proceedings; monitoring human rights and distributing humanitarian aid; monitoring the status of refugees; and prison visitation and village visitation.

The records of Sector North consist of: daily occurrence reports; situation updates; village reports; minutes of meetings with station officers and local authorities; minutes of meetings among Station Commanders; month end reports; Sector North Human Rights Abuse Reports; monthly mortality data for the sector; weekly status reports; reports on prison visitation and refugee status reports.

Daily Occurrence Reports (DOR) were sent from stations in the sector to the sector headquarters. (These reports were used by sector headquarters to prepare daily situation reports for the UNCIVPOL Operations Office.) Topics in the DOR include: general situation; relations with local authorities (Milicija, Policia, court and government officials); color-coded status of alert; personnel and logistical data; operations; criminal and human rights incidents; population statistics; and the level of cooperation with local authorities. DOR prepared during August 1995 describe the heavy shelling and air strikes that characterized Operation Storm.

Situation updates were sent daily from the Sector Chief to the Operations Office. These daily updates summarize the situation in enumerated points, often covering: border crossings; UNCIVPOL meetings with local authorities; restriction of movement experienced by UNCIVPOL, at times described as “extreme”; victimization of UN personnel, such as an attempted hijacking of UNCIVPOL vehicle, and the resulting shooting injury suffered by a UNCIVPOL monitor, and negligible operational activity. Some updates contain conclusions or proposals such as a redeployment of UNCIVPOL strength from Sector North to an area where they could operate more effectively, or where there is a greater presence needed.

Village reports were sent by the stations in Sector North to the sector headquarters and provide: the name of the reporting monitor and date visited; data regarding the name of the village and its geographic grid reference; population figures; the ethnic composition of residents; names of local figures of authority; remarks on the general situation; reports of destroyed houses; details about village infrastructure, including the water supply, electricity, roads and transport, and communication capabilities; and details about the education of residents, medical services, and living conditions.

The minutes of meetings with local authorities were sent to the sector headquarters, and often forwarded from the Sector Chief to the Operations Office. The minutes cover: joint patrols with local police; restriction of movement, and investigations. Discussion of the Kuplensko Refugee Camp is frequently represented in the minutes. These discussions examine: living conditions; incidents within the camp; and the classification of occupants as “refugees” or “displaced persons.”

Weekly Station Commanders’ meetings were chaired by the Sector Chief. Topics included in the minutes of these meetings are: the general situation in Sector North; directives from the Operations Office; logistics; and updates from Station Commanders, covering the general situation in their area of responsibility, patrol conditions, cooperation with local police, incidents, the monetary exchange rate, and the cost of bread, oil, and flour.

Month-End Reports are concise accounts of the activities and occurrences in the given area, sent from stations to the Sector North headquarters. Subjects covered: general situation; professionalism and cooperation of the local police; attitude of the population towards UNCIVPOL and UNPROFOR; court sittings and if UNCIVPOL monitored the case; crime trends; problems and suggested solutions; Civilian police programs in place, such as village and prison visitation; protection of minorities; and humanitarian aid issues.

Human Rights Abuse Reports were sent weekly from Station Commanders or the station’s Humanitarian Officer to the Sector Chief or the Humanitarian Officer at Sector North headquarters. These reports were sometimes forwarded to the UNCIVPOL Commissioner or to Civil Affairs. The majority of reports consist of one sentence indicating that there were no human rights violations. More substantive reports detail the number and type of violations, and include related incident reports and information regarding the subsequent investigation. A substantial investigation is represented in the records of Sector North, of human rights violations carried out by the Croatian Army. Specifically, it regards an August 1992 incident resulting from the arrest of 300-600 Bosnians (majority Muslim) by the Croatian Policia and their forced military service under threat of death.

Sector North stations sent monthly mortality reports to the Operations Officer at Sector North headquarters. Patrol teams collected the data during visits to local offices of authority. These reports provide information about: the age, sex, and village of the deceased, as well as the cause of death. Records of Sector North indicate that similar weekly reports were sent from stations to the World Health Organization.

Weekly status reports were sent from Sector North headquarters to the Operations Office. They chart: the type of incident; the number of cases; and the ethnicity of the victim and of the suspect.

UNCIVPOL in Sector North conducted daily visits to Glina Prison and Vojnic Prison. A daily report of these prison visits was sent to the Commissioner, noting: prisoner’s name; date of birth; most recent address; ethnicity; date of imprisonment; crime and sentence; the aforementioned personal data for new prisoners; names of prisoners transferred or released, noting where and when; overall prisoners’ condition, citing complaints; and the monitor’s assessment of the general situation in the prison. Information about living conditions in each cell is also included, covering: the number of prisoners, the heating, and the cleanliness.

Refugee Status Reports were sent daily from Sector North headquarters to the Commissioner. The reports note: the number of refugees in the sector, by station; complaints of human rights violations; and information of interest. The data covers the Batnoga and Turanj refugee camps.

Civilian Police, Sector West, Daruvar
At UNCIVPOL Sector West headquarters, there was a Sector Chief, a Deputy Sector Chief, an Operations Officer, a Logistics Officer, and an Information Officer. The Operations Officer was assisted by a Liaison Officer, an Investigations Officer and a Duty Officer(s) among other officers and monitors. Posted to stations were a Station Commander and a Deputy Station Commander, an Administrative Officer, a Motor Transport Officer, a Humanitarian Officer, a Liaison Officer, Duty Officers, and Patrol Officers/Monitors.

The documents from Sector West describe operations and the communications between the stations in the sector and sector headquarters. UNCIVPOL activities included: monitoring the local police and observing court proceedings; monitoring human rights and distributing humanitarian aid; monitoring the status of refugees; and prison visitation and village visitation.

The records of Sector West consist of: daily situation reports; daily occurrence reports; daily media summaries; weekly reports from the Civil Affairs Coordinator; weekly situation reports from the United Nations High Commission for Refugees; routine orders; village reports; minutes of meetings with station officers and local authorities; minutes of meetings among Station Commanders; monthly humanitarian reports; operational memoranda; interviews with prisoners of local jails; and reports of incidents and investigations.

Daily situation reports were sent from Sector West headquarters to the Operations Office in Pleso Camp. Topics covered are: general situation; relations with local authorities; color-coded status of alert; personnel and logistical data; operations; criminal and human rights incidents; the level of cooperation with local authorities; and statistics on population and ethnicity. Monthly reports typically describe the aforementioned in a more narrative format than daily situation reports, which present the information in brief statements under subject headings.

The records of Sector West also contain daily situation reports sent from the Civilian Police Commissioner to the Head of Civil Affairs. These reports were comprised of data from daily situation reports prepared by each UNCIVPOL sector. The reports were additionally copied to other UNPROFOR and UN agencies and to each sector for circulation.

The daily occurrence reports (DOR) contained among the records of Sector West were created by: stations in the sector and sent to the sector headquarters; the Croatian Police (CROPOL) and sent to UNCIVPOL; and UNCIVPOL Liaison Teams.

Topics covered in the DOR from UNCIVPOL stations include: general situation; relations with local authorities (Milicija, Policia, court and government officials); color-coded status of alert; personnel and logistical data; operations; criminal and human rights incidents; population statistics; and the level of cooperation with local authorities. (The information contained in these reports was used by sector headquarters to prepare the daily situation reports for the UNCIVPOL Operations Office.)

The DOR from CROPOL are brief narratives that describe incidents and the progress of investigations. The text is a translation, with the original version often included.
The records of Sector West include DOR from Station Okucani Liaison Team and weekly reports of the Liaison Teams from all stations in the sector. The aforementioned reports were sent to the sector headquarters. The duties of the Liaison Team included regular meetings and joint patrols with the CROPOL and monitoring CROPOL investigations. The reports were created by the Liaison Team Leader and cover the aforementioned duties, reporting: specific incidents; the progress of investigations; and the Team Leader’s assessment of CROPOL investigation methods.

Daily reports from the European Community Liaison Officer - West (ECLO) contain observations of the general and political situation, gathered from meetings with local officials (mayors, representatives of the local assembly, local Liaison Officers, and religious officials) and other non-political community representatives. Other topics often include the ECLO’s observations of meetings concerning the military situation, economic and infrastructural issues, as well as humanitarian and human rights issues.

Patrol reports document UNCIVPOL monitors’ observations during daily patrols of villages in their area of responsibility (AOR). They are handwritten on a form that includes: the name of the UNCIVPOL station; time of patrol; whether or not it was joint patrol with local police; the names of the driver, monitor, and interpreter; and the name of the village patrolled and the geographic grid reference.

Weekly reports from the Civil Affairs Coordinator (CAC) in Sector West are entitled, Report for the SRSG and Bi-Monthly Briefing Notes. These reports were sent to the Head of Civil Affairs at UNPROFOR HQ, Zagreb, and provide an informationally dense view of the situation in Sector West. In Report for the SRSG and Bi-Monthly Briefing Notes, the CAC describes political, administrative, human rights, and humanitarian issues throughout the sector, and include his personal insights and suggestions.

Weekly situation reports from the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) Field Office in Daruvar describe in narrative detail: the general situation; political developments; UNHCR protection activities, such as refugee movements, and exchanges of civilians; individual cases (including new and ongoing cases); special programs, such as winterization in refugee camps and fuel support programs; UNHCR coordination with other humanitarian organizations (UNICEF, UNPROFOR, etc.); and information regarding UNHCR staff and administration.

Routine Orders were sent weekly from the Sector Chief to the stations in the sector. The orders: communicate duties; identify any officers on leave; report any deaths of monitors; and include periodic items such as helicopter schedule, guidelines to winter driving, and mine awareness.

Village reports were sent by the stations in Sector West to the sector headquarters and provide: the name of reporting monitor; data regarding the name of the village and its geographic grid reference; date visited; population figures; the ethnic composition of residents; names of local figures of authority; remarks on the general situation; reports of destroyed houses; details about village infrastructure, including the water supply, electricity, roads and transport, and communication capabilities; and details about the education of residents, medical services, and living standards.

Weekly Station Commanders’ meetings were chaired by the Sector Chief. Topics included in the minutes of these meetings are: the general situation in Sector West; directives from the Operations Office; logistics; and updates from Station Commanders, covering the general situation in their area of responsibility, patrol conditions, cooperation with local police, incidents, the monetary exchange rate, and the cost of bread, oil, and flour.

The minutes of meetings between Sector West and local authorities were sent to the sector headquarters, and often forwarded from the Sector Chief to the Operations Office. The minutes cover: joint patrols with local police, restriction of movement, and investigations.

Monthly humanitarian reports were created by the Humanitarian Coordinator at Sector West headquarters and sent to the UNCIVPOL Commissioner. The reports briefly describe humanitarian activity in the sector, cooperation between UNCIVPOL and the International Committee of the Red Cross, and the distribution of humanitarian aid. The records of Sector West include other humanitarian reports that provide: requests for humanitarian assistance; the name, address, and ethnicity of recipients humanitarian aid; data about refugee movement; and information regarding UNCIVPOL school visitation.

The records include UNCIVPOL organization charts as well as a significant volume of operational memoranda, which communicate administrative guidelines and directives for standard operations. Other memoranda concern: UNCIVPOL response to the protests and restriction of movement in 1994, enacted by Croatian displaced persons against UNPROFOR; UNCIVPOL evacuation plans; and UNPROFOR implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994.

UNCIVPOL officers interviewed prisoners in local jails to monitor their human rights protection and facilitate prisoner exchanges between the warring parties. The records of Sector West contain interviews with prisoners in the Serbian-run Stara Gradiška Prison and Bjelovar Military Prison in Croatia. The interviews include the prisoner’s personal data and also: why he was imprisoned; his overall treatment and if he had been beaten; and if he wishes to be exchanged.

Incident reports were written by a UNCIVPOL officer to report a civilian’s, or the officer’s observation of a crime. Sometimes incident reports were used to report requests for humanitarian aid or to initiate a tracing request. Most of the incident reports in the records of Sector West describe looting, intimidation, and murder in the given station’s area of responsibility. The subsequent investigations range in depth of documentation. Investigations strongly represented in the records are: human rights violations of prisoners; murder and attempted murders along “Dragovic Road” (described as the road between Pakrac and Požega, alternately described as between Pakrac- Bucje) in Croatia; murders in Vukovje, Croatia; mass murder in the village of Gornji Grahovljani, Croatia; and mass graves in the Croatian villages of Donji Caglic, Okucani, and Vinogradi.

Photographs and Records

The United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA) was established in 1950 in order to undertake relief and rehabilitation programs in Korea. It ceased operating in 1959, and liquidation was completed in 1960.

Records include registry files, 1950-1960, containing correspondence, memos, reports, and many other types of documents concerning all aspects of the United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency; also project files, 1952-1960, containing correspondence, project agreements, lists of required supplies generated by UNKRA's establishment of projects in the areas of food and agriculture, rural resettlement, transportation, communications, education, health, sanitation and welfare, natural resources, housing, technical assistance, and other projects.
Also included are files concerning personnel, finances, and other matters having to do with the administration of UNKRA, 1951-1960, and containing correspondence, legal documents, minutes, accounts, and photographs.
Historical files, 1951-1960, were assembled in order to write a history of UNKRA, and contain examples of the types of documents mentioned, as well as drafts of a history of UNKRA.

It contains PAG-4/3.0, subseries (3.0) Registry Files; (2) Project Files; (3.1) General Administration Non-Registry Files; (3.2) General Administration Photos; (4) Personnel Office Non-Registry Files; (4.1) Finance Office Non-Registry Files; (4.2) Finance Office Ledgers; (5) Historical Files.

United Nations Operations in the Congo (ONUC) - Provinces

UN. Executive Assistant to the Secretary-General (1946-1961: Cordier) Office for Special Political Affairs (1958-1972: Bunche)

Series consists of incoming and outgoing clear cables, correspondence, reports, press releases and photographs relating to the six provinces of the Congo: Equateur, Katanga, Kasai, Kivu, Leopoldville, and Orientale. Katanga province makes up the bulk of the records which detail the conditions at Elisabethville Refugee Camp, general ONUC military operations, and incidents regarding the United Nations Peace-Keeping Troops.

Files include information on air missions; famine (Kasai); refugees (Kivu); military operations (Leopoldville); Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba (Orientale); and maps of all the provinces. Correspondents include Under-Secretary for Special Political Affairs Ralph Bunche, Officer-in-Charge R. K. Gardiner, and Officer-in-Charge B. F. Osorio-Tafall.

Actual series size: 3.5 feet
Accession Numbers: 75/7, 72/88

Under-Secretary-General (USG) - Subject files

S-1834 contains the subject files from the offices of the following DPKO officials:

Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG)
Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (ASG)
Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping

Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG)
Records of the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG) consist of: briefs on the distribution and allocation of responsibilities in DPKO, and on DPKO staff functions; reports on the USG’s annual programme objectives; annual and periodic work plans for DPKO offices, including the Office of Operations, Office of Mission Support, Mission Planning Service, the Mine Action Service, the Lessons Learned Unit, and the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit; organization charts and organigrammes of DPKO; outlines on the status of implementation of recommendations proposed by DPKO offices; reports and flow charts for strategic planning within DPKO and for UN-wide planning and inter-departmental coordination of peacekeeping operations; briefs on financing peacekeeping operations; draft agreements between the United Nations and host countries and non-governmental organizations on the operation of peacekeeping missions; memoranda and briefs produced by DPKO staff for preparation of the Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs and the Repertoire of Practice of the Security Council; and articles and discussion papers on aspects of peacekeeping prepared by government and private sector sources.

Records include summaries of meetings, conferences, and summits attended by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, the Secretary-General, and representatives of: regional organizations; non-governmental organizations; and intergovernmental organizations. There are also summaries of meetings between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and Permanent Representatives of diplomatic missions to the United Nations. Meeting summaries outline principles, modalities, and mechanisms for cooperation in conflict prevention, early warning and preventive action, peace support operations, human rights protection, humanitarian action, regional security, and relations with the United Nations. Also included are briefs, communiqués, and memoranda related to the meetings, and statements delivered at the meetings by the Secretary-General, the President of the Security Council, and meeting attendees.

Files relating to the safety and security of United Nations personnel deployed in peacekeeping operations include: memoranda on the preparation of a joint declaration on cooperation between the United Nations and the European Union for civilian and military crisis management; comments provided by DPKO for the Secretary-General’s report on the security of United Nations personnel; and briefs and outlines on authority and responsibilities for the United Nations Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD) in security management in peacekeeping operations. Additionally, there are: background notes and briefs on the safety and security of the DPKO premises; drafts of the DPKO Crisis Management Plan detailing critical functions, responsibilities, and procedures of the department during crisis; comments prepared by DPKO staff on United Nations security reform; and briefs and memoranda on the United Nations’ response to the attacks of September 11, 2001.

Records also document DPKO’s consideration for human rights and humanitarian issues in the creation of peacekeeping mission policy. There are reports and memoranda exchanged between the USG, the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit, the SRSG for Children and Armed Conflict, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), and the Commission on Human Rights. Topics include: a minimum age for soldiers participating in peacekeeping operations, developing policies and disciplinary procedures to combat sexual exploitation and abuse, and the adherence of peacekeeping missions to the guidelines set out in “Observance by United Nations forces of international humanitarian law,” the Secretary-General’s bulletin issued 6 August 1999. In addition, Memoranda of Understanding, studies, and summaries of meetings concern the division of responsibility between DPKO, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), and the Commission on Human Rights in cases where peacekeeping missions include humanitarian work or a human rights component.

Other Memoranda of Understanding, approved by DPKO and Member States, address standby arrangements for rapid deployment of peacekeeping troops, facilities for logistics bases, training in logistics co-sponsored by DPKO and Kenya, and contingent-owned equipment. There are also suggestions for improvements in peacekeeping operations, including the 16 December 1993 “United Nations Logistics Working Group Recommendations and Products.”

DPKO’s Civilian Police Unit was incorporated into the Military and Civilian Police Division in October 2000; the Military and Civilian Police Division was then split into the Military Division and Civilian Police Division in 2002. Records of the Civilian Police Unit and Civilian Police Division include memoranda and policy documents exchanged between the Police Adviser and USG on such topics as guidelines for police contributing countries, police training, deployment, and acceptance of Member States’ retired police officers for peacekeeping. In addition, there are reports and speeches from DPKO seminars on the role of police in peacekeeping operations, which were attended by Member State diplomats and police, regional organizations, NGOs, and other UN offices. Other Civilian Police Unit and Civilian Police Division records consist of fact sheets about the civilian police components of various missions and presentations by the Police Adviser about the work of civilian police components and the generation of resources for civilian police.

Included are chronological files of the Under-Secretaries-General for Peacekeeping Marrack Goulding (1992-1993) and Kofi Annan (1993-1996). Chronological files consist of: talking points for the USG’s meetings with government officials of Member States about developments in peacekeeping missions, mandate implementation, and Member States’ contribution to peacekeeping missions; the USG’s notes to the Secretary-General; notes to the USG written by the DPKO Principal Officer Elisabeth Lindenmeyer; press statements delivered by the USG on developments in peacekeeping missions; correspondence between the USG and the UN Legal Counsel; and statements delivered by the USG at troop contributors meetings. Chronological files also include: letters exchanged between the President of the Security Council and the Secretary-General; drafts of DPKO contributions to the Secretary-General’s reports to the Security Council about conflict areas and peacekeeping operations; statements delivered by the Secretary-General during informal consultations of the Security Council; and talking points for the Secretary-General’s meetings with high-level officials and government representatives of Member States. There are also memoranda sent by the USG to Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG) of peacekeeping missions in the field regarding: mandate implementation, the staffing of peacekeeping missions, the security of mission personnel, Force build up and reduction, mission withdrawal, and meetings of the Security Council. A significant volume of documents in the USG’s chronological files relates to UNOSOM I, UNOSOM II, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMIR), and the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM).

There are also records relating to gender balance and gender mainstreaming in peacekeeping. These records primarily consist of memoranda and reports exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit, the DPKO Focal Point for Women, the DPKO Gender Focal Point, the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women, the Inter-Agency Committee on Women and Gender and Equality, the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), and the Division for the Advancement of Women of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA). The memoranda and reports detail DPKO’s progress in the implementation of: the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action adopted at the September 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women; the Windhoek Declaration and Namibia Plan of Action of 31 May 2000; the outcomes of the 23rd special session of the General Assembly June 2000; and Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000). Topics of memoranda include: creating gender balance and a gender sensitive work environment in DPKO, work-family issues related to gender, inclusion of gender perspectives in reporting, the role of women in peace-building and conflict resolution, and establishing gender units and gender advisers at DPKO headquarters and in missions. Memoranda also address the impact of both conflict and United Nations peacekeeping on women and include discussion of rape, hostage-taking, mine injuries; sexual trafficking, sexual exploitation, and the spread of HIV. In addition, there are statistics provided by peacekeeping missions and troop-contributing Member States, about the numbers of female members of peacekeeping missions.
Country files primarily consist of correspondence and notes exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs and the Secretary-General about: strategies for United Nations response in countries experiencing political and military conflict, civil strife, and humanitarian crises; the coordination of DPKO and United Nations system-wide meetings in support of peace and ceasefire negotiations and economic stability; and missions undertaken to conflict areas by special envoys of the Secretary-General to asses the political and military situation on the ground.

The country files also contain several reports about UN assessment missions dispatched to conflict areas to determine assistance, or to initiate a mission’s preparatory work for deployment. Documents include: a report of the United Nations Survey Mission on Existing Administrative Structures in Cambodia, undertaken from 2-18 December 1991; a report of the United Nations Assessment Mission to Bougainville, Papua New Guinea from 26 April - 5 May 1998 to monitor the implementation of the Agreement on Peace, Security and Development in Bougainville, signed in New Zealand on 23 January 1998; a report of the Security Assessment Mission to the Republic of Chechnya, undertaken from 15-25 April 2000; and a report of the Preparatory Mission to the Sudan, 27 November - 16 December 2003. The country files also contain assessment reports of missions undertaken by the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), a section of the DPKO.

Other records concern United Nations peacekeeping operations in Africa, African regional peacekeeping operations, and African efforts to enhance African capacity for peacekeeping. Included are overviews of peacekeeping operations prepared by DPKO’s Africa Division, and briefs authored by the Under-Secretary-General and sent to the Secretary-General, about the DPKO’s peacekeeping operations in Africa. There are also: summaries of ministerial meetings of the Security Council about United Nations intervention in conflicts and crises in Africa; updates and meeting summaries about the work of the thematic groups set up to review the recommendations included in the Secretary-General’s report of 28 May 1998, 'The Causes of Conflict and the Promotion of Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa”; briefs and notes to the file about various UN-led and international initiatives to enhance peacekeeping capacity in Africa; and periodic reports prepared by the Head of the United Nations Liaison Office and the African Union (AU), located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, about AU activities and United Nations support to the AU.

Also included are several records documenting the establishment of the United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC). These include: briefs about logistical preparations for the deployment of MONUC; directives for the Chief Military Liaison Officer dated December 1999; summaries of meetings of the international Joint Military Commission (JMC), which was established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1291 (1999) and which co-deployed with MONUC in the DRC; notes drafted by the Under-Secretary-General and sent to the Secretary-General about developments in the DRC, particularly about military and security matters, in the wake of the signing of the Lusaka Agreement on 10 July 1999; and draft Rules of Engagement dated April 2000.

The Under-Secretary-General’s files relating to the United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) and United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) include: briefs and memoranda on political and military developments in Somalia; timelines for the implementation of the mission mandate; papers presenting options for the United Nations in Somalia and outlining the mission’s political strategy; reports detailing interfactional fighting and the security situation in the city of Kismayo; briefs and correspondence documenting logistics support for the mission and analyzing infrastructure conditions; outlines and memoranda pertaining to the United Nations assistance in rebuilding the justice, police, and prison systems in Somalia; license agreements for the mission’s use of premises in Somalia; and summaries of informal meetings of the Security Council on Somalia.

There is also material related to the attack occurring on 5 June 1993 in Mogadishu which killed 24 peacekeepers serving in the Pakistani Battalion while they were inspecting an ammunition depot. These records include: a report of an independent inquiry conducted by Tom Farer on the events of 5 June 1993; briefs and correspondence related to UNOSOM II’s detention of Somalis held for their suspected involvement in the attack; reports describing the status and background of individual detainees; reports describing the findings and recommendations of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) about the detention of the Somalis, including a report of the ICRC’s visit to the UNOSOM II Central Detention Facility; and correspondence and terms of reference pertaining to the Independent Jurist tasked to review the cases of individuals being detained by UNOSOM II.

The records of the USG also include subject files of the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL). Annan served as USG during the mission; Bernard Miyet succeeded him in January 1997. The records contain incoming and outgoing code cables exchanged between the USG and the SRSG of the mission: Trevor Gordon-Somers (November 1992 – November 1994); Anthony Nyakyi (December 1994 - April 1997); and Tuliameni Kalomoh (April - September 1997). The cables comprise summaries of the Security Council proceedings about UNOMIL; final report of the UNOMIL Human Rights Section (September 1997); and summaries of meeting of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Committee of Nine on Liberia.

The records also contain drafts and final progress reports of the Secretary-General to the Security Council about the mission; End of Assignment reports from each SRSG to Liberia; and reports prepared by the Secretary-General’s Special Envoys to Liberia, James O.C Jonah and Ibrahima Fall. Also included are UNOMIL assessment reports regarding: the security assessment mission to Liberia; a visit to Monrovia central prison by the UN Political Officer in charge of human rights; and the Secretary-General dispatched, fact-finding mission to Liberia, undertaken in August 1994 to ascertain the situation in the country and the status of the peace process in order to advise him on the course of action to be recommended to the Security Council. Daily situation reports from the UN Peace-building Office in Liberia (UNOL) sent from the Representative of the Secretary-General, Felix Downes-Thomas to UN Under-Secretary- General for Political Affairs, Kieran Prendergast are also present in the records.

The records also contain memoranda pertaining to UNOMIL and ECOWAS strategy for faction disarmament and weapons disposal as well as reports on investigations carried out by UNOMIL, or jointly with the Ceasefire Violation and Disarmament Committees. Incidents investigated comprise: the 28 December 1995 Tubmanburg incident; the Sinje Massacre of 28 October 1996; and the 31 October 1996 assassination attempt on President Charles Taylor’s life.

Records pertaining to the United Nations’ involvement in Guinea-Bissau consist primarily of code cables forwarded to the Department of Political Affairs (DPA) from the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS), whose headquarters was located in Bissau. The code cables consist of: yearly briefs on the mission’s objectives; summaries of meetings between the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and the President of Guinea-Bissau Kumba Yalá, who served from 17 February 2000 until the military coup of 14 September 2003; summaries of meetings between the SRSG and General Ansumane Mané, the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of Guinea Bissau and Head of the Military Junta, who led the uprising against the government of President João Bernardo Vieira; briefs about the volatile political situation in Guinea-Bissau; memoranda about the activities of the National Assembly; and summaries of informal consultations of the Security Council on United Nations activities in Guinea-Bissau.

The UNOGBIS records also include briefs about a variety of topics, including: the implementation of the Abuja Peace Agreement of 1 November 1998 signed between the Government of Guinea Bissau and the Self Proclaimed Military Junta; and the investiture of President Kumba Yalá on 17 February 2000; plots to overthrow the government and assassinate the President. There is also information about the revision of the country’s Constitution; civil discontent manifested in demonstrations and labor strikes; the status of political prisoners and military detainees; demobilization and reintegration of former combatants; the involvement of Bissau-Guinean forces in the factional fighting occurring in Casamance, a southern province of Senegal.

In addition, the UNOGBIS files contain: the report of United Nations Heads of Agencies to Guinea Bissau, 2-9 August 1998; the report of the United Nations Multidisciplinary Mission to Guinea-Bissau, 2-8 December 1998; and memoranda about the role of the United Nations in Guinea-Bissau, drafted prior to the establishment of UNOGBIS in 1999.

The records of the USG also contain situation reports, code cables and subject files relating to the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT).

Daily and weekly situation reports were sent from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in the Tajik capital of Dushanbe, Tajikistan, to United Nations headquarters in New York. Political developments noted in situation reports include: activities of the Government of Tajikistan and of the Majlisi Oli, the Tajik Parliament; meetings between the SRSG and Tajik government officials; and visits of foreign government officials to Tajikistan to meet with Tajik government officials. Military activities noted in situation reports include: patrol activities, activities at checkpoints and road tolls, interactions between UNMOT military officials and field commanders of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) forces, tensions along the Tajik-Afghan border, and attacks and ambushes carried out by alleged Opposition groups against Government forces. The situation reports also indicate humanitarian activities, such as: exchanges of prisoners of war and detainees; the monitoring of Tajik returnees from countries bordering Tajikistan, particularly Afghanistan and Kyrgyzstan; and the monitoring of local populations affected by outbreaks of malaria and typhoid. Security incidents are also noted, particularly hostage-taking and the activities of Rizvon Sodirov, a renegade commander in the Opposition forces, and his brother Bakhrom Sodirov.

Code cables were exchanged between UNMOT Special Envoys of the Secretary-General, Heads of Mission, and Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSGs), with United Nations headquarters in New York. Outgoing code cables consist of memoranda, briefs, and informal consultations of the Security Council about developments in the mission. Topics of outgoing code cables include: the killings of four UNMOT staff near the city of Garm on 20 July 1998, the trial held by Supreme Court of Tajikistan for those accused of the murders, and negotiation over the possibility of death sentences for the accused; hostage crises; harassment of UNMOT staff by the Presidential National Guard and other warring factions; extensions of the UNMOT mandate; and an attempt on the life of the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmonov on 30 April 1997.

Incoming code cables include: minutes of the SRSG’s meetings with the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rakhmonov and the leader of the UTO Sayid Abdulloh Nuri; statements issued by the Government of Tajikistan and the UTO; investigations of ceasefire and other peace agreement violations; and lists of incident complaints submitted to UNMOT. Incoming code cables also include memoranda about: the appointments of Mirzo Zioev, Akbar Turajonzoda, and other UTO members to government posts; exchanges of prisoners of war; the involvement of Uzbekistan in the civil war; amnesty for UTO supporters; drug trafficking; the establishment of the Commission for National Reconciliation (CNR); humanitarian aid for refugees; and the death of UNMOT Lieutenant Wolfgang Sponner in an exchange of fire that occurred on 18 September 1995.

The subject files relating to UNMOT contain: directives for UNMOT’s Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and Head of Mission; end of tour of duty reports prepared by high-ranking UNMOT officials; letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmonov, as well as the leader of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) Sayid Abdulloh Nuri; summaries of meetings of the Task Force on Tajikistan, which convened DPKO and UNMOT officials, with representatives of United Nations agencies and the ICRC; summaries of meetings between the President Rakhmonov and Sayid Abdullo Nuri; and organization charts of the Government of Tajikistan.

Records relating to pre-UNMOT establishment include summaries of goodwill and fact-finding missions to Central Asia carried out by the United Nations in the early 1990s; and assessments of technical requirements for a peacekeeping mission in Tajikistan.

There are also summaries of meetings of the Contact Group, which oversaw the peace process and which was coordinated by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG). The Contact Group was attended by: representatives of Guarantor States neighboring Tajikistan, including the Islamic State of Afghanistan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Republic of Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan; and representatives of the Organization of Security and Coordination in Europe (OSCE) and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Additionally, there are briefs about the activities of the Commission on National Reconciliation (CNR), the organ responsible for implementing the General Agreement signed 27 June 1997. Also present are communiqués and progress reports forwarded from the mission to United Nations officials covering inter-Tajik negotiations. The inter-Tajik negotiations were held under the aegis of the United Nations and were officially inaugurated in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, on 30 November 1995; they were attended by delegations of Tajik government representatives and leaders of the UTO, as well as representatives of observer countries, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).

Briefs, memoranda, and analyses on a variety of topics are present in the subject files, covering: relations between the UTO and Afghan authorities; denationalization and privatization in Tajikistan and the Tajik government’s economic policy; amendments to the Tajik constitution and the drafting of new laws affecting political parties; exchanges of prisoners of war; the role of the United Nations in the parliamentary elections; coordination between UNMOT and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). There are also discussion papers about: the history of Tajikistan and Central Asia; poverty in Tajikistan; political and military developments occurring in Central Asian countries in the late 1980s and 1990s; and relations among Central Asian countries.

Other records include: analyses and periodic reports issued by the Mission to Tajikistan of the Organization for Security and Exchange in Europe (OSCE); notes for the file prepared by DPKO officials about political and military developments in Tajikistan and in neighbouring countries; and code cables exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the UNMOT SRSG.

Summaries of meetings of the Security Management Team, which was comprised of representatives of UNMOT, United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations, and the OSCE, describe the unstable security climate in Dushanbe and in various regions throughout Tajikistan. The summaries note: outbreaks of fighting between Government forces and forces of the UTO; the activities of gangs; updates about incidents of hostage-taking, kidnappings, abductions, and death threats; political motivations for violence in the region; meetings with officials of the Tajik Ministry of Interior (MOI); the safety of United Nations personnel in the region; and changes to the UNMOT-administered curfew. In addition, there are memoranda exchanged between the Designated Official of UNMOT, Chief Security Officer of UNMOT, and the United Nations Security Coordinator, which cover hostage negotiation policy, security arrangements for UTO leaders, recommendations for reduction of psychological stress in UNMOT personnel, and the development of the Special Detachment for Security (SDS) of United Nations Personnel. The detachment was made up of members of both the Tajik government and UTO and was tasked to protect UNMOT operations and property.

Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Included are files of Shashi Tharoor, who served as the Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping from 1992 to 1996. Prior to this assignment, Mr. Tharoor was a Senior Political Affairs Officer in the Office for Special Political Affairs, where he worked with Marrack Goulding, the Under Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs. Records include summaries of meetings dating from 1990-1991 and attended by Mr. Tharoor of: the Senior Planning and Monitoring Group on Peacekeeping Operations, which was set up to improve the need for interdepartmental coordination of peacekeeping operations; and the Logistics Planning Subgroup, which assessed the personnel, material, and technical resources offered by Member States for peacekeeping operations. Files of Shashi Tharoor largely pertain to the conflict in the former Yugoslavia and pre-date the establishment of the United Nations Protection Force (United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR)) in 1992. They include: background notes on developments in Yugoslavia for the Secretary-General; Mr. Tharoor’s notes for the file; speaking notes, meeting summaries, and communications documenting the activities and negotiations by Cyrus Vance, the Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General; and remarks delivered by attendees of the London Conference on Yugoslavia, held from 24-29 August 1992.

The records of the Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping also contain the USG’s instructions to all senior officials, divisions, and offices in DPKO, including: the Office of the Under Secretary-General; the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit (PBPU); the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping; the Military Adviser; the Africa Division; the Asia and Middle East Division; the Europe and Latin America Division; the Office of Mission Support (OMS); the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS); and the Civilian Police Division. The USG’s instructions date from 2003-2007 and consist of: notes and briefs prepared by senior DPKO officials for the Under-Secretary-General, as well as for the Secretary-General; interoffice briefs exchanged between senior DPKO officials featuring remarks, recommendations, and requests for approval; email exchanged between senior DPKO officials; talking points for and summaries of the Under-Secretary-General’s meetings; discussion and concept papers on peacekeeping; code cables received from missions in the field; analytical and executive summaries on mission developments; and end of mission reports. The records feature the USG’s handwritten comments and notes to receiving DPKO officials about the matters described in documents.

Included among the files of the Special Assistant are records pertaining to the conflict in the Middle East. Code cables submitted to headquarters by the Chief of the Observer Group in Beirut (COGB) date from 1986 to 1988 and report on: political developments in Beirut and in various regions in Lebanon; armed clashes and outbreaks of fighting occurring in Lebanon between Palestinian, Iranian, Syrian, Lebanese, and Israeli armed forces; and activities related to splinter groups and resistance operations in Lebanon.

There are also summaries of meetings of the Security Committee associated with the Observer Group in Beirut, which was comprised of representatives of: the Observer Group in Beirut (OGB), the United Nations Disaster Relief Organization (UNDRO), the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)), the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Health Organization (WHO), and other United Nations agencies. These summaries detail: the security of UN staff and incidents involving international staff; abductions of civilians and information about hostages; car and garbage bomb attacks in Beirut, including information about the locations of attacks and resulting casualty figures. Additionally, there are: letters to the Secretary-General received at United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquarters from the general public, mayors (muktars) of towns and villages in Lebanon, and from non-governmental organizations; and summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and government representatives on issues related to the Middle East.

Also included among the files of the Special Assistant to the Under-Secretary-General are records pertaining to the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)). These records include: plans for the implementation of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) mandate and concept of operations, including input from the European Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and United Nations agencies; drafts of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)-FRY Common Document and correspondence related to its signing; reports on the framework and operations of the four Pillars enacted through the collaboration between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the European Union; correspondence regarding the preservation of cultural heritage sites in Kosovo and Methohija which were damaged during the war; monthly reports to the Security Council on operations of the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR); letters addressed to the Secretary-General and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping concerning efforts to locate missing persons in Kosovo; analyses of the assassination of the Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic, which occurred in Belgrade on 12 March 2003; Rules of Engagement and Status of Mission Agreements for United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK); and discussion papers on lessons learned from the administration of post-war Kosovo. There are also briefs and reports on such topics as: human trafficking in Kosovo; the cooperation between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the Kosovo Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG); amendments to the Constitutional Framework for the Provisional Self-Government of Kosovo; security incidents in Kosovo, including murders motivated by political rivalry or linked to organized crime; economic policy for Kosovo; and the establishment of a new judicial system in Kosovo.

Records documenting visits by United Nations officials to United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) headquarters and to other areas in the Balkans include: programs and meeting agenda for the Secretary-General’s visits to the region; briefs on topics such as the Dubrava Prison, cooperation between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and NATO’s Kosovo Force (KFOR), anti-corruption measures, and privatization; political and security assessments of United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) regional administrations, including the Gnjilane Region, the Mitrovica Region, the Pec Region, the Prizren Region, and Pristina; biographical and career information about Kosovan political figures; and lists of laws promulgated by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG) in the Kosovo Assembly. There are also summaries of the Under Secretary-General’s meetings in Pristina and Belgrade with: United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) senior staff; religious leaders in Kosovo, including Mufti Naim Ternava and Bishop Marko Sopi; representatives of the Contact Group; the President of Kosovo Ibrahim Rugova; members of the Kosovo Assembly; and representatives of civil society.

Also included are records of meetings about United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and Kosovo, and these consist of talking points, notes for the file, summaries of telephone conversations, and summaries of meetings. Included are summaries of meetings held individually by the Secretary-General, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, and the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) Special Representative of the Secretary-General’s (SRSG) with: Mr. Vojislav Kostunica, the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); Ambassador Dejan Sahovic, Permanent Representative of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY); Mr. Nebojsa Covic, the Deputy Prime Minister of Serbia; Crown Prince Alexander II of Yugoslavia; and government representatives of Serbia and Montenegro. Additionally, there are summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and government representatives of Member States on developments in Kosovo. Also included are summaries of meetings held by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, as well as by the Secretary-General, with incoming and outgoing Special Representatives of the Secretary-General for United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), and Deputy Special Representatives of the Secretary-General for United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) (DSRSG). Meeting summaries of the High Level Steering Group (HLSG), which was coordinated by the European Commission and the World Bank, and of the Working Level Steering Group set up by the HLSG, concern the process of economic reconstruction, stabilization, reform, and development in Kosovo and the Balkans. Files on steering group meetings also include briefs and notes on: economic and fiscal policy in Kosovo; the promotion of private sector development in Kosovo; the impact of the Kosovo crisis on neighboring countries; and the role of United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) in the development of economic and social policy in Kosovo. There are also summaries of meetings of the Contact Group, consisting of representatives of France, Italy, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Germany.

There are also memoranda, correspondence, and program plans relating to United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)’s administration of the Mitrovica region in northern Kosovo, including: reports on the eruption of violence in the region against UN peacekeepers and among ethnic minorities; analyses of the tensions between Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo Albanians in the Mitrovica region; and briefs on the cooperation between United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) and the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) for establishing law and order, and for establishing political co-existence of minorities in Mitrovica.

Documents pertaining to humanitarian assistance provided by United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) include: memoranda outlining steps for the return of refugees and internally displaced persons to Kosovo; memoranda about the airdrop of food over concentrations of IDPs in Kosovo; briefs on the atmosphere of humanitarian coordination in Kosovo among non-governmental and inter-governmental organizations, and United Nations agencies; briefs for the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping on issues concerning Kosovan refugees and displaced persons; petitions and letters submitted to the Secretary-General and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping from groups urging action on locating missing persons, including ethnic Albanians, Serbs, Roma, and Muslims; and memoranda and updates on Kosovo Albanian political prisoners detained in prisons in Serbia. Records concerning the transportation of deceased Kosovans from the United States for burial in Kosovo include correspondence, death certificates, and vital records.

Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (ASG)
Records from the office of the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping (USG), Office of Operations, are included. Mr. Iqbal Riza served in this position from March 1993 to January 1996. The Office of Operations was responsible for: the executive direction of peacekeeping operations and field missions; relations with members of the Security Council and troop-contributing countries; discharge of the Secretary-General’s reporting obligations to the Member States; and assisting the Under-Secretary-General in the elaboration and execution of policy and procedures for the overall implementation of the DPKO. The ASG’s records largely encompass files that are mission-specific, or specific to conflict areas.

Many records in the ASG’s files pre-date the creation of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) in 1992 and reflect the history of peacekeeping in United Nations. These records include: correspondence exchanged between the Secretary-General and heads of state and ambassadors; and summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and government representatives. Also included are: working papers and summaries of meetings of the Consultations on Namibia, held between United Nations officials, representatives of African governments, and representatives of Namibian political parties in Geneva in November 1979; analyses and briefs on the deteriorating political and military situation in Chad in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and on the possible intervention of the United Nations in the conflict; letters from the general public dating from 1987 addressed to the Secretary-General about the actions taken by the governments of India and Sri Lanka, and also about activities of militant Tamil groups; cables issued in the early 1980s by the United Nations Information Centre (UNIC) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, detailing political relations and military aggression between Argentina and the United Kingdom; and reports about Argentinean press coverage of the Falklands Islands conflict.

Records pertaining to the United Nations Emergency Force II (UNEF II) include: summaries of discussions in the Security Council about the mandate of UNEF II which was deployed from 1973-1979; summaries of meetings with representatives of counties contributing contingents to UNEF II; and cables about mission developments authored by the UNEF II Chief Information Officer. Additionally, there are several files dating from the 1970s and 1980s on the conflict between North Korea and South Korea, and these include: analyses on the question of Korean unity issued by the Department of Political and Security Council Affairs; statements on the question of Korea made to the General Assembly by representatives of North Korea and South Korea; and press releases issued by the Office of the Permanent Observer to the United Nations of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the Office of the Permanent Observer to the United Nations of the Republic of Korea.

There are also historical reports about peacekeeping and field operations submitted to the Under-Secretary-General for Special Political Affairs, a position held at various times by Ralphe Bunche, Brian Urquhart, and Roberto Guyer, among others. There is a draft of a manuscript dating from the mid-1960s for the book “History of the United Nations Operation in the Congo” by Ian E. Berendsen. Berendsen served in the United Nations Operation in the Congo (ONUC), which was active from 1960 to 1964. Included are memoranda on the progress of the book exchanged between Berendsen and Ralph Bunche. There is also a historical report on the United Nations Yemen Observation Mission (UNYOM), which was active from 1963 to 1964. In addition, there is a draft dating from 1968 called “Historical Report in the United Nations Operation in Cyprus,” by George L. Sherry. Also included is a draft of a 1974 report called “The United Nations and Bangladesh: A Private History” by Tom Oliver, which details the activities undertaken in the early 1970s by the United Nations East Pakistan Relief Operation (UNEPRO), the United Nations Relief Operation in Dacca (UNROD), and the United Nations Special Relief Office in Bangladesh (UNROB).

Briefs authored by the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and exchanged with the Secretary-General and DPKO senior staff pertain to a wide variety of political, military, and operational matters related to peacekeeping. Briefs pertain to: the Assistant Secretary-General’s meetings with government officials of troop-contributing countries; the management and structure of the DPKO; information management and media strategies for the DPKO; relations between the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); the United States support for United Nations peacekeeping activities; and other topics. Additionally, there are: notes for the file authored by the Assistant Secretary-General about developments in peacekeeping missions; letters exchanged between the ASG and ambassadors; draft submissions prepared for the Secretary-General’s report to the Security Council on developments in peacekeeping missions; weekly reports for the Secretary-General on developments in peacekeeping missions; reports on amendments to guidelines for peacekeeping missions; and summaries of meetings of the Secretary-General's Task Force on United Nations Operations dating from 1993-1996, which were attended by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping.

Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping
Included are the records held in the office of Mr. Lamin Sise, who served as Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary-General beginning in 1994. From 1993 to 1994, Mr. Lamin Sise served as a Senior Political Affairs Officer in DPKO.

Mr. Sise’s chronological files on Somalia consist of: notes for the file and to senior DPKO officials written by Mr. Lamin Sise; summaries drafted by Mr. Sise of meetings between DPKO officials and various parties on political and security matters in Somalia; briefs on developments in Somalia exchanged between Mr. Sise and the DPKO Principal Officer Elisabeth Lindenmeyer; a report of the Special Mission to Somalia carried out from 28 July to 4 August 1994; analyses and discussion papers on prospects for national reconciliation in Somalia; correspondence between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs on matters relating to Somalia; chronologies of recent events in Somalia; and daily digests of the UNOSOM Military Information Office. Also included are summaries of meetings between the UNOSOM II Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and: General Mohamed Farah Hasan Aidid of the Somali National Alliance (SNA); and Mr. Ali Mahdi Mohamed, the President of Somalia. There are also briefs on: incidents in Somalia, including ambushes on UN convoys by armed militia, grenade explosions and small arms fire, and hostile breaches of protocol; the UNOSOM II detention mechanism; the security of United Nations staff in Mogadishu; and United States forces supporting UNOSOM II.

Other records held in Mr. Sise’s office include: briefs on the Civilian Police program in UNOSOM II and on the establishment of the police and criminal justice systems in Somalia; agreements and Memoranda of Understanding between the United Nations and various parties on legal matters pertaining to UNOSOM II operations; reports, analyses and briefs detailing the political and security situation in Burundi; and remarks delivered by Mr. Sise at public engagements on UN peacekeeping.

There are also agenda and summaries of decisions taken at DPKO Weekly Directors’ Meetings, which were attended by Mr. Lamin Sise. Topics of Weekly Directors’ Meeting include: UN interdepartmental coordination of complex field operations; proposals for efficiency in DPKO in such areas as organization and structure, administration, budget processing, and information technology; stress experienced by staff in peacekeeping missions; the development of the lessons learned mechanism in DPKO; and amendments to the code of conduct for peacekeepers.

First United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF I) - Military Advisor Records

UN. Office of the Secretary-General. Office of the Military Advisor to the Secretary-General (1963-1977)

Series consists of letters, memoranda, reports and incoming and outgoing clear and code cables (copies) relating to military activities and administration, including operations, logistics, troop deployment, rotations, repatriation and miscellaneous personnel matters. Primary correspondents are UNEF I force commanders and permanent missions to the United Nations.

Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General

S-1116 contains the records of the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), which includes the Office of the Senior Legal Adviser, the Office of the Child Protection Adviser, and the Human Rights Section.

Records of the Office of the SRSG include the office’s central registry files. These files consist of the SRSG’s public addresses and correspondence, as well as documents pertaining to the Working Group on the Utilization of United Nations Resources (Regional Approach). Correspondents of the SRSG include the government of Sierra Leone, diplomatic missions and UN agencies, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

Records of the Office of the Senior Legal Adviser consist of correspondence and legal briefs concerning a variety of subjects including: UNAMSIL offices and building rentals, thefts, labor strikes, human remains, allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse, and the Yenga border dispute. Also included are notes and advisory opinions of the Senior Legal Adviser to the SRSG and investigations into aircraft crashes. Documents from crash investigations include crash site assessments, witness statements, Board of Inquiry proceedings, medicolegal and autopsy reports, death certificates, movement of personnel request forms, and aircraft accident response procedures. S-1116 also includes proceedings of the Special Court for Sierra Leone and documents pertaining to United Nations assistance and cooperation with the International Criminal Court.

Records of the Office of the Child Protection Adviser consist of: situational analyses; meeting minutes; program and workshop proposals; and reports and papers pertaining to the status of children, including child soldiers and foster children in Sierra Leone. The Office of the Child Protection Adviser also documents the activities of the Children’s Forum Network; the National Steering Committee for Military Training on Child Rights and Child Protection; the National Commission for War Affected Children (NACWAC); and the National Committee on Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (NCDDR) during UNAMSIL’s mandate.

Records of the Human Rights Section consist of monthly reports; daily human rights reports from UNAMSIL sectors and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs); reports from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC); reports from the High Commissioner for Human Rights; and subject files. Topics of subject files include the training of personnel; the Human Rights Stakeholders Conference held in December 2005; and the National Forum for Human Rights.

United Nations Military Observer group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

Series documents the activities of the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP), particularly in mediating the Kashmir problem. Also documented are the efforts of the office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (HICOMREF) in resolving the refugee crisis during the civil strife in East Pakistan (1971), which led to the creation of Bangladesh. Represented are the following United Nations missions: UNEPRO, UNROB, UNROD, and UNIPOM (United Nations East Pakistan Relief Operation, United Nations Relief Operation in Bangladesh, United Nations Relief Operation in Dacca, and United Nations India/Pakistan Observer Mission). Records relate to visits (1965) by Brian E. Urquhart as well as Secretary-General U Thant to the UNMOGIP area. Code cables, reports and other documentary evidence relate to the Kashmir mission (1965); other records relate to the Kashmir/Karachi Agreement. Records include correspondence, which includes clear and code cables, letters, photographs, maps, reports, and press clippings.

Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General - Subject files

Series documents the substantive work of the Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General covering a broad array of subject matters. The series is arranged into three sub-series: Somali political parties and factions (S-1000-0001-01 to S-1000-0003-08), conferences (S-1000-0004-01 to S-1000-0007-04), and general mission activities (S-1000-0007-05 to S-1000-0035-03), with each sub-series arranged alphabetically therein.

The series' title is based on series contents. Files in this series need re-foldering, dates, and screening.

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