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Military

S-1852 consists of records documenting the ICFY’s monitoring of UNPROFOR and the military activities of warring factions in the former Yugoslavia. Included are UNPROFOR-generated records copied to the ICFY as well as ICFY high-level summaries of UNPROFOR reports.

Periodic reports authored by ICFY personnel for the Co-Chairmen include the ICFY daily operational reports, reviewing UNPROFOR and warring faction military activities throughout the former Yugoslavia. There are also UNPROFOR-generated military periodic reports, including: the Force Commander’s daily briefings; daily situation reports prepared by the Force Commander; and military information summaries.

There are also daily reports detailing air-detected and ground-observed violations of the no fly zone in the airspace of Bosnia and Herzegovina investigated by the Monitoring and Close Air Support Coordination Centre (MCCC). Daily reports on activities in the no fly zone also note medical evacuations (MEDEVACS) and casualty evacuations (CASEVACS), as well as operations of NATO aircraft. Records pertaining to air support include: the Force Commander’s concept of employment of air power dating from 1994; release authority requests issued for UNPROFOR military exercises; and code cables sent between Co-Chairman Thorvald Stoltenberg and the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Kofi Annan about close air support (CAS) and air strikes.

There is also a collection of maps produced by the UNOPROFOR Geographic Branch (G2) in Bosnia and Herzegovina Command headquarters, and G2 personnel stationed at the headquarters of the British Force (BRITFOR) in Split, Croatia. The maps depict: boundaries of United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs); lines of confrontation; the disposition of warring factions in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and supply routes. The maps also feature summaries of military information about warring faction activities.

S-1852 also contains: the UNPROFOR Force Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); the Force Commander’s operation orders and policy directives; casualty statistics of UNPROFOR personnel; briefs on battalion deployment; memoranda and reports on the deployment and operations of the Rapid Reaction Force; and briefs on demilitarization in Sector North.

Head of Mission

Special Representative for the Secretary-General (SRSG)
The Office of the Special Representative for the Secretary-General (SRSG) to Liberia was located at UNOMIL headquarters in Monrovia, Liberia. Records derive from the tenures of Mr. Anthony Nyakyi (December 1994 - April 1997) and Mr. Tuliameni Kalomoh, who succeeded Nyakyi in April 1997. The documents primarily consist of incoming and outgoing code cables and subject files which relate to the SRSG’s activities as Head of the Mission.

The code cables were sent from SRSG Nyakyi to United Nations Headquarters, New York and include: drafts and final progress reports to the Secretary-General; daily and weekly situation reports, sent to Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Kofi Annan, detailing political and military developments in the mission; and summaries of meetings between the SRSG and Heads of State, Foreign Affairs Ministers, and faction leaders. Memoranda are also included in the outgoing code cables, describing: the electoral process; analyses of ceasefire violations as relating to the 28 December 1994 Accra Agreement and the 19 August 1995 Abuja Agreement; and deployment of UNOMIL and Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) observers. The code cables also contain notes for file prepared by the Political Affairs Officer (PAO) and by the Human Rights Officer (HRO). The notes for file offer summaries and analyses of the meetings with high-level officials and human rights investigations, respectively.

Also present in the records are incoming code cables from Annan and the Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Marrack Goulding to SRSG Nyakyi on topics such as the Brussels Conference held to support the peace process in Liberia (December 1996); the Mission of the Secretary-General’s Special Envoy to Liberia (April 1996); and human rights violations (December 1995).

Other files relate to meetings held by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), including meetings of the Chiefs of Staff; the Council of Ministers; the Committee of Four on Sierra Leone; the Committee of Nine on Liberia; and sessions of Authority Heads of State and Government. Documents relating to these meetings include agenda; minutes from the meetings; draft and final reports; notes verbal; and final communiqués. There are also statements presented at meetings by ECOWAS member states’ Ministers of Foreign Affairs and SRSG Nyakyi.

Also included are files about the disarmament and demobilization process: correspondence between the SRSG and representatives of warring factions about the progress of disarmament; meeting summaries of, and attendance lists for, the inter-agency Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Task Force, chaired by the Humanitarian Coordinator of the United Nations Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Office in Liberia (UN-HACO); working papers about the disarmament and demobilization process; and correspondence between the UN-HACO Humanitarian Coordinator and the SRSG.

There are also subject files which relate to the ECOWAS Military Observer Group (ECOMOG), which include meeting reports of the ECOMOG Disarmament Committee. Records of the inter-agency Ceasefire Violation Committee (CFVC) are also present. These contain meeting minutes summarizing faction allegations of ceasefire violations, and letters of protest from factions and sent to the CFVC.

Chief Administrative Officer (CAO)
Also included are documents from the UNOMIL Office of the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO), who reported to the SRSG. These include: UNOMIL organization charts; code cables sent from both the SRSG and the CAO to United Nations Headquarters, New York; daily, weekly, and monthly situation reports detailing political and military activities, in particular the activities of President Charles Taylor; and daily press briefings summarizing the daily briefing delivered by Spokesman of the Secretary-General, Fred Eckhard.

Military

Chief Military Observer
The Chief Military Observer (CMO) was tasked with the command of the Military Division of UNOMIL. The CMO was posted at UNOMIL headquarters in Monrovia, Liberia, and reported directly to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) on matters regarding military operations of the UNOMIL mandate. The post was held by Major General Daniel Ishmael Opande, succeeded in April 1997 by Major General Sikandar Shami.

The records contain incoming and outgoing code cables, exchanged between the CMO and United Nations Headquarters, New York (UN-NY) and between the SRSG and: Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs, Marrack Goulding; Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Bernard Miyet; and Margaret Carey, Africa Specialist with the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Topics of the cables pertain to military operations and developments of the mission.

The records also contain operational reports such as reconnaissance reports ordered by the CMO and conducted by Military Observers (MILOBS) and/or Electoral Officers to ascertain viability of establishing a field station; or to obtain data on the population and infrastructure necessary for electoral staff. Daily and weekly situation reports and monthly assessments of main developments sent to the SRSG relay information about developments in military and electoral operations.

There are also summaries of meetings of the inter-agency Ceasefire Violations Committee (CFVC), which was chaired by the CMO. The meeting summaries detail the Committee’s discussion of alleged ceasefire violations. The records also include letters of complaint sent by the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) to the CMO, reporting factions’ allegations of ceasefire violations.

Legal

Legal Section
The UNOMIL legal records detail the development of mission-related legal agreements.

Several legal agreements between UNOMIL and Liberia are present in the records, such as Status of Mission Agreements (SOMA); Status of Forces Agreements (SOFA); and Memoranda of Understanding (MOU). Also included are lease agreements pertaining to the UNOMIL Headquarters (Hotel Africa) in Monrovia, Liberia.

The records also contain memoranda exchanged between Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Kofi Annan and Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Anthony Nyakyi, describing the implementation of the 28 December 1994 Accra Agreement and the 19 August 1995 Abuja Agreement.

Also included is a legal chronological file, containing memoranda exchanged between the UNOMIL Legal Officer and other UNOMIL officials: SRSG; Chief Administrative Officer (CAO); Chief Financial Officer (CFO); and Chief Procurement Officer (CPO). Documents of note in the chronological file are communications between the Legal Officer and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) and/or the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO), regarding the development of mission-related legal affairs and agreements such as: drafts of lease agreements for UNOMIL Headquarters; draft MOU; and preliminary, interim, and final reports prepared by the UNOMIL Ad-Hoc Committee of Inquiry about the Sinje Massacre that took place on 28 September 1996 in Singe, Grand Cape Mount County.

Elections

Electoral Division
The Electoral Division was headquartered in Monrovia and headed by the Senior Electoral Officer (SEO), Carlos Valenzuela. UNOMIL’s electoral mandate for the 1997 Liberian elections was to observe and verify the election process. This was to be conducted in consultation with the Organization of African Unity and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). The role of the Electoral Division grew to encompass logistic, operational, and civic education assistance to the Independent Elections Commission (IECOM), the independent organization mandated to organize and administer the elections. The elections were held in July 1997.

Chronological files are included in the records of the Electoral Division consist in part of periodic reports from: the SEO to the SRSG about the registration process; the IECOM to the SEO, titled “Elections Magistrates County Assessment Reports” about operations, personnel and accommodation for polling sites; and from the NGO Refugee Policy Group about the repatriation of refugees and the electoral process.

Chronological files also include notes to file and briefs about: disarmament and the electoral process; revisions to electoral law, the electoral budget, the elections timetable, and to the Code of Conduct for Political Parties; analyses of ECOWAS meetings about the assessment of preparations for the election; meetings with the European Union (EU) Electoral Mission; drafts of the Secretary-General’s briefs to the Security Council about the electoral process with hand-written notes by the SEO.

The records of the Electoral Division also consist of daily, weekly, and monthly field electoral observation reports sent from the SEO to the SRSG which cover such topics as: the roles of UNOMIL and IECOM in the preparation for the elections; and summaries of complaints made by political parties of political intimidation.

Highlights of the Division records include: an 18 January 1997 code cable from the SRSG to UNNY titled “Advanced Planning for UNOMIL’s Electoral Division”, about the status of the mission’s electoral mandate; a 17 June 1997 memorandum titled “Electoral Observation Requirements” to the SRSG from the Electoral Assistance Division (EAD), Department of Political Affairs, UNNY; and a briefing for the Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Marrack Goulding’s 12-15 May 1997 visit to the mission to asses the electoral process.

Humanitarian Affairs

Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Office (HACO), Demobilization and Reintegration Unit
The Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Office (HACO) was established by the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA) to support the Humanitarian Coordinator based in Monrovia. The Humanitarian Coordinator was appointed by the Secretary-General and reported to the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Liberia (SRSG). The Office’s Demobilization and Reintegration Unit assisted in coordinating the efforts of United Nations agencies involved in relief and resettlement activities and the provision of assistance to demobilizing soldiers.

The files for the Demobilization and Reintegration Unit include concept papers and plans generated by the Unit, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization concerning disarmament, demobilization, reintegration, lessons learned, child soldiers, the impact of the Liberian conflict on women and children, and health care services for demobilized soldiers.

There are also records of the Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Task Force, which was comprised of representatives of UNOMIL, United Nations agencies, NGOs, and the Liberian government, as well as donors to the Task Force. The records include terms of reference, working papers, and meeting minutes concerning: demobilization and reintegration of child soldiers; the demobilization process and policies; obtaining and distributing humanitarian aid; and providing education, medical assistance, and food for demobilized soldiers.

Also present are records of the Unit’s Technical Committee, which provided administrative and management assistance to the Unit. These records include memoranda about the time frame of the demobilization process and a glossary created by the Committee to supplement the Unit’s working papers.

In addition, the records contain statistics on demobilized soldiers and site reports concerning the demobilization process, sanitation, water needs, medical operations, and security. Other reports generated by HACO concern faction compliance with the implementation of the Abuja Agreement of 19 August 1995, UNICEF involvement in demobilization of child soldiers, the consequences of intimidation and re-armament of demobilized children, and demobilization activities of interest to foreign dignitaries. There are also memoranda on the demobilization process prepared by the Humanitarian Coordinator for the SRSG, the Senior Humanitarian Officer for the Humanitarian Coordinator, and by HACO staff for the Complex Emergency Division.

Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Office (HACO), Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit
The Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Unit supported humanitarian work carried out by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international organizations.

The records of the Humanitarian Assistance Coordination Office consist of reports, meeting summaries, working papers, and memoranda. Included are reports detailing humanitarian assistance projects in Liberia and their policies; quarterly reports concerning the political climate, security, humanitarian advocacy, humanitarian field work, working relationships with partners, and lessons learned; assessment reports about Liberian counties’ humanitarian needs; and a report on internally displaced persons authored by the Refugee Policy Group, dated March 1997. Summaries of meetings with the United Nations Country Team, NGOs, and donors concern humanitarian need assessments, humanitarian projects, the political climate, and security.

Working papers in the files focus on internally displaced persons and the relationship between agencies involved in humanitarian coordination. There are also memoranda concerning the role of HACO and the funding and logistics of humanitarian projects exchanged by the Humanitarian Coordinator; representatives of NGOs, United Nations agencies, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS); and leaders of warring factions. Additionally, there are: minutes of meetings of the Programme Compliance and Violations Committee, which investigated violations of international standards of conduct, human rights, and principles and protocols for humanitarian operations; and investigation reports of security incidents concerning sporadic fighting, looting, and harassment, as well as restrictions of humanitarian aid workers’ freedom of movement and access to civilian populations.

Records relating to bridging projects, the initial reintegration projects for demobilized soldiers, include terms of reference and minutes of meetings of the Task Force on Bridging Operations. Meeting minutes of the Task Force concern the projects of the agencies and NGOs in attendance. Also present are project proposals and updates; working papers on the transition to the next phase of reintegration; and guidelines for the funding of projects.

Public Information and Communications

Public Information Office (PIO)
The United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) Public Information Office was formed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) for Tajikistan Gerd Merrem on 16 June 1997 with the appointment of Hasmik Egian as Public Information Officer (PIO), who also served as the Spokesman for UNMOT. The stated functions of the Public Information Office included publicizing the Mission’s activities through visual and printed media, such as the publication and distribution of the UNMOT newsletter, and liaising with local, regional and international media outlets to drive coverage of UNMOT activities related to the peace process to as wide an audience as possible. The Public Information Office communicated with Central Asian NGOs engaged in public information initiatives.

The series primarily consists of media analyses (in Russian) of local and regional coverage of UNMOT and the political and security situation in Tajikistan, with particular focus on inter-Tajik negotiations. Media outlets mentioned in these analyses include:

Radio and Television Broadcast Outlets:
BBC World Service
Radio Svoboda
Turkmen TV
Taliban Radio “Voice of Shariah”
Tajik TV News program “Akhbor”
Russian TV “Vremya”
News agency Itar-Tass
Radio Iran Hurson
Russian TV “Novosti”
Radio “Liberty”
Radio “Voice of Free Tajikistan”
Radio Iran
Radio “Free Tajikistan”
Radio Voice of Russia
Radio Khuroson
Radio “Uzodi”

Newspapers:
“Leninabadskaya Pravda” – an outlet of the provincial government of Leninabad
“Tirozy Djakhon” - City of Hukumat
“Eti-Khod” - Communist Party
“Unity” - Socialist Party

Also included in the records of the UNMOT Public Information Office are daily press briefings issued by the office of the Spokesman for the Secretary-General in UN-NY. The briefings summarize daily activities of the United Nations Secretariat and its organs, and mention status updates, funding information, and developments related to UNMOT. Additionally, there are memoranda exchanged between the Spokesman at headquarters and the PIO/Spokesman for UNMOT in Dushanbe. The memoranda provide information about the PIO/Spokeman’s activities and media projects. Periodic reports describe the efforts of the Public Information Office to establish and maintain efficient contact with international media, to increase the office’s presence at Tajik cultural activities, and to increase awareness of the activities of UNMOT in Tajikistan.

S-1862 also contains a collection of photographs that document the activities of UNMOT. Photographs are in color and black and white, and most are accompanied by 35 millimeter negatives. Photographs depict: activities of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG); activities at UNMOT headquarters in Dushanbe; meetings and press conferences attended by UNMOT officials and the President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmonov, and the leader of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) Sayid Abdulloh Nuri; activities of the Chief Military Observer; briefings and patrols of UNMOT military personnel; transportation of the casket of UNMOT Lieutenant Wolfgang Sponner, who was killed in Kurgan Tube on 18 September 1995 in an exchange of fire; visits of UNMOT staff to Tashkent, Uzbekistan, and Tehran, Iran; cultural events attended by local civilians and UNMOT staff; United Nations-led training events with local civilians; and humanitarian aid activities carried out by UNMOT personnel.

Political Affairs - Coordination, partnership - Discussion, negotiation

Chief Administrative Officer
Records of the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) consist of meeting minutes, summaries, agenda, correspondence, working papers, and other documents. There is correspondence with the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan about allegations of crimes committed by the United Tajik Opposition (UTO); and letters of complaint from the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan about the imprisonment of soldiers by the UTO. Also included is correspondence between the SRSG and the leader of the UTO, Sayid Abdulloh Nuri, about restrictions to freedom of movement of UNMOT personnel by the UTO military. Other correspondence concerns violations of the General Agreement and statements prepared by the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and the UTO about presidential elections.

Other records detail the work of the Contact Group of Guarantor States. These include meeting agenda in the English and Russian languages, minutes, and attendance lists. The meetings were attended by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), ambassadors from neighbouring countries, and members of the Joint Electoral Observation Mission in Tajikistan (JEMOT). The files also contain information about UNMOT observer policy and procedure, about electoral issues, and recommendations for implementing the military protocol stipulated in the General Agreement.

S-1863 also includes: an analysis of amendments to the Tajik constitution by the President of the Committee for National Reconciliation (CNR) and UTO leader Sayid Abdulloh Nuri; proposed timetables for the implementation of the General Agreement; summaries and plenary meetings about the electoral process; and meeting minutes of the CNR’s sub-commissions. There are also files for of the Civil Affairs political and legal sub-commissions. These contain political analyses by the Civil Affairs Officer (CAO).

Electoral Section
Records consist of one folder containing the “Status of Implementation of the General Agreement,” dated 9 April 1999. It documents progress made in relation to the 1997 General Agreement, describes political, military, legal, and humanitarian issues, and includes footnotes explaining the stipulated time-frame for implementation.

Public Information Office (PIO)
The records document the work of the Committee for National Reconciliation (CNR) and originated from the UNMOT Public Information Office. They include: summaries of meetings of CNR political, legal, refugee, and military sub-commissions, proposed amendments to the Constitution of Tajikistan, and an 18 December 1997 letter to the Commander of Russian Border Forces from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) Gerd D. Merrem, requesting CNR logistical support to aid the repatriation of UTO military personnel. There is also a Plan of Work that lists directives and deadlines; a press statement about disbanding UTO armed formations, dated 4 September 2012; and resolutions by CNR President Sayid Abdulloh Nuri about constitutional, humanitarian, and military issues.

United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT)
The UNMOT records detail efforts to develop a new constitution. They contain a timetable for the implementation of the General Agreement; and an internal 8 March 1998 discussion paper, prepared by UNMOT’s Legal Section, titled “Approach Towards Constitutional Referendum,” dated 29 April 1998.

United Nations Tajikistan Office of Peace Building (UNTOP)
UNTOP records relating to political affairs feature a 2007 memorandum titled “International Conference on the 10th Anniversary of the Peace Agreement in Tajikistan,” with a description of objectives and activities; and memoranda about conflict prevention. Also included are publications titled: “Conflict Prevention in Central Asia: Peace-Building in Tajikistan” (2006); and a Government of the Republic of Tajikistan “Directory for the Majlisi Oli” (the Parliament of the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan).

Management and Integration - Reporting to United Nations Headquarters

Chief Administrative Officer (CAO)
Records of the Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) include administrative circulars distributed throughout the Mission and daily situation reports created by field teams. Also included are administrative communications exchanged in the wake of the killings of four UNMOT personnel near Garm, Tajikistan on 20 July 1998.

United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT)
Records of the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) consist of code cables, situation reports, and memoranda. Also included are minutes of management meetings that describe Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General (DSRSG), Chief Administrative Officer (CAO) and Senior Political Affairs Officer (SPAO) activities. The status of particular regions within the Mission, officer travel plans, diplomatic discussions held, the status of ongoing investigations, humanitarian assistance, and meetings with UN and NGO agencies are discussed within the minutes.

United Nations Tajikistan Office of Peace Building (UNTOP)
Records of the United Nations Tajikistan Office of Peace Building (UNTOP) consist primarily of code cables transmitted between the Mission and UN Headquarters in NY and cover: issues related to Russian troops stationed on the Tajik-Afghan border; reports on meetings with high level Tajik government figures; significant legal, political moves taken by the Tajik government, changes in Tajik administration; analysis of law enforcement structures in Tajikistan; meetings with ex-combatants; the situation of refugees on the Tajik-Afghan border; and activities related to counter-terrorism.

Notable events described in the code cables include: the assassination of Karim Yuldashev, Presidential State Adviser on Foreign and Political Affairs, in Dushanbe on 17 July 2001; a hostage crisis in Dushanbe, 13 June 2001; and the assassination of Habib Sanginov, an Opposition political figure and former Chairman of the Military Sub-commission of the Commission of National Reconciliation, on 11 April 2001. Clear cables report on UNTOP interactions with the Tajik government and Tajik government requests for assistance from the UN.

The UNTOP records also include incoming and outgoing communications with the following political, non-governmental and diplomatic organizations:

Political Parties:

  • Islamic Revival Party (Hizbi Nahzati Islomii Tojikiston)
  • Democratic Party (Hizbi Demokratii Tojikiston)
  • People’s Democratic Party of Tajikistan (Hizbi Khalqi-Demokrati Tojikiston)
  • Social Democratic Party (Hizbi Sotsial-Demokratii Tojikiston)
  • Free Tajikistan Party

International NGO’s

  • FINCA International - Tajikistan (micro and small business lending)
  • CARE Tajikistan
  • International Center for Peace Preservation in Asia
  • Pharmaciens Sans Frontieres Comite International

Local NGO’s

  • Public Committee for Democratic Processes
  • Tajik Society for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries
  • Center Legal Support for Youth
  • Centre of Mercy of Servicemen’s Mothers of Republic Tajikistan
  • Legal Education Center
  • Center for Peace, Nonviolence and Human Rights
  • Humanity and Charity
  • Tajik Juridical Consortium
  • Bureau of Human Rights and Rule of Law

Embassies

  • Afghan Ambassador Said Mouhammad Khairkhoh
  • German Ambassador Rainer Muller, arranging meetings in Berlin between the Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) Vladimir Sotirov and German Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials on Central Asia and Human Rights, sharing of UN reports and other documents such as the Project Document concluded by UNDP, UNTOP and the Government of Tajikistan on National Capacity Building in Electoral Administration (September 2004); agreement between RSG Ivo Petrov and German Ambassador to Tajikistan Wolfgang Neuen for Germany’s financial contribution to the “Preservation of Peace through Capacity Development in Human Rights” project (26 February 2002)

RSG Vladimir Sotirov Speech transcripts (Russian language) on topics such as:

  • Peace-building in the region

Other UN Agencies:

  • UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) Resident Representative in Tajikistan concerning support for Tajikistan’s Institute of Retraining of Lawyers and a Centre for Legal Information and Human Rights in the Tajik Ministry of Justice; implementation of joint OHCHR/UNDP/UNTOP initiatives, such as the Project: Preservation of Peace and Conflict Prevention through Capacity Development in Human Rights Education
  • UNHCR; UNICEF; UNIFEM concerning their activities in Tajikistan

Seminars and other events organized by the office of the RSG:

  • Public Council Meetings in Dushanbe
  • Election Coordination Meetings
  • Human Rights thematic group meetings
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