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The United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) was established 9 April 1991 by means of Security Council resolution 689 (1991). UNIKOM's original mandate was to monitor a newly created demilitarized zone (DMZ) along the Iraq-Kuwait border, which included the determent of boundary violations and observation of hostilities between the territories of Iraq and Kuwait. In addition, UNIKOM maintained contact with and provided support to other United Nations missions in these two countries.
Following a number of incidents along the border in its first two years, on 5 February 1993, per resolution 806 (1993), the UNIKOM mandate was expanded to include the capacity to physically prevent or respond to violations in the DMZ. With the arrival of a mechanized infantry battalion in late 1993, UNIKOM's operations were modified accordingly; on 1 January 1994, the Head of Mission's appointment was changed from Chief Military Observer to Force Commander. On 17 March 2003, with the U.S.-led military campaign in Iraq eminent, the Secretary-General suspended UNIKOM's operations. On 3 July, Security Council extended UNIKOM's mandate for a final six-month period, and on 6 October, UNIKOM was dissolved by resolution 1490 (2003).