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Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), Office of the Under-Secretary-General (OUSG) (1992-present) Series
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Legal - Legal agreements development and review

The title of S-1840 was drawn from the function series Legal (PKH.LEG) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

Records in S-1840 relate to DPKO headquarters and peacekeeping mission legal matters and agreements. The records primarily consist of mission-specific legal documents, including: Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs), Status of Mission Agreements (SOMAs), Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs), and Rules of Engagement (ROE). Also included are records relating to the development of agreements, and model agreements.

Status of Forces and Status of Mission Agreements between the United Nations and the governments of countries hosting peacekeeping missions address such areas as: the international status of the peacekeeping mission; civil and criminal jurisdiction of mission personnel; mission use of premises; freedom of movement and use of roads, airfields, and waterways by mission personnel; wearing of uniforms and civilian dress by mission personnel; possession and carrying of arms by mission personnel; travel by mission personnel to and from the host country; local recruitment of mission personnel; facilities for mission contractors; and privileges and immunities granted to mission personnel.

Also included are Memoranda of Understanding between the United Nations and mission host countries, as well as MOU between the United Nations and United Nations Member States. Memoranda of Understanding cover various topics, including: security of United Nations premises in the host country; provision of standby arrangements by Member States; transport of personnel, logistical supplies, and equipment through Member State territories; mission support provided to judicial, police, and electoral institutions in the host country; relations between the mission and countries neighbouring the host country; cost-sharing; and relations between DPKO and United Nations agencies with regard to mission operations. There are also Letters of Assist (LOA) in which Member States and host countries agree to provide a peacekeeping mission with support, such as equipment and transportation. Other legal agreements included cover such topics as: expansion of the mission mandate; temporary ceasefire and cessation of hostilities between parties in conflict; establishment of mission liaison offices; and the contribution of equipment and personnel to a mission.

Rules of Engagement (ROE) provided specific guidance on the use of force within the mission area to military commanders at all levels of a peacekeeping mission. They also address the use and carriage of weapons, and civil actions permitted by military personnel in the mission area. Procedures on warning, firing, search, and apprehension are also detailed.

The files also contain drafts, revisions, and amendments to legal documents; briefs and correspondence from the Legal Counsel and the Office of Legal Affairs detailing opinions on mission-related matters; correspondence with Members States regarding the development and review of legal agreements for peacekeeping operations; and code cables exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and Special Representatives of the Secretary General (SRSG). In addition, the files contain records relating to mission use of host country property and premises, such as: lease agreements; and memoranda concerning rental fees, property condition and damage.

Security

The title of S-1888 was drawn from the function series Safety Management (PKH.SAF), Security Management (PKH.SEC), and Security Sector Reform (PKH.SSR) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

Records primarily consist of memoranda, code cables, and reports on: security incidents, such as seizure of weapons from mission troops, attacks on mission troops and personnel, and violations of mission freedom of movement; health and safety issues, such as control of infectious diseases; and assessments of the security situation in mission areas of responsibility, based on military activity, criminality, civil disobedience, availability of arms, socio-economic factors, and effectiveness of law enforcement institutions. Also present are mission-specific security plans. There are also DPKO-produced standard operating procedures, “Headquarters Crisis Response in Support of DPKO-led Field Missions,” and “Crisis Management in DPKO-led Missions.” The SOPs outline procedures concerning basic and complex crisis response and the responsibilities of DPKO senior management to crisis situations.

There are also memoranda, code cables, and reports related to hostage crises. These are accompanied by lists of hostages giving information such as their locations and nationalities. There are also records concerning the May 2000 hostage-taking of approximately 500 United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) personnel by the Revolutionary United Front (RUF); these detail the participation of President of Liberia Charles Taylor in the hostage negotiations, and give updates on the security situation and military activity in locations where hostages were held.

One file focuses on the Special Battalion for Security in the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT), an integrated Tajik Government / United Tajik Opposition (UTO) military unit that was established to provide security for United Nations personnel. The file contains: a training program for the battalion, memoranda on recruiting battalion trainers from Member States, and rules and regulations for the battalion.

Mine Action

The title of S-1890 was drawn from the function series Mine Action (PKH.MIN) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1890 contains records documenting the administration and coordination of mine action activities by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO).

Included are memoranda of the DPKO’s Demining Expert and the Demining Unit, covering such topics as: job descriptions and recruitment for the Demining Unit, coordination between DPKO and the Department of Humanitarian Affairs in the area of mine clearance, and the procurement of technical expertise. There are also briefs issued by the Demining Unit on the landmine situation and clearance activities in specific countries and geographic areas, including Somalia, Sudan, Mozambique, the Libya/Chad border, and other areas. Additionally, there are summaries of meetings of the Working Group on Mine and Munitions Clearance (WGMC), which were attended by the Demining Expert. The WGMC was established in 1992 to coordinate demining activities across all United Nations departments and to develop a United Nations demining policies.

S-1890 also includes draft plans for mine clearance in Angola dating from 1994. The drafts outline the scope of the mine problem in Angola, and preparatory and implantation phases of clearance activities with the assistance of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II) and the Angola Mine Clearance Training Facility. Additionally, there are code cables and briefs documenting mine clearance operations conducted during the United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III). The briefs cover topics such as medical support for mine clearance, the mine threat in regional areas of Angola, and staffing and operations of the UNAVEM III Demining School.

Other records in S-1890 include: a reconnaissance report, dating from 1991, on minefield clearance in the United Nations Buffer Zone, prepared by Canadian forces in the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP); draft mine clearance plans for Rwanda dating from 1994; and a summary, dating from October 2000, of mine clearance statistics prepared by the Mine Action Coordination Centre (MACC), which operated in Pristina under the United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo (UNMIK). A brief dating from c. 2005 on the United Nations Mine Action Office in Sudan covers the history of UN-assisted mine action clearance activities in Sudan, the objectives of the office, and the integration of the office with the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS).

Military - Planning, strategy - Analysis of current mission capacity

The title of S-1831 was drawn from the function series PKH.MIL004 from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1831 contains records documenting the planning for and analysis of deployed military capacity of peacekeeping operations, transition and exit operations in peacekeeping missions, and the liquidation of missions.

Records relating to deployment consist of plans of deployment phases; status and update reports of air, maritime and ground assets; strength reports; and memoranda and communications regarding a mission’s military reinforcement requirements. S-1831 also contains records relating to air operations in peacekeeping missions, and these document tasks and plans of mission air units; mission activities at airports and airfields; meetings between parties on the use of air power; and the procurement and utilization of helicopters by the mission. Also included are records pertaining to mission-specific operations of the United Nations Standby Force, and deployment of rapid reaction forces in specific missions and/or regions.

S-1831 also contains records pertaining to the expansion and reconfiguration of deployed missions. These include reports and memoranda analyzing options for the future presence of the mission and implications of different expansion scenarios. There are also plans for the disengagement of military operations in the mission area, outlines and briefs on the withdrawal of assets and personnel from the mission area, and technical documents relating to the liquidation of the mission.

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)

Records include: summaries of visits by the DPKO Planning Team to MINURSO in 1994 and 1995; papers describing the logistical concepts and implications of the repatriation and referendum phases of the mission; briefs and tables on the downsizing of the military component; and maps of Western Sahara depicting Force deployment. Records relating to the implementation plan of the settlement proposals put forth by the Secretary-General concern the military, logistics, and operational aspects of the plan, and they detail the deployment, transition, referendum, and post-referendum phases of the plan; composition and tasks of military units during phases; size and composition of disputing parties; operational time lines; and the operational environment. Records pertaining to air support in MINURSO include outlines describing air operations, including aerial surveillance and verification, transport of troops and Military Observers, and casualty evacuations; correspondence concerning flights over Algerian territory; memoranda on helicopter support; and maps depicting air deployment and landing points.

UNAVEM I, UNAVEM II, and UNAVEM III
Records concerning operations and logistics consist of monthly reports providing operational updates on activities in various regions in Angola; briefs on the composition, mission, and deployment of the Rapid Reaction Force; and outlines describing the downsizing, withdrawal, and liquidation of military forces. Weekly logistics reports and minutes of logistics implementation meetings cover deployment; supply and fuel stores; ground and air transport activities and transport equipment; infrastructure and engineering projects; and medical operations. There are also updates on the status of the UNAVEM III Implementation Plan and the state of readiness of UNAVEM III infantry units.

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
Records include maps produced by the Department of Public Information (DPI) of UNAMIR deployment throughout Rwanda from May 1994 to February 1996; a draft of the UNAMIR Operations and Support Instruction directives, which describes liquidation policies and procedures for all civilian and military elements of the mission; a brief on possible scenarios for the expansion of UNAMIR, dating from June 1994; and staff planning directives on liquidation, which include schedules and tasks. There are also executive summaries prepared by the DPKO Field Administration and Logistics Division (FALD), which note air, land, and naval movements and transport; medical, logistics, and engineering support; and drawdown and liquidation developments. Attached to the executive summaries are weekly logistics reports detailing procurement matters; ration requests; the status of service contracts; and communications support.

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
Records include summaries of security meetings; reports by the Chief of the Observer Group, Egypt (COGE) (an outstation); briefs on the streamlining of UNTSO operations; and briefs on political Islam and the peace process. Monthly reports on UNTSO military, political, and administrative activities sent to DPKO headquarters also describe strength levels and operational deficiencies; activities at UNDOF outstations; and activities of the Chief of Staff. Records relating to security describe unrest related to Palestinian rule in the Gaza Strip, beginning in 1994; fatalities caused by the occupying forces, and among the Israeli military staff and civilians; updates on hostages held in countries in the region; harassment and attacks against UNTSO and UN agency personnel; and violations of UN premises.

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
UNDOF records consists of reports on inspections carried out by UNDOF personnel in the Area of Limitation (AOL); UNDOF reports of violations in the Area of Separation (AOS); chronologies of military events in the UNDOF mission area; reports on battalion deployment; and summaries of meetings between the UNDOF Force Commander and government officials of the Syrian Arab Republic. Information summaries provide figures on military, civilian, and shepherd violations; ground and construction activity; air activity; and small arms fire. Periodic reports submitted to DPKO headquarters by the UNDOF Force Commander in Damascus note activities in the Syrian Golan, such as - inspections of the Area of Limitation (AOL); violations of the Agreement on Disengagement, signed 31 May 1974, in the Alpha Side and Bravo Side, such as shootings, overflights, and ground incursions; minefield activity; and patrolling.

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
Records consist of summaries of meetings between the UNIFIL Force Commander and Lebanese Army officials, and between the UNIFIL Force Commander and officials of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF); reports of incidents and statistics on clashes between the armed elements (AE) and the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) and the de facto forces (DFF); summaries of changes in UNIFIL deployment; deployment maps; lists of positions of the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF), the de facto forces (DFF), and the South Lebanon Army (SLA) in the UNIFIL area of interest; briefs on the reduction and streamlining of Force strength; memoranda on the operations of armoured personnel carriers (APC) in the UNIFIL mission area; and outlines and reviews of security arrangements.

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
UNIKOM records encompass weekly and monthly reports detailing ground and air monitoring of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), violations in the DMZ committed by Iraq and Kuwait, and UNIKOM’s investigations of Iraqi and Kuwaiti complaints; summaries of meetings between the UNIKOM officials and Iraqi officials from the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Foreign Affairs; and deployment maps. Briefs and memoranda are included, covering organization, composition, and deployment of UNIKOM; maritime capability of UNIKOM and the movement of Iraqi ships in the estuary Khawr ‘Abd Allah; UNIKOM’s use of ground surveillance radar; appointments to mission posts; and relations between UNIKOM and the Iraqi Border Police. There is also a Contingency Plan for the Reinforcement of UNIKOM dating from 1992, called Plan Locksmith, which was to be enacted in the event of threat to the security of UNIKOM personnel or property. Additionally, there is a plan for the liquidation and asset disposal of UNIKOM dated from 2003.

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
Records pertain largely to planning and expansion of the mission. They include summaries of DPKO-held meetings on planning and expansion, covering areas such as the concept of operations, and the need for personnel, equipment, and vehicles; summaries of meetings held between United Nations officials and Georgian and Abkhaz authorities on the expansion of UNOMIG; figures on the provision of Military Observers for the expansion of UNOMIG; and briefs on the participation in the operational aspects of UNOMIG by Member States, including the United States, Russia, and Cuba. In addition to these records, there are briefs and progress reports on deployment and operations of the Civilian Police; briefs on the relations between UNOMIG and the peacekeeping force of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); political addresses on the situation in Georgia made to the Security Council by Permanent Representatives; summaries of meetings held between United Nations officials and Russian officials on the Agreement on a Ceasefire and a Separation of Forces signed on 14 May 1994; and comments and analyses of the 14 May 1994 ceasefire agreement.

Haiti
Included are records pertaining to operations in several peacekeeping missions in Haiti, namely, the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH), the United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti (UNTMIH), and the United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti (MIPONUH). These records include outlines and tables detailing the medical support provided; outlines providing figures for adjustments in Force deployment, and on the Force structure of UNMIH; Force Operation Orders for UNMIH and UNSMIH detailing threats to the Government of Haiti (GOH) and to a secure and stable environment, plan tasks and execution, and the Force Commander’s intent; the UNTMIH Military Campaign Plan; assessments of the future of UNMIH and future peacebuilding activities in Haiti; and maps depicting developments in Force liquidation. Records on air operations in Haiti include code cables, briefs, and memoranda on the transport of non-UN personnel on UN aircraft, and Member States’ contributions of helicopters to the mission.

Additional records contained in S-1831 include: a briefing about the logistical requirements and capabilities of the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) dated 2 March 1993; briefs on the withdrawal and exit strategy for troops in the United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB); briefing papers about military contingency planning of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, particularly in Srebrenica and Tuzla; briefs on the strength and operational situation of the United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP); statistics and identifying information for aircraft in operation in the United Nations Military Observers in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) and in peacekeeping missions in the Middle East; and an Operation Order for the withdrawal of the Military Component of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC).

Law enforcement

The title of S-1884 was drawn from the function series Law Enforcement (PKH.LAE) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1884 contains records documenting the provision and management of police activities in peacekeeping missions, as well as support for and reform of the host country’s institutional police capacity.

Records consist of code cables, memoranda, briefs, and internal notes covering a variety of topics, including: the activities, drawdown and phasing out of Civilian Police; outlines and concept of operations for mission police activities; training and activities for the reform of national police agencies; debriefing of the Police Commissioner at DPKO headquarters; and the role of the mission police component in mandate implementation. Also included are mission-produced concept papers for policing initiatives.

Included are guidelines for Civilian Police on assignment in the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH).
There are also reports, dating from 2006, about DPKO’s policy on the reform, restructuring and rebuilding of local police and law enforcement agencies; and on internal evaluations of mission police components.

Human rights

The title of S-1886 was drawn from the function series Human Rights (PKH.HRT) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1886 contains records documenting the administration and coordination of human rights activities in peacekeeping missions.

The records include daily reports of the Human Rights Division of the United Nations Operations in Burundi (ONUB), which cover: the activities of Human Rights Officers (HROs); the administration of justice and developments of major trials observed by Division officials; major incidents of alleged abuse by the police and by the Forces de défense nationale (FDN), killings and arbitrary executions, sexual violence, local crime; prison visits; and human rights protection capacity-building activities. Also included are two reports prepared by the ONUB Human Rights Division about the human rights situation in Burundi, which cover the period from June 2004 to May 2005.

Other records include: memoranda and letters about the coordination of the High Commissioner for Human Rights with the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina (UNMIBH); and a speech delivered by Mary Robinson, High Commissioner for Human Rights, at the International Symposium on Strengthening Human Rights Field Operations, held in Bonn on 26-27 May 1998. There are also records documenting the activities of the Committee on Mission Persons (CMP), of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) from 1992 to 1999. The CMP records primarily concern the effectiveness and administration of the Committee, and an audit of the Committee completed in April 1996.

Humanitarian affairs

The title of S-1887 was drawn from the function series Humanitarian Affairs (PKH.HUM) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1887 contains records relating to the administration and coordination of humanitarian activities in peacekeeping operations, including the provision of assistance to victims of war and natural disasters.

Records consist of code cables, memoranda, briefs, and internal notes about the humanitarian and refugee situation in several African countries, namely the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Burundi, and Sierra Leone. These records cover a variety of topics, including: mission and government responses to refugee crises; DPKO coordination with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); and statistics on the number of refugees and food aid distribution.

Some records document the Mission on Detainees undertaken in September 1989 by Ambassador B. A. Clark, a representative of the United Nations Transitional Assistance Group (UNTAG), during the operation of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I). The Clark mission sought to determine the status of Namibians allegedly being detained in Angola and Zambia by the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO).

Additionally, there is a report, dated August 1991, by the United Nations Border Relief Operation (UNBRO). UNBRO established in 1982 to provide material and protection assistance to Cambodian displaced persons at the border between Cambodia and Thailand. S-1887 also includes “Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Action,” a speech by Kofi Annan, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, delivered in October 1993.

Political Affairs - Coordination, partnership - Discussion and negotiation

The title of S-1833 was drawn from the function category Political Affairs (PKH.POL) from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS). Records primarily fall under PKH.POL004, PKH.POL005, and PKH.POL006, and PKH.POL008.

Records contained in S-1833 document negotiations conducted by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping on conflict in peacekeeping mission host countries, fulfilment of mission mandates, and the support of peacekeeping missions from Member States. Records also document the DPKO’s role in advising and contributing to the Secretary-General’s negotiations on peacekeeping matters. Also contained in S-1833 are records documenting developments in peacekeeping operations as reported by the Secretary-General to the Security Council.

S-1833 also includes weekly reports on mission operations produced by the DPKO Situation Centre for the Secretary-General (these reports exclude press or outside agency coverage of the mission). Documented also are visits to peacekeeping mission areas undertaken by DPKO officials, the Secretary-General, and other United Nations officials. Files pertaining to visits include visit programmes and itineraries; briefs on key issues prepared for visiting officials; summaries of meetings; and reports of visits.

Included in S-1833 are talking points prepared by the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping for the Secretary-General’s meetings and telephone conversations with heads of state, foreign ministers, ministers of defence, foreign dignitaries, ambassadors, Permanent Representatives of Member States; as well as representatives of international organizations and non-governmental organizations. There are also briefs for the Secretary-General’s meetings and trips. Additionally, there are notes for the file summarizing the Secretary-General’s meetings and telephone conversations. The files also contain briefings on peacekeeping operations delivered by the Secretary-General to the Security Council. The Secretary-General’s meetings cover mission operations; contributions to missions; political developments and elections in countries; troop developments in national civil, judicial, police institutions in countries; views of the international community on the peace process; and UN/Member State relations. These files are arranged alphabetically by country.

Mission-specific files in S-1833 contain timetables and calendars for the implementation of peace agreements, and reports detailing phases of the peace process; and briefs and reports on issues pertaining to peace agreements, such as constitutional reform, ceasefire and human rights monitoring, the reintegration of ex-combatants, demobilization and weapons destruction, the release of prisoners of war, and the return of refugees and displaced persons. There are also code cables, reports, and figures on the work of monitoring and verification bodies enacted by peace agreements, such as the Commission on the Truth for El Salvador, and the Identification Commission, which was active during the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO).

In addition, the mission-specific files contain notes for the file authored by DPKO staff about political developments in mission host countries; notes and briefs exchanged between DPKO staff and Executive Office of the Secretary-General; letters between the Secretary-General and the President of the Security Council about major developments in the peace process in mission host countries and conflict areas; notes for the file describing consultations of the Security Council on mission developments; and draft reports by the Secretary-General to the Security Council about recent developments in peacekeeping missions and the status of compliance with peace agreements.

Mission and Region-Specific Files

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO
Records pertaining to MINURSO include: summaries of negotiations attended by James Baker, the Special Envoy for the Secretary-General for Western Sahara, on the peace settlement; briefs on legal, economic, and regional perspectives of the conflict; analyses on the way ahead options for action; analyses of the process of identifying members of tribal groups for participation in the Referendum; notes to the Secretary-General; letters to the Secretary-General from foreign dignitaries; and briefs on the implications of the Paris-Dakar Rally crossing through the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Also included is a country brief prepared by the DPKO Situation Centre which provides a general overview of the political and military conflict and of MINURSO operations.

United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL)

Records related to the electoral monitoring conducted by UNAMSIL consist of: the report of the Electoral Assistance Needs Assessment Mission to Sierra Leone conducted in May 2001; the UNASMIL Operational Plan for the presidential and parliamentary elections scheduled to be held on 14 May 2002; memoranda describing the political and institutional context of the elections; and memoranda on the Sierra Leone electoral process as described by the National Electoral Commission.

Congo-Brazzaville and African Great Lakes
There are also notes for the file, analyses, and briefs about political developments, the security situation, and the humanitarian needs in Congo-Brazzaville. In addition, there are: consultations of the Security Council on Congo-Brazzaville, outlines for a potential UN peacekeeping presence in the region, and summaries of meetings with potential troop contributors. Records related to the African Great Lakes Region consist of briefings to the Security Council, and daily notes for the Secretary-General about political developments in the region, activities of the Great Lakes Task Force, and humanitarian and refugee activities.

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
Records related to UNAMIR include: Situation Centre Information Digests gathered from commercial and academic media sources covering the regional political outlook and economic and infrastructure development in Rwanda; claims by the Government of Rwanda against UNAMIR for failing to protect citizens’ lives during the chaos of the genocide and the withdrawal of UNAMIR forces; and reports of security assessment missions conducted in November 1995 by the United Nations Security Coordinator (UNSECOORD) of the International Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha, Tanzania, and of the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) in Kigali, Rwanda. There are also memoranda concerning the Kibeho Massacre, which occurred in a camp for internally displaced persons near Kibeho, in south-west Rwanda on April 22, 1995.

Rwanda Updates (memoranda provided by Member States to the Situation Centre) report on activities in UNAMIR, such as: insurgent and bandit activities against civilians, the Rwandan government, and military forces; activities of ex-members of the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR); activities of the Rwandan Patriotic Army (RPA); activities of non-governmental organizations and foreign aid agencies; security and living conditions in refugee camps; figures on the population and ethnic makeup of displaced persons at refugees camps; refugee activity in Burundi; mass repatriation of Rwandan nationals; tensions and incidents along Rwandan borders with Zaire, Tanzania, and Burundi; and discord between UN and Rwandan forces.

Burundi
Included are records relating to the peace process in Burundi in the late 1990s and early 2000s. These records consist of: communications and memoranda related to the United Nations Operation in Burundi (ONUB); analyses produced by DPKO’s Africa Division about the political and security climate in Burundi; statements about the situation in Burundi delivered to the Security Council; country analyses of Burundi; outlines on negotiation for a ceasefire agreement for Burundi; and briefs about humanitarian developments in Burundi. There is also report titled “Political and Strategic Appraisal of the Situation in Burundi,” December 2003, prepared by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Burundi of the United Nations Office in Burundi (UNOB).

UNAVEM I and UNAVEM II
There are records documenting Secretary-General’s negotiations on the Angola peace process in the late 1980s through the 1990s, and of the operations of the United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I) and the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II). Notes of the Secretary-General’s meetings with the President of Angola José Eduardo dos Santos are present, as well as letters they exchanged. Memoranda concern the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola, Angola’s relations with Namibia and South Africa, presidential and parliamentary elections in Angola in September 1992, and other topics.

Angola Updates (memoranda provided by Member States to the Situation Centre) report on activities in the United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III), including: political steps and manoeuvres in the Angolan peace process; conditions in quartering areas and the troop quartering process; and developments in military discussions between the Government of Angola and leaders of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA).

Sudan
Records pertaining to Sudan include briefing notes to the Secretary-General and high-level DPKO personnel regarding: recent military and operational developments in Darfur; International Criminal Court investigations in Darfur; rounds of the Inter-Sudanese Peace Talks on Darfur, held in various locations from 2003 to 2006; assessments of peacekeeping requirements in Sudan; the establishment and progress of the African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS), as well as its coordination with the United Nations; meetings between high-level DPKO personnel and Sudanese politicians; demining; and violence against women.

Chronological files on Sudan contain: summaries of Meetings of Experts on Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Sudan, held by the African Union from 5-6 December 2005; talking points for high-level meetings between the Secretary-General and politicians such as the President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir; statements by United Nations Member State representatives on the financing, establishment, and progress of the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS); summaries of meetings of the United Nations Interdepartmental Task Force on the Sudan, which concern the Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (IGADD) Peace Process and obstacles to humanitarian work in Darfur; and a Sudan Task Matrix defining the responsibilities of the United Nations and other entities in the Sudanese peace process. Also present are memoranda, articles, and copies of protocols relating to the Abuja Agreement signed on 5 May 2006 and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), a set of agreements signed between the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) and the Government of Sudan.

United Nations Protections Force (UNPROFOR)

Files related to UNPROFOR contain memoranda and notes exchanged between the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and high-level UNPROFOR staff on issues relating to the implementation of the Vance-Owen Plan in the early 1990s. These issues include: military aspects of implementation; meetings between Cyrus Vance, David Owen, and UNPROFOR staff; views of Member States; logistical planning; and UNPROFOR mandate negotiations. There are also memoranda concerning coordination between UNPROFOR and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The memoranda detail meetings between UNPROFOR and NATO officials such as the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe Exercise conference (SHAPEX) and informal meetings with the Chiefs of Defence Staff from NATO troop contributing countries. There are also position papers on strengthening UNPROFOR prepared by NATO troop contributing countries.

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
Records pertaining to UNOMIG consist of: informal consultations of the Security Council on developments in Georgia and on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia; memoranda summarizing demarches of the Friends of Georgia (FOG), a group of Member State representatives and UN officials; and notes for the file. Notes for the file cover such topics as: the future status of Abkhazia and negotiations between Georgia and Abkhazia; living conditions in Tbilisi, Georgia, and the location of the UNOMIG headquarters; humanitarian aid operations in Georgia, including aid to Tkvarcheli, Abkhazia; the approach of the Russian Federation in peacekeeping in Georgia; contributions to UNOMIG from Member States; and telephone conversations between DPKO officials and UNOMIG military leaders.

The UNOMIG files also contain: notes for the file describing visits of the Secretary-General and DPKO and DPA officials to Moscow, Georgia, and Tajikistan; notes for the file on political developments concerning the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, a landlocked region in Azerbaijan with a majority ethnic Armenian population; briefs on military and political developments among countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS); and transcripts of news conferences on the Georgian conflict.

United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan (UNGOMAP)
UNGOMAP was mandated to monitor the implementation of the Agreements on the Settlement of the Situation Relating to Afghanistan, also known as the Geneva Accords, signed 14 April 1988 between the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The records consist of note verbale submitted to UNGOMAP officials by the parties to the agreement describing violations of the Accords. Also included are reports by UNGOMAP officials of their investigations of alleged violations. The alleged violations occurred in provinces along the Afghan-Pakistani border, and include: the operation of military training camps for extremists; explosions of bombs and rocket attacks; civilian discoveries of caches of arms and explosives, and unexploded bombs and rocket missiles; the transportation of arms and ammunition across the border; the distribution of weapons to local tribal groups; intrusion into parties’ airspace; Pakistanis’ prevention of the voluntary repatriation of Afghan refugees; and the broadcasting of political propaganda. The investigation reports include photographs, hand-drawn sketches of the scene of the incident, witness statements, information about fatalities and casualties, and maps depicting incident locations.

United Nations Observer Mission in Bougainville (UNOMB)
Files pertaining to UNOMB, which was headquartered in Arawa, Papua New Guinea, consist of: working papers, analyses, communiques, and records of understanding related to the peace and ceasefire process between the Government of Papua New Guinea and leaders of the island of Bougainville; minutes of ceasefire anniversary celebration ceremonies; funding requests for reconciliation ceremonies between clans; briefs on weapons hand-in and disposal activities; and memoranda and correspondence of Noel Sinclair, the Director of UNOMB.

United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
Notes for the file cover: meetings between United Nations officials and Ambassadors on MINUGUA operations; functions and activities of the Guatemalan Assembly of Civil Society; anti-narcotics operations in Guatemala; and MINUGUA’s electoral assistance and results of elections. There are also summaries of meetings of the Group of Friends of the Guatemalan Peace Process attended by United Nations officials and government representatives. Also included are presentations, briefings, and outlines of MINUGUA operations related to a visit undertaken from 15-18 May 1997 of the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping to MINUGUA headquarters.

United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL)
Notes for the file cover: contributions to ONUSAL by troop-contributing countries; reductions to ONUSAL’ s Military Observer strength; consultations of the Security Council on ONUSAL operations; assassinations of high profile Salvadorans; relations between El Salvador and Honduras with regard to land pockets (bolsones). Also included are: talking points about ONUSAL and the Central American peace process for the Secretary-General’s meetings of the Four Friends; report, forms, and lists documenting technical assistance provided by ONUSAL for the Salvadoran general election in 1994; progress reports of the ONUSAL Electoral Division; and DPKO Situation Centre reports on ONUSAL operations.

Haiti
S-1833 also includes records pertaining to the International Civilian Mission in Haiti (MICIVIH), the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH), and the United Nations Support Mission in Haiti (UNSMIH). Document types consist of notes for the file, correspondence, memoranda, analyses, discussion papers, and talking points.

Topics covered in the Haiti-related records include: the mandates of United Nations peacekeeping missions in Haiti; strength of the military force and Civilian Police; UN observation of the Haitian elections; environmental conditions in mission areas; public information activities of Haiti missions; appointments to mission posts; contributions by Member States to Haiti missions; the Haitian refugee crisis and Haitians’ right to asylum; the state of democracy and human rights protection in Haiti; assistance to Haiti provided by the international community; cooperation between the United Nations and the Organization of American States (OAS); the Governors Island Agreement signed in July 1993; and relations between the United Nations and the United States on the operation of Haiti missions. Informal consultations of the Security Council on Haiti missions are also included.

Additional Haiti-related records include: summaries of meetings between the Secretary-General and Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; summaries of meetings of the Friends of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the Question of Haiti; summaries of meetings by members of the Security Council and governments contributing military and police personnel to Haiti missions; talking points and briefings of the Secretary-General’s meeting with heads of governments of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM); summaries of meetings between representatives of Haiti, the United Nations, and the United States; and summaries of United Nations interagency meetings on Haiti. The Haiti Updates relate to United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) and were issued by the DPKO Situation Centre. They describe: the general security situation in Port-au-Prince (PAP) and other locations in Haiti; incidents of vigilante justice and actions of street gangs; activities of the Haitian National Police (HNP); mass demonstrations; activities of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; political developments in local governments; developments related to elections; and economic development and improvements in the standard of living in Haiti.

Management and Integration - Policy, procedure, best practice

The title of S-1832 was drawn from the function series PKH.MAT001 from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

Records contained in S-1832 document policy, procedure, and best practice relating to DPKO’s administration of peacekeeping missions, and DPKO’s contribution to peacekeeping strategy and response within the United Nations system. Records pertaining to military policy, procedure and best practice in peacekeeping operations have been assigned to S-1828.

Included in S-1832 are records documenting coordination between DPKO and other United Nations departments and agencies regarding the management of peacekeeping operations; summaries of meetings of the DPKO Directors and of the DPKO Senior Management Team; and fact sheets about deployed missions. There are also briefs and draft submissions about DPKO’s collaboration with the General Assembly’s Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations. There are also final and draft versions of the Guidelines for Peacekeeping, authored by DPKO in the early 1990s about the history of peacekeeping in the context of the United Nations, and the principles, functions and operational tasks of peacekeeping operations. Dating from 1997 is a draft of the DPKO-authored Survey Mission Manual, which provided guidelines for the collection and analysis of information gathered by UN personnel while conducting field surveys for peacekeeping missions in conflict areas.

S-1832 contains updated and final versions of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for peacekeeping missions dating from 1979 to 2005. There are also directives for Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and Heads of Mission (HOM), which describe the HOM’s: authority; relations with parties in conflict, Member States, donors and the media; and reporting responsibilities. The files also contain executive summaries and recommendation reports of Forums of Former Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG). Also present are guidelines issued for civilian personnel employed in peacekeeping missions. There are also memoranda, letters, and briefs outlining regulations for the awarding of medals to United Nations peacekeepers, and noting the significance of the colors of medal ribbons.

Also included in S-1832 are records, about organizational changes within DPKO, primarily dating from the 1990s. These include papers of the DPKO Working Group on Organizational Redesign, proposed organization charts, and briefs on staffing. Several files contain information about the establishment and activities of the following DPKO divisions and offices: the Field Administration and Logistics Division (FALD); the Mission Planning Service; the DPKO Situation Centre; the Medical Support Unit; the Training Unit; the Demining Unit; and the United Nations Logistics Base in Brindisi, Italy. Records include operational concepts of the Situation Centre, maps of the Logistics Base in Brindisi, and guidelines dating from 1993 on medical service in peacekeeping missions.

Information about human resources management policy and procedure in DPKO and in peacekeeping operations is also included in S-1832. Memoranda and correspondence detail a variety of topics, including: recruitment of DPKO personnel; gratis military personnel in DPKO; rotation, discipline, and repatriation of Military Observers and Civilian Police in peacekeeping missions; the deaths of mission personnel; proposed changes to staff regulations and rules; gender mainstreaming in peacekeeping; the advancement of women in DPKO; and other topics.

S-1832 also contains chronological files of the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit (PBPU); the Policy Analysis and Lessons Learned Unit (PALLU), the Policy and Analysis Unit (PAU), and the Lessons Learned Unit (LLU). The Policy and Analysis Unit was set up within the DPKO in 1993 and served as a think tank to provide in-depth research and analyses of emerging questions related to peacekeeping policy, procedure, and doctrine. The Lessons Learned Unit was set up within the DPKO in 1995 to provide a capacity for in-depth study and analysis of experiences from peacekeeping operations; to draw out lessons that could be applied to on-going and future operations; and to develop an institutional memory for peacekeeping operations. In July 1999 the Policy and Analysis Unit merged with the Lessons Learned Unit to form the Policy Analysis and Lessons Learned Unit. In 2001, the Policy Analysis and Lessons Learned Unit was renamed the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit.

The chronological files include summaries of weekly meetings of the Lessons Learned Unit; correspondence and itineraries related to trips undertaken by LLU staff to peacekeeping missions to develop lessons learned profiles; briefs on the field coordination of Special Representatives of the Secretary-General (SRSG), United Nations Resident Coordinators, and Humanitarian Coordinators; outlines describing the annual programme of work for the Lessons Learned Unit; memoranda on minimum age requirements for United Nations peacekeepers; and briefs on the commemoration of 50 years of United Nations peacekeeping. Additionally, the files hold correspondence, participant lists, itineraries, public addresses, and final reports related to seminars attended or organized by the Lessons Learned Unit.

There are also talking points and briefs prepared by the staff of the Peacekeeping Best Practices Unit (PBPU) for meetings and speaking engagements of the Secretary-General, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping, and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping. Records also contain comments by PBPU for the Secretary-General’s Annual Report on the Work of the Organization. There are also summaries of meetings held by the Under-Secretary-General with United States government officials, Permanent Representatives to the United Nations, ambassadors, and representatives of United Nations agencies. Meetings topics include promotion and support of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations; strengthening UN relations with regional organizations; United States support for peacekeeping operations; representation of Member States in United Nations peacekeeping operations; preventive action; peace-building strategy; and AIDS and peacekeeping operations. Also included are program agenda and speeches delivered by the Under-Secretary-General at seminars and conferences at non-profit and educational institutions.

Chronological files also include essays and discussion papers on such topics as Security Council decision-making on mission transition and closure; the role of non-state actors, such as transnational corporations and financial institutions, in intra-state conflict; private sector engagement in international peace and security; the reform process of United Nations peace operations; early warning and conflict prevention; harnessing institutional capacity in support of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of former combatants; the impact of armed conflict on children; the impact of armed conflict on women and women’s role in peace-building; gender mainstreaming in peace operations; the protection of civilians in armed conflict; public information as a strategic component in peace operations; the role of peacekeeping in the process of democratization; the security and neutrality of refugee camps; the role of police in peacekeeping operations; and humanitarian assistance in the context of peacekeeping operations.

S-1832 also contains materials related to DPKO seminars and workshops on the role of police in peacekeeping operations attended by representatives of Member States, United Nations agencies, and representatives of regional organizations and non-governmental organizations. These include the Seminar on the Role of Police in Peacekeeping Operations, held in New York on 19-21 March 1998; the (first) Follow-up Workshop on Civilian Police in United Nations Peacekeeping held on 29-30 July 1999; and the Second Follow-up Workshop on Civilian Police in United Nations Peacekeeping, held in New York on 11 August 2000. Records for police seminars and workshops include daily programmes; speeches by the Under-Secretary-General; handwritten notes taken during discussions; correspondence between DPKO and invitees; and statistics on the scope of police activity on peacekeeping operations. Discussion papers and speeches concern such topics as standards for recruitment of police from contributing countries; coordination between Civilian Police and military contingents, and between the police component in the field and DPKO headquarters; the political role of police in peacekeeping; international coordination in assisting judicial, penal, and human rights institutions; policing needs resulting from refugee flows; and the role of police in a follow-on peacekeeping presence.

Also included in S-1832 are summaries of meetings of the Senior Management Group (SMG), established in 1997 by Secretary-General Kofi Annan, as a cabinet of senior officers to advise and ensure coordination between all organs of the United Nations. The Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations served as a member of the Senior Management Group. Topics covered in meetings include priorities for the Secretary-General and the United Nations; long-term objectives in establishing international peace and security; developments in peacekeeping missions; analyses of statements made at the General Debate meetings of the General Assembly; activities in departments and offices of the Secretariat; fraud and corruption in the United Nations; gender balance and geographical distribution in the United Nations; human rights objectives for the United Nations; the Millennium Development Goals; perceptions of the United Nations among Member States; North-South relations and the United Nations; anti-Americanism in the United Nations; economic development in the Third World; the global fight against terrorism and the events of September 11, 2001; global disarmament; international migration; protection from sexual exploitation and abuse in humanitarian crises; HIV/AIDS initiatives; global science and technology initiatives; climate change and the environment; and United Nations responses to natural disasters. Records also include annotated agenda; correspondence exchanged between members of the Senior Management Group; background papers; and handwritten notes taken during meetings.

The Senior Management Group was assisted by four executive committees, also established in 1997: the Executive Committee on Peace and Security (ECPS), the Executive Committee on Humanitarian Affairs (ECHA), the UN Development Group (UNDG), and the Executive Committee on Economic and Social Affairs (ECESA).

The Executive Committee on Peace and Security (ECPS) functioned within the Secretariat as a policy development and management instrument on issues of peace and security. The Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations and the Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations served as members of the Committee. Records consist of agenda; background briefs and memoranda prepared for ECPS members in advance of meetings; email; papers detailing possible scenarios and proposed United Nations system responses; and meeting summaries.

A sampling of agenda items for ECPS meetings includes conflict in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR); narcotics trafficking in Afghanistan; political, military, and human rights developments in Afghanistan and Central Asia; the crisis and the way forward in the Côte d’Ivoire; the Sudan peace process; peace and security in central Africa; monitoring developments in Nepal, Venezuela, Iraq, and other countries; terrorism and weapons of mass destruction (WMD); the implications of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the post-September 11th international situation; and the prevention of genocide.

Also included are records of the Task Force for the Development of Comprehensive Rule of Law Strategies for Peace Operations, a subsidiary body of the ECPS.

The Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping as well as other DPKO officials served on the Executive Committee on Humanitarian Affairs (ECHA). Summaries of meetings detail activities of United Nations departments and agencies involved in humanitarian relief operations; humanitarian relief operations in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi, Sudan, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Afghanistan, the Ferghana Valley in Central Asia, Indonesia, Colombia, and other countries; relations between the United Nations and the European Union with respect to development and humanitarian affairs; drought in the Horn of Africa; strengthening the United Nations’ field capacity to address issues concerning refugees and internally displaces persons (IDP); resettlement initiatives; access constraints experienced in the field by United Nations and international agencies; the protection of civilians in armed conflict; the problems of girls and women in conflict situations; and natural disasters. There are also agenda; background papers and briefs; and ECHA proposals for the Secretary-General’s annual priorities.

Military and Political - Planning, strategy - Mission establishment

The title of S-1830 was drawn from the function series PKH.MIL003 from the “Peacekeeping Headquarters Retention Schedule,” v. 2, August 2011, Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Field Support (DFS).

S-1830 contains records pertaining to the establishment of all functions and components of United Nations peacekeeping operations, including political, military, police, humanitarian, human rights, administrative and logistical functions. Records in S-1830 also document DPKO’s periodic assessment of deployed missions, and its decision-making process with regard to reconfiguring and expanding missions, and developing exit and transition strategies for deployed missions.

Records primarily consist of reports about United Nations-led technical surveys, and reconnaissance and fact-finding missions to countries where the deployment of a peacekeeping mission was being considered; concepts of operations for the mission; organization charts; options for and assessments of military action in proposed peacekeeping missions; assessments of security conditions throughout the projected area for the operation of a mission; country profiles of conflict areas and of countries hosting peacekeeping missions; and reports on United Nations-led technical missions to review operations in deployed peacekeeping missions. Additionally, there are records pertaining to the organization and structure of the mission’s headquarters and Force. There are also summaries of meetings between United Nations officials and officials of governments hosting peacekeeping missions, and letters exchanged between United Nations officials and representatives of Member States contributing troops and equipment to peacekeeping missions.

A significant volume of records are present in S-1830 for the following peacekeeping missions and countries.

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
Records relating to the establishment of the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) in 1991 include: demographical information about Western Sahara; political analyses of the conflict in Western Sahara drafted by officials at the Office of Special Political Affairs (OSPA); a proposal for the formation of a peacekeeping mission in Western Sahara; outlines describing the proposed military component of MINURSO, and tasks for military component units, infantry battalions, Military Observers, and the Military Police; the concept of air operations; draft organization charts; and maps of Western Sahara with hand-drawn notations of military and Civilian Police sites. Additionally, there are: a summary report of the United Nations Visiting Mission to Spanish Sahara in 1975; records relating to the Technical Survey Mission to Western Sahara and Neighboring Countries conducted in July and August of 1990, such as reports, itineraries, terms of reference, and composition and plans for the Technical Survey Mission; and reports detailing the visit by the Technical Team from 7-14 October 1997 and their assessment of the military and Civilian Police components of MINURSO.

Angola
Records documenting the establishment of United Nations peacekeeping missions in Angola include the following: briefs and notes about the United Nations Angola Verification Mission I (UNAVEM I)’s observation of the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola in 1989; organization charts for UNAVEM I headquarters and of military staff; a reconnaissance report about suitable locations for regional headquarters for the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II), dated 7 June 1991; an expansion plan for UNAVEM II dated June 1994; and the report of the Technical Survey Mission, undertaken from 24 November to 8 December 1994, to establish the United Nations Angola Verification Mission III (UNAVEM III). There are also records documenting the United Nations Assessment Mission to Angola, which was led by James O. C. Jonah, Special Envoy of the Secretary-General, from 5-16 September 1994. These records include Jonah’s final report, and briefs prepared for Jonah on the political, military and humanitarian situation in Angola.

Zaire and Congo-Brazzaville
Included are records relating to the establishment in 1996 of a Multinational Force (MNF) headquartered in Kampala, Uganda, which was mandated by the Security Council to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian aid along Zaire’s eastern border with Rwanda and Burundi and to assist in the voluntary repatriation of refugees and displaced persons. These records include: the general framework for operations for the Multinational Force; a report of the visit of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Great Lakes Region, undertaken from 5 November to 6 December 1996; briefs and analyses about political developments in Zaire; and letters from the Secretary-General to representatives of Members States about contributions to the Multinational Force. There are also updates on the refugee situation in eastern Zaire Also included are: analyses of the situation emerging in Congo-Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; and a report on the Technical Survey Mission for Congo-Brazzaville, undertaken from 24 July to 4 August 1997 in Gabon and the Republic of Congo.

United Nations Mission in Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC)
Records relating to the establishment of MONUC include: a draft concept of operations for the mission; a paper on the establishment and functions of the Joint Military Commission to oversee the implementation of the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement, signed 10 July 1999; briefs on coordination between MONUC and the JMC; the report by the Logistics Technical Survey Mission, dispatched 18 October to 9 November 1999, about the logistics environment and infrastructure throughout the country; and the report of the Inter-Agency Assessment Mission to Kisangani, undertaken from 13-24 August 2000, about the loss of life and property damage in the city of Kisangani as a result of fighting between Rwandan and Ugandan troops in June 2000.

United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR)
Records include: situation reports recounting reconnaissance in Uganda undertaken by UN personnel prior to mission establishment; briefs describing crossing points along the Rwandan-Ugandan border; mission name proposals; hand-drawn maps for deployment along the Rwandan-Ugandan border; a lengthy brief detailing the operational support required from the Ugandan Army for the mission; memoranda about high-level appointments in the mission; and correspondence related to Member States’ contributions of personnel to the mission.

United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR)
Records relating to the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) include: memoranda on items and modifications to the Status of Mission Agreement (SOMA) and the Rules of Engagement (ROE); outlines of the organization of the UNAMIR headquarters, as well as the logistics branch, infantry battalions, engineer squadrons, and the medical company; hand-drawn maps of sector boundaries; letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and heads of state of African nations, as well as representatives of the Organization of African Unity (OAU); outlines on requirements and operations of the Neutral Military Observer Group (NMOG) furnished by the OAU; and briefs on technical assistance provided by the United Nations to the OAU, and on cooperation between the United Nations and the OAU. Also included are the Military Adviser’s briefing books on Rwanda, and memoranda describing recommendations for the United Nations concerning a response to the conflict in Rwanda. There is also the final report of the Reconnaissance Mission to Rwanda, dispatched 19-31 August 1993, which describes the political, military, logistics, and humanitarian aspects of the mission. In addition, there is a handbook for the Advance Party to Rwanda, which was launched in September 1993, detailing the mission mandate and concept of operations, structure of the Force, administrative guidelines, and the organization of the military division. Also present is the final report of the United Nations Technical Mission on the Security Situation in the Rwandese Refugee Camps in Zaire, 26 September - 11 October 1994.

UNOSOM I and UNOSOM II
Records related to the establishment of the United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) and to the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II), include: reports describing the history and political roles of Somali tribal clans; briefs on the state of the Self-Proclaimed Republic of Somaliland; Letters of Agreement signed in March 1992 by officials of the United Nations Technical Mission to Somalia, and leaders of Somali political and paramilitary organizations on mechanisms for monitoring the ceasefire and on the distribution of humanitarian aid in Somalia; summaries of meetings between Technical Team officials and Somaliland elders; briefs by representatives of United Nations agencies on their perceptions for conditions of work in Somalia; organization charts of UNOSOM I; and concept proposals for the development of a Somali national police force.

A report of the United Nations Technical Mission to Somalia undertaken in March and April of 1992 details daily activities of the Technical Mission, including meetings with General Mohamed Farah Aidid, the interim President Ali Mahdi, and leaders of Somali political and paramilitary organizations; field visits made by the Medical Section of the Technical Mission to various parts of Somalia to survey local health facilities and infrastructure, and to collect data on health risks; the types of humanitarian relief needed, including food aid, shelter, water, livestock, seeds, and education; and modalities and strategies for implementing humanitarian relief assistance. Additionally, there is a report by the Technical Mission to Somalia undertaken in August 1992.

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
There is a lengthy report referencing mission code cables and Security Council documents which chronologizes the establishment of United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in 1978 and its operations through roughly 1980. This report describes: the political background to UNIFIL; Member State troop contributions; fatalities affecting infantry battalions; military and political efforts undertaken by UNIFIL to restore the authority of the Government of Lebanon in the south and in the UNIFIL area of operations; UNIFIL deployment in Christian and Shia Islam enclaves in southern Lebanon; and the activities of the first Commander of UNIFIL (1978-1981), Major General Emmanuel Erskine. In addition, there are: outlines and tables on changes to the Force structure, and on reductions to personnel and budget, enacted in the mission in the early 1990s; a report of an evaluation of the Military Component undertaken from 10-13 May 2005; and the military concept of operations dating from 2006.

United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM)
UNIKOM-related records include: lists of high-level appointments in the mission; briefs on troop and equipment contributions made by Member States to the mission; and briefs on the structure and operations of UNIKOM infantry battalions.

United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
Records pertaining to the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), established in 1964, date primarily from the 1980s and early 1990s, and include: organization charts; memoranda on headquarters staffing arrangements; papers describing the rank structure of the Military Police; briefs on engineer support for UNFICYP; maps depicting deployment and briefs on deployment options; a report on the visit to UNFICYP of the United Nations Secretariat Team in June 1980; a report on an audit of the UNFICYP Civilian Labor Establishment conducted in 1983; and reports of assessments of the mission undertaken by DPKO officials in 1997 and 1998.

Yugoslavia and UNPROFOR
Records pertaining to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia consist of: briefs on the concept of operations planned for a peacekeeping mission in Yugoslavia; handwritten notes on deployment and Force requirements; hand-drawn sketches of the Force structure and chain of command; briefs on planned logistics, civil affairs, and medical components; reports and hand-drawn sketches of reconnaissance operations carried out in Yugoslavia; reports describing ceasefire violations; maps depicting the locations of ethnic minorities in Yugoslavia; summaries of meetings between the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General Cyrus R. Vance and Yugoslav leaders; working papers and briefs on the function and role of United Nations Military Liaison Officers in Yugoslavia (UNMLOY); reports on the visit by the Preparatory Group Yugoslavia (PGY) in 1991 and their recommendations on peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia; reports on sector reconnaissance operations in the Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK); United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) organization charts; and documents outlining phases of action for the establishment of UNPROFOR. Additionally, there are: papers detailing the conflict on the Prevlaka Peninsula, located at the southern tip of Croatia, and profiling the United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP); and reports about visits by the United Nations Medical Director to survey medical support being provided in UNMIK, UNMIBH, UNTAES, and UNMOP.

United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium (UNTAES)
There are also records pertaining to the United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium (UNTAES). These consist of: a report about the Technical Survey Mission to UNTAES undertaken from 28 February to 5 March 1996; analyses of military requirements for the implementation of the Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium (Erdut Agreement) of 1995; operation plans for the implementation of the Erdut Agreement; and briefs outlining the Force structure and composition, area of operations (AO), and concept of operations for UNTAES. Included also are briefs on the political climate in Eastern Slavonia, the demilitarization of Eastern Slavonia, and the reduction and the withdrawal of UNTAES.

United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
Records related to the establishment of the United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) in 1993 include: letters exchanged between the Secretary-General and United Nations officials, and representatives of the Republic of Abkhazia; and summaries of meetings of the Joint Commission on the Settlement in Abkhazia, a provision of the Agreement on a Ceasefire in Abkhazia and Arrangements to Monitor its Observance, signed 27 July 1993. There are also summaries of meetings between UNOMIG officials and Abkhaz and Georgian authorities about the relocation of UNOMIG headquarters in 1994. In addition, there are reports on United Nations political missions undertaken to Georgia in 1992 and 1993, which detail: the daily activities of UN officials on mission; meetings with the President of Georgia Eduard Shevardnadze; meetings with Abkhazian and Russian government officials; the military situation in Abkhazia; and the displaced population in Georgia and their humanitarian needs. Technical missions undertaken in Georgia in 1993 detail: the UNOMIG terms of reference; the political background of the conflict; the military concept of operations; and logistic, administrative and communications aspects of the proposed mission. Additionally, a report of the United Nations Planning Mission to Abkhazia, Republic of Georgia, undertaken 8-15 February 1994, is included.

Armenia and Azerbaijan
S-1830 also includes reports prepared by political missions sent to Armenia and Azerbaijan in 1992 detailing findings and observations on: the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh; positions held on the conflict by Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Nagorno-Karabakh; the distribution of humanitarian aid in the region; and refugees and displaced persons. The reports also feature daily itineraries of the mission, historical background to the conflict, and notes on recent mediation efforts.

United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA)
Records include: a report on the Preliminary Mission to Guatemala, undertaken from 24 April to 9 May 1994, which describes the human rights situation in Guatemala, the situation of judicial institutions in the protection of human rights, the roles of non-governmental organizations in monitoring human rights violations, and the feasibility of a United Nations mission to verify the Comprehensive Agreement on Human Rights signed 29 March 1994 by the Republic of Guatemala and the Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (URNG). There are also briefs on MINUGUA headquarters and suboffices, and a report on the Technical Survey in Guatemala, undertaken from 2-10 December 1996, to assess the administrative, communication, and logistic support requirements for a Military Observer Mission in Guatemala.

Haiti
Records related to the establishment of the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) consist of: a report of the Technical Mission to Haiti, undertaken from 8-12 September 1993, which provides an overview of the situation in Haiti and a plan for the deployment and operations of UNMIH; organization tables of UNMIH and its components; briefings and status updates about the transition from the Multination Force (MNF) to UNMIH; and a plan for the ceremony UNMIH held, on 31 March 1995, for the takeover of the Multination Force (MNF). There are also records documenting the establishment in 1990 of the United Nations Observer Group for the Verification of Elections in Haiti (ONUVEH), and these include: briefs on the political situation in Haiti; memoranda detailing personnel and equipment requirements; and guidelines issued by the Field Operations Division for the observation of the Haiti elections of 16 December 1990, which resulted in the election of Jean-Bertrand Aristide.

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