United Nations Protection Force

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United Nations Protection Force

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The United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) was established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 743 (1992) on 21 February 1992, initially as an interim arrangement to create the conditions of peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the Yugoslav crisis. From 1992 to 1995, the Security Council extended and enlarged UNPROFOR�s mandate many times.

UNPROFOR�s activities included:
� Ensuring the demilitarization of the United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) and Sarajevo
� Monitoring weapons withdrawal from the Weapons Exclusion Zone in Sarajevo
� Protecting the civilian population from armed attack
� Facilitating the return of civilian displaced persons to their homes in United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs) under conditions of safety and security,
� Monitoring the local police to ensure that they carry out their investigations without discrimination against persons of any nationality or abuse anyone�s human rights
� Assisting with humanitarian aid and the delivery of humanitarian supplies to the region
� Performing immigration and customs functions at UNPA borders
� Facilitating the exchange of prisoners
� Monitoring and reporting on developments in the borders areas which could undermine confidence and stability in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) and threaten its territory.
� Monitoring the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement of 29 March 1994
� Monitoring the withdrawal of the Yugoslav Army from Croatia and the demilitarization of the Prevlaka Peninsula in Croatia
� Ensuring the control of the Peruca dam in Croatia
� Ensuring the security and functioning of the Sarajevo Airport and the Tuzla Airport for the delivery of humanitarian aid
� Monitoring compliance with the ban on military flights in the airspace of Bosnia and Herzegovina (�No-Fly Zone�)
� Protecting �safe areas� around five towns and the city of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina
� Working toward the prevention of resumption of conflict by maintaining political liaisons between the warring parties, among regional and local authorities, and local police
� Working toward a global ceasefire by collaborating with International Conference on the Former Yugoslavia (ICFY), European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

UNPROFOR�s mandate was implemented in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). Troops were deployed in three United Nations Protected Areas (UNPAs), which were, at the outset, divided into four sectors: Sector North, Sector South, Sector East and Sector West.

UNPROFOR�s headquarters were initially set up in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but later were moved to Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, in 1992.

In light of the deteriorating situation in the region, the Security Council established, in 1992 and 1993, three subordinate commands within UNPROFOR: Bosnia and Herzegovina Command, Croatia Command, and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) Command.
The leadership of UNPROFOR initially was carried out jointly by the Force Commander and the Director of Civil Affairs (DCA), whose title was changed during the course of the mission to the Deputy Chief of Mission and the Head of Civil Affairs. Yasushi Akashi (Japan) served as the Special Representative of the Secretary-General (SRSG) from January 1994 through the end of the mission. Force Commanders serving in UNPROFOR included: Lieutenant-General Satish Nambiar (India), March 1992 to March 1993; Lieutenant-General Lars-Eric Wahlgren (Sweden), March 1993 to June 1993; General Jean Cot (France), June 1993 to March 1994; and General Bertrand de Sauville de La Presle (France), March 1994 to March 1995.

The Security Council restructured UNPROFOR on 31 March 1995, and replaced it with three separate but interlinked peacekeeping operations active in the former Yugoslavia and overseen by the United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF), which was headquartered in Zagreb, Croatia. Yasushi Akashi served as SRSG of the United Nations Peace Forces (UNPF) from March 1995 until October 1995.

United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO), 31 March 1995 - 15 January 1996
United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), 31 March 1995 - 31 January 1996
United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP), 31 March 1995 - 28 February 1999

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