Type of entity
Authorized form of name
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Dates of existence
The United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan (UNMOT) was established on 4 December 1994 by Security Council Resolution 968 (1994) to monitor the Agreement on a Temporary Ceasefire and the Cessation of Other Hostile Acts on the Tajik–Afghan Border, which was signed between Tajik secularists and pro-Islamic traditionalists under the auspices of the Secretary-General on 17 September 1994 in Tehran, Iran. UNMOT assisted with the implementation of the agreement in coordination with the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Peacekeeping Forces and the Organization for Security and Cooperation (OSCE) mission in Tajikistan.
In 1997, United Nations-mediated negotiations between the Government of Tajikistan and the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) resulted in the signing, on June 27, of the General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan. Security Council Resolution 1138 (1997) extended the mandate of UNMOT and called for an expansion to: oversee the elections and formation of a new Government; monitor the disarmament and reintegration of UTO troops; coordinate international humanitarian assistance in Tajikistan; and maintain close contact with the signatories to the agreement.
UNMOT was headquartered in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. Its leadership was carried out by the following individuals:
Head of Mission, Liviu Bota of Romania (December 1994 – March 1995)
Head of Mission, Darko Silovic of Croatia (March 1995 – May 1996)
Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), Gerd Merrem of Germany (May 1996 – May 1998)
Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), Jan Kubis of Slovakia (May 1998 – June 1999)
Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG), Ivo Petrov of Bulgaria (September 1999 – May 2000)
In accordance with the General Agreement, the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) of the OSCE, along with the United Nations, deployed a Joint Election Observation Mission to Tajikistan (JEOMOT) to monitor the Tajik parliamentary elections, which were held on 27 February 2000, with a second round held on 12 March 2000.
UNMOT’s mandate expired on 15 May 2000.
The United Nations Tajikistan Office of Peace Building (UNTOP) was established on 1 June 2000 following the withdrawal of UNMOT from the mission area. UNTOP reported to the Department of Political Affairs, and its mandate focused on: consolidating peace in Tajikistan; providing political support to mobilize international resources and assistance for national recovery and reconstruction; strengthening democratic institutions; promoting the rule of law; supporting human rights protection initiatives; and coordinating efforts of United Nations agencies in the country with respect to peace-building.
Upon its establishment, UNTOP was led by Ambassador Ivo Petrov of Bulgaria, who served as Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) until September 2002. Petrov was replaced by Vladimir Sotirov, also of Bulgaria, who served as Representative of the Secretary-General (RSG) until the mandate of UNTOP terminated on 31 July 2007.